Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he
Quick is a defunct Dallas-Fort Worth area free weekly newspaper published from 2003 to 2011. As the name implies, it was delivered in a quick-to-read format: a tabloid ranging in page count from 20 to 40, it was available free each week on Thursdays from street teams and courtesy news racks at Dallas Area Rapid Transit rail stations, office buildings, other busy locations throughout the Dallas area. Quick was a free daily paper that contained "quick hits" of the daily top news stories and sports. However, after declining readership and distribution issues began to plague the paper, it switched to a once a week format that highlighted entertainment and lifestyle offerings in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex such as music and local dining aimed at the 18 to 40 age demographic, it was considered a direct competitor of another local entertainment/lifestyle guide, the Dallas Observer. Dallas Morning News officials announced on July 27, 2011, that Quick would cease publication with its August 4, 2011, issue.
The publisher said it ended publication because the eight-year venture was unprofitable. Nine employees, including two part-timers, were laid off as a result
Robert Francis "Beto" O'Rourke is an American businessman and politician of the Democratic Party who represented Texas's 16th congressional district for three terms in the United States House of Representatives. A native of El Paso, Texas, O'Rourke served on the El Paso City Council from 2005 to 2011. O'Rourke was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 2012 after defeating incumbent Silvestre Reyes in a Democratic primary. Instead of seeking re-election in 2018, he ran for U. S. Senate, nearly staging an upset before being narrowly defeated by Republican incumbent Senator Ted Cruz. On March 14, 2019, O'Rourke announced his candidacy for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in 2020. Robert Francis O'Rourke was born on September 26, 1972 at Hotel Dieu Hospital in El Paso, Texas to Pat Francis O'Rourke and Melissa Martha O'Rourke, née Williams, he is a 4th generation Irish American. In infancy his family gave him the nickname "Beto", a common Spanish nickname for first names ending in "-berto" to distinguish him from his namesake grandfather.
His mother owned a high-end furniture store and is the stepdaughter of Fred Korth, Secretary of the Navy under President John F. Kennedy, his father served in public office in El Paso as County Judge. Pat O'Rourke was an associate of Texas Governor Mark White and served as the state chairman of Jesse Jackson's 1984 and 1988 presidential campaigns before switching parties in the early 1990s and running several unsuccessful bids for office as a Republican. Raised in the Kern Place neighborhood, O'Rourke began his education at Escuela Montessori Del Valle preschool and continued to Rivera Elementary School and Mesita Elementary School; as a teenager, he was a member of the computer hacker group Cult of the Dead Cow, for which he wrote numerous poems and other texts under the name "Psychedelic Warlord". In 1988, after two years at El Paso High School, he enrolled in Woodberry Forest School, an all-male boarding school in Madison County, Virginia. Between graduating from high school and starting college in 1991, he was a summer congressional intern in the Capitol Hill office of U.
S. Congressman Ron Coleman. O'Rourke attended Columbia University where in his junior year he co-captained Columbia's heavyweight rowing crew, he graduated in 1995 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English literature. He is fluent in Spanish. On May 19, 1995, O'Rourke and his friends sneaked under the fence at the University of Texas at El Paso physical plant, were arrested by the UTEP police for burglary, he posted bail the following day. He was charged with burglary, but UTEP decided not to press charges. Prosecutors dropped the charges against O'Rourke and his friends in February 1996. O'Rourke was arrested for driving while intoxicated after a car crash on September 27, 1998, at 3:00 a.m. on Interstate 10 in Anthony, Texas. The charges were dismissed in October 1999. In response to attacks from a political opponent in 2005, O'Rourke said, "I've been open about it since the beginning. I have owned up to it and I have taken responsibility for it." He apologized and said he was "grateful for the second chance".
After being introduced to Bad Brains as a teen, O'Rourke became a fan of punk music. O'Rourke, along with two friends from El Paso, Mike Stevens and Arlo Klahr, learned to play musical instruments, with O'Rourke taking up the bass. In 1991, while at Columbia University, the trio recruited drummer Cedric Bixler-Zavala, together they formed the band Foss. Bixler-Zavala recalled O'Rourke and Klahr introducing him to a zine called Book Your Own Fucking Life, a primer on how to schedule your own gigs without an agent. During the summer, they toured Canada, garnering the support of Feist; the group released a self-titled demo and a 7" record, "The El Paso Pussycats", on Western Breed Records in 1993. O'Rourke played drums in the band Swedes, who released an album called Summer in 1995. Bandmates included Jake Barowsky, Arlo Klahr, Julie Napolin, Mike Stevens. Beto and ex-members of Foss started two other bands, a rock group called Fragile Gang, a cover band called The Sheeps. After graduation, O'Rourke worked as a live-in caretaker and art mover before working for an Internet service provider.
During this time, he questioned. He took a position at H. W. Wilson Company as a proofreader, wrote short stories and songs in his free time. O'Rourke returned to El Paso in 1998. O'Rourke wanted to address "brain-drain"; the following year, he co-founded Stanton Street Technology Group, an Internet services and