President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Adlai Stevenson II
Adlai Ewing Stevenson II was an American lawyer and diplomat. A member of the Democratic Party, Stevenson served in numerous positions in the federal government during the 1930s and 1940s, including the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Federal Alcohol Administration, Department of the Navy, the State Department. In 1945, he served on the committee that created the United Nations, he was a member of the initial U. S. delegations to the UN. He was the 31st Governor of Illinois from 1949 to 1953, received the Democratic Party's nomination for president in the 1952 and 1956 elections. In both the 1952 and 1956 elections, Stevenson was defeated in landslides by Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, he sought the Democratic presidential nomination for a third time at the 1960 Democratic National Convention, but was defeated by Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts. After his election, President Kennedy appointed Stevenson as the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, he served from 1961 until his death.
He died on July 14, 1965, from heart failure in London, following a United Nations conference in Switzerland. Following public memorial services in New York City, Washington, DC, his childhood hometown of Bloomington, Illinois, he was buried in his family's section in Bloomington's Evergreen Cemetery. Noted historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. who served as one of his speechwriters, described Stevenson as a "great creative figure in American politics. He turned the Democratic Party around in the fifties and made JFK possible...to the United States and the world he was the voice of a reasonable and elevated America. He brought a new generation into politics, moved millions of people in the United States and around the world." Journalist David Halberstam wrote that "Stevenson's gift to the nation was his language and well-crafted and calming." His biographer Jean H. Baker stated that Stevenson's memory "still survives...as an expression of a different kind of politics - nobler, more issue-oriented, less compliant to the greedy ambitions of modern politicians, less driven by public opinion polls and the media."
W. Willard Wirtz, his friend and law partner, once said "If the Electoral College gives an honorary degree, it should go to Adlai Stevenson." Stevenson was born in Los Angeles, California, in a neighborhood now designated as the North University Park Historic District. His home and birthplace at 2639 Monmouth Avenue has been designated as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, he was a member of a prominent Illinois political family. His grandfather and namesake Adlai Stevenson I was Vice President of the United States under President Grover Cleveland from 1893 to 1897, his father, Lewis Stevenson, never held an elected office, but was appointed Illinois Secretary of State and was considered a strong contender for the Democratic vice-presidential nomination in 1928. A maternal great-grandfather, Jesse W. Fell, had been a close friend and campaign manager for Abraham Lincoln in his 1858 US Senate race. Stevenson's eldest son, Adlai E. Stevenson III, became a U. S. Senator from Illinois, his mother was Helen Davis Stevenson, he had an older sister, Elizabeth Stevenson Ives, an author, called "Buffie".
Actor McLean Stevenson was a second cousin once removed. He was the nephew by marriage of novelist Mary Borden, she assisted in the writing of some of his political speeches. Stevenson was raised in the city of Illinois. On December 30, 1912, at the age of twelve, Stevenson accidentally killed Ruth Merwin, a 16-year-old friend, while demonstrating drill technique with a rifle, inadvertently left loaded, during a party at the Stevenson home. Stevenson was devastated by the accident and mentioned or discussed it as an adult with his wife and children. However, in 1955 Stevenson heard about a woman, he wrote to her that she should tell her son that "he must now live for two", which Stevenson's friends took to be a reference to the shooting incident. Stevenson left Bloomington High School after his junior year and attended University High School in Normal, Bloomington's "twin city", just to the north, he went to boarding school in Connecticut at The Choate School, where he played on the tennis team, acted in plays, was elected editor-in-chief of The Choate News, the school newspaper.
Upon his graduation from Choate in 1918, he enlisted in the Navy and served at the rank of Seaman Apprentice, but his training was completed too late for him to participate in World War I. He attended Princeton University, becoming managing editor of The Daily Princetonian, a member of the American Whig-Cliosophic Society, a member of the Quadrangle Club, received a B. A. degree in 1922 in literature and history. Under prodding from his father he went to Harvard Law School, but found the law to be "uninteresting", withdrew after failing several classes, he returned to Bloomington where he wrote for the family newspaper, The Daily Pantagraph, founded by his maternal great-grandfather Jesse Fell. The Pantagraph, which had one of the largest circulations of any newspaper in Illinois outside of the Chicago area, was a main source of the Stevenson family's wealth. Following his mother's death in 1935, Adlai inherited one-quarter of the Pantagraph's stock, providing him with a large, dependable source of income for the rest of his life.
A year after leaving Harvard, Stevenson became interested in the law again after talking to Sup
John Marshall Harlan (1899–1971)
John Marshall Harlan was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1955 to 1971. His namesake and grandfather John Marshall Harlan had been an associate justice of the Court who served from 1877 to 1911. Harlan was a student at Upper Canada College and Appleby College and at Princeton University. Awarded a Rhodes Scholarship, he studied law at Oxford. Upon his return to the U. S. in 1923 Harlan worked in the law firm of Root, Buckner & Howland while studying at New York Law School. He served as Assistant U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York and as Special Assistant Attorney General of New York. In 1954 Harlan was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, a year president Dwight Eisenhower nominated Harlan to the United States Supreme Court following the death of Justice Robert H. Jackson. Harlan is characterized as a member of the conservative wing of the Warren Court, he advocated a limited role for the judiciary, remarking that the Supreme Court should not be considered "a general haven for reform movements".
In general, Harlan adhered more to precedent, was more reluctant to overturn legislation, than many of his colleagues on the Court. He disagreed with the doctrine of incorporation, which held that the provisions of the federal Bill of Rights applied to the state governments, not the Federal. At the same time, he advocated a broad interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Due Process Clause, arguing that it protected a wide range of rights not expressly mentioned in the United States Constitution. Harlan is sometimes called the "great dissenter" of the Warren Court, has been described as one of the most influential Supreme Court justices in the twentieth century. Justice Harlan was gravely ill when he retired from the Supreme Court on September 23, 1971, he died from spinal cancer three months on December 29, 1971. After Harlan's retirement, President Nixon appointed William Rehnquist to replace him. John Marshall Harlan was born on May 1899 in Chicago, Illinois, he was the son of John Maynard Harlan, a Chicago lawyer and politician, Elizabeth Flagg.
He had three sisters. Harlan's family had been politically active, his forebear George Harlan served as one of governors of Delaware during the seventeenth century. In his younger years, Harlan attended The Latin School of Chicago, he attended two boarding high schools in the Toronto Area, Canada: Upper Canada College and Appleby College. Upon graduation from Appleby, Harlan returned to the U. S. and in 1916 enrolled at Princeton University. There, he was a member of the Ivy Club, served as an editor of The Daily Princetonian, was class president during his junior and senior years. After graduating from the university in 1920 with a Artium Baccalaureus degree, he received a Rhodes Scholarship, which he used to attend Balliol College, Oxford, he studied jurisprudence at Oxford for three years, returning from England in 1923. Upon his return to the United States, he began work with the law firm of Root, Buckner & Howland, one of the leading law firms in the country, while studying law at New York Law School.
He received his Bachelor of Laws in 1924 and earned admission to the bar in 1925. Between 1925 and 1927, Harlan served as Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, heading the district's Prohibition unit, he prosecuted former United States Attorney General. In 1928, he was appointed Special Assistant Attorney General of New York, in which capacity he investigated a scandal involving sewer construction in Queens, he prosecuted the Queens borough president, for his involvement in the affair. In 1930, Harlan returned to his old law firm. At the firm, he served as chief assistant for senior partner Emory Buckner and followed him into public service when Buckner was appointed United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York; as one of "Buckner's Boy Scouts", eager young Assistant United States Attorneys, Harlan worked on Prohibition cases, swore off drinking except when the prosecutors visited the Harlan family fishing camp in Quebec, where Prohibition did not apply.
Harlan remained in public service until 1930, returned to his firm. Buckner had returned to the firm, after Buckner's death, Harlan became the leading trial lawyer at the firm; as a trial lawyer Harlan was involved in a number of famous cases. One such case was the conflict over the estate left after the death in 1931 of Ella Wendel, who had no heirs and left all her wealth estimated at 30–100 million to churches and charities; however a number of claimants, filed suits in state and federal courts demanding a part of her fortune. Most of the claimants were imposters. A settlement among lawful claimants was reached in 1933. In the following years Harlan specialized in corporate law dealing with the cases like Randall v. Bailey, concerning the interpretation of state law governing distribution of corporate dividends. In 1940, he represented the New York Board of Higher Education unsuccessfully in The Bertrand Russell Case in its efforts to retain Bertrand Russell on the faculty of the City College of New York.
A student publication is a media outlet such as a newspaper, television show, or radio station produced by students at an educational institution. These publications cover local and school related news, but they may report on national or international news as well. Most student publications are either part of a curricular class or run as an extracurricular activity. Student publications serve as both a platform for community discussion and a place for those interested in journalism to develop their skills; these publications report news, publish opinions of students and faculty, may run advertisements catered to the student body. Besides these purposes, student publications serve as a watchdog to uncover problems at the school; the majority of student publications are funded through their educational institution. Some funds may be generated through sales and advertisements, but the majority comes from the school itself; because of this, educational institutions have specific way in which they can influence the publications through funding.
Due to the rise in adoption of Internet accessible devices such as computers and smartphones, many high schools and colleges have begun offering online editions of their publications in addition to printed copies. Due to publishing content online student publications are now able to reach a much wider audience than before. With many student publications moving to online, content is more accessible to the student body and production of the content is easier and cheaper; as printed student publications become more and more scarce and student publications move online to best fit the news needs of today's students, student newspapers will run into several issues. One of these issues is the increase in demand for new content. While an update once a day or once a week was once acceptable for a student publication, real time information resources will soon be demanded by students who grew up with constant updates of news coverage; this shift in content demand will require more time by the student newspaper staff.
One of these issues is what is called the "daily me." Coined by Cass Sunstein in his book Republic.com, the "daily me" is the current trend of online readers looking for personalized information providers. In this way the reader deals with only the subjects. In this way readers are not inconvenienced by material they have no interest in and can personalize an information product themselves, providing added value to both themselves and the provider. However, some believe this trend may not be the best for society, now faced with a public that chooses how well to be informed. On a campus paper, this trend will manifest itself in the increased number of "hits" to the common "sports" and "opinion" sections of the paper, while hard news sections go un-noticed; this new type of print culture could result in drastic formatting and content changes for student newspapers. Gair rhydd, the student paper at Cardiff University, courted controversy when, on February 4, 2006, it reproduced the cartoons printed in Jyllands-Posten, depicting Muhammad.
The issue was withdrawn from publication within a day of being released, the editor and two other student journalists were suspended, a public apology was published in the next issue. In the same month, two editors of the Daily Illini, the independent student newspaper of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, were suspended after deciding to publish six of the twelve cartoons. However, student publications took a lead role in reprinting the Muhammad cartoons accompanying them with explanatory editorials. No fewer than 16 student newspapers and magazines in the United States, a handful in other countries, ran one or more of the caricatures. University student newspapers in the Australia are independent of university administration yet are connected with or run by the student representative organisation operating at the campus. Editors tend to be elected by the student body on a separate ticket to other student representatives and are paid an honorarium, although some student organisations have been known to employ unelected staff to coordinate the production of the newspaper.
Australian student newspapers have courted controversy since their inception. One of the more notorious of these controversies involved the publication of an article which incited readers to shoplift; the July edition of the magazine was banned by the Office of Film and Literature Classication following a campaign by conservative talkback radio hosts and other media to have the material banned. The four editors of the July 1995 edition of La Trobe University student magazine Rabelais were subsequently charged with publishing and depositing an objectionable publication. An objectional publication was defined as one that incites criminal activity; the editors lodged an appeal. The appeal was defeated by the full bench of the Federal Court, who refused the editors application to appeal to the High Court of Australia; the charges were dropped in March 1999. Many student newspapers in Canada are independent from student unions; such autonomous papers are funded by student fees won by referendums, as well as advertising, are run by their staffs, with no faculty input.
About 55 of Canada's student newspapers belong to a co-operative and newswire s
Elena Kagan is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. She was nominated by President Barack Obama in May 2010, confirmed by the Senate in August of the same year, she is the fourth woman to serve as a Justice of the Supreme Court. Kagan was raised in New York City. After attending Princeton University, the University of Oxford, Harvard Law School, she clerked for a federal Court of Appeals judge and for Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, she began her career as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School, leaving to serve as Associate White House Counsel, as policy adviser under President Bill Clinton. After a nomination to the United States Court of Appeals for the D. C. Circuit, which expired without action, she became a professor at Harvard Law School and was named its first female dean. In 2009, Kagan became the first female Solicitor General of the United States. President Obama nominated her to the Supreme Court to fill the vacancy arising from the impending retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens.
The United States Senate confirmed her nomination by a vote of 63 to 37. She is considered part of the Court's liberal wing, but tends to be one of the more moderate justices of that group, she wrote the majority opinion in Cooper v. Harris, a landmark case restricting the permissible uses of race in drawing congressional districts. Kagan was born in Manhattan, the second of three children of Robert Kagan, an attorney who represented tenants trying to remain in their homes, Gloria Kagan, who taught at Hunter College Elementary School. Both her parents were the children of Russian immigrants. Kagan has two brothers and Irving. Kagan and her family lived in a third-floor apartment at West End Avenue and 75th Street and attended Lincoln Square Synagogue, she was independent and strong-willed in her youth and, according to a former law partner of her father's, clashed with her Orthodox rabbi, Shlomo Riskin, over aspects of her bat mitzvah. "She had strong opinions about what a bat mitzvah should be like, which didn't parallel the wishes of the rabbi," her father's colleague said.
Kagan and Riskin negotiated a solution. Riskin had never performed a ritual bat mitzvah before, she "felt strongly that there should be ritual bat mitzvah in the synagogue, no less important than the ritual bar mitzvah. This was the first formal bat mitzvah we had," he said. Kagan asked to read from the Torah on a Saturday morning as the boys did, but read from the Book of Ruth on a Friday night, she now practices Conservative Judaism. Kagan's childhood friend Margaret Raymond recalled. On Saturday nights and Kagan were "more apt to sit on the steps of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and talk." Kagan loved literature and reread Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice every year. In her 1977 Hunter College High School yearbook, she is pictured in a judge's robe and holding a gavel. Next to the photo is a quotation from former Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter: "Government is itself an art, one of the subtlest of arts." Kagan attended Hunter College High School. The school had a reputation as one of the most elite learning institutions for high school girls and attracted students from all over New York City.
Kagan emerged as one of the school's more outstanding students. She was elected president of the student government and served on a student-faculty consultative committee. After graduating, Kagan attended Princeton University, where she earned a B. A. summa cum laude in history in 1981. She was drawn to American history and archival research, she wrote a senior thesis under historian Sean Wilentz titled "To the Final Conflict: Socialism in New York City, 1900–1933". In it she wrote, "Through its own internal feuding the SP exhausted itself forever; the story is a sad but a chastening one for those who, more than half a century after socialism's decline, still wish to change America." Wilentz says. To study something is not to endorse it."As an undergraduate, Kagan served as editorial chair of The Daily Princetonian. Along with eight other students, she penned a "Declaration of the Campaign for a Democratic University", it called for "a fundamental restructuring of university governance" and condemned Princeton's administration for making decisions "behind closed doors".
Despite the liberal tone of The Daily Princetonian's editorials, Kagan was politically restrained in her dealings with fellow reporters. Her Daily Princetonian colleague Steven Bernstein has said he "cannot recall a time in which Kagan expressed her political views", he described Kagan's political stances as "sort of liberal, progressive tradition, everything with lower case". In 1980, Kagan received Princeton's Daniel M. Sachs Class of 1960 Graduating Scholarship, one of the highest general awards the university confers; this enabled her to study at Oxford. As part of her graduation requirement, Kagan wrote a thesis called "The Development and Erosion of the American Exclusionary Rule: A Study in Judicial Method", it presented a critical look at the exclusionary rule and its evolution on the Supreme Court—in particular the Warren Court. She earned a Master of Philosophy in Politics at Oxford in 1983. In 1983, at age 23, Kagan entered Harvard Law School, her adjustment to Harvard's atmosphere was rocky.
Kagan went on to earn an A in 17 of the 21 courses she took at Harvard. She was immersed in the law as a summer associate in the law offices of Fried, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
Charles Woodruff Yost was a career U. S. diplomat, assigned as his country's representative to the United Nations from 1969 to 1971. Yost was born in Watertown, New York, on November 6, 1907, he attended the Hotchkiss School, where he was a member of the remarkable class of 1924 that included Roswell Gilpatric, Paul Nitze, Chapman Rose. Before graduating from Princeton University in 1928, he did postgraduate studies at the École des Hautes Études International in Paris. Over the next year he traveled to Geneva, the Soviet Union, Rumania, Yugoslavia and Vienna. Yost joined the U. S. Foreign Service in 1930 on the advice of former Secretary of State Robert Lansing, he served in Alexandria, Egypt as a consular officer, followed by an assignment in Poland. In 1933 he left the Foreign Service to pursue a career as a freelance foreign correspondent in Europe and a writer in New York. After his marriage to Irena Rawicz-Oldakowska, he returned to the U. S. State Department in 1935, becoming assistant chief of the Division of Arms and Munitions Control in 1936.
In 1941, he represented the State Department on the Policy Committee of the Board of Economic Warfare. Yost was appointed assistant chief of special research in 1942, he was made assistant chief of the Division of Foreign Activity Correlation in 1943. In February of the next year he became executive secretary of the Department of State Policy Committee, he attended the Dumbarton Oaks Conference from August to October 1944, when he worked on Chapters VI and VII of the United Nations Charter. He served at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco in April 1945 as aide to Secretary of State Edward Stettinius. In July of that year he was secretary-general of the Potsdam Conference. In 1945 Yost was reinstated in the Foreign Service, that year he served as political adviser to U. S. Lieutenant General Raymond Albert Wheeler on the staff of Lord Louis Mountbatten in Kandy, Ceylon, he became chargé d'affaires in Thailand during the short reign of Ananda Mahidol. Throughout the late 1940s and the 1950s, his assignments took him to Czechoslovakia and Greece.
In 1954, he was named minister to Laos, he became the first United States ambassador there a year later. In 1957, he was minister counselor in Paris. At the end of the same year he was named ambassador to Syria. Shortly after his appointment and Egypt formed the United Arab Republic, the U. S. was asked to close its embassy in Syria. Yost was sent as ambassador to Morocco in 1958. In 1961, he began his first assignment at the United Nations as the deputy to Ambassador Adlai Stevenson. After Stevenson's death in 1965, Yost stayed on as deputy to Ambassador Arthur Goldberg. In 1964, Yost was promoted to the rank of Career Ambassador, the highest professional Foreign Service level, in recognition of distinguished service over a sustained period. In 1966, he resigned from the Foreign Service to begin his career as a writer, at the Council on Foreign Relations, as a teacher, at Columbia University. In 1969, President Richard Nixon called Yost out of retirement to become the permanent United States representative to the United Nations.
He resigned in 1971 and returned to writing, at the Brookings Institution, teaching at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service. Yost set forth his views in a syndicated newspaper column, for the Christian Science Monitor, in four books — The Age of Triumph and Frustration: Modern Dialogues, The Insecurity of Nations, The Conduct and Misconduct of Foreign Relations, History and Memory. In 1974, Yost was awarded the Foreign Service Cup by his fellow Foreign Service officers. In 1979, Yost was co-chairman of Americans for SALT II, a group that lobbied the Senate for passage of the second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, he was a trustee of the American University in Cairo and director of the Aspen Institute for cultural exchanges with Iran. He took part in the unofficial Dartmouth Conferences of Soviet scholars. In 1973, he was named head of the National Committee on United States-China Relations. Yost died of cancer on May 21, 1981 at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, D. C.
His papers are at Princeton University Library, Mudd Library, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. Yost’s ancestors, who were driven out of the German Palatinate by Louis XIV’s armies at the end of the 17th century, settled in the Valley of the Mohawk River in New York State. Others were of Scotch-Irish origin and came to this country with the immigration that took place about the middle of the 18th century. Yost’s ancestor, Edward Howell, founded Watermill on Long Island, New York and his ancestor Abraham Cooper founded Oxbow, New York, his ancestor, Brigadier General Nicholas Herkimer, was a Revolutionary War hero. Yost’s father Nicholas, an attorney and bank president was married to his mother Gertrude by Pastor Dulles, the father of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles. In 1934, Yost married Irena Rawicz-Oldakowska in Poland, her father was the pre-war director of Fabryka Broni. They had two sons and Casimir, a daughter Felicity. 1931: Vice Consul Alexandria, Egypt 1932: Vice Consul Warsaw, Poland 1933: Resigned from the Foreign Service and became a journalist 1935: 1) Progress Report Specialist at the Resettlement Administration 2) Divisional Assistant, U.
S. Department of State, Division of Western European Affairs 3) Assistant Chief, U. S. Department of State, Office of Arms and Munitions Control 1936: Division of Arms and Munitions Control 1939: Assistant Chief, U. S. D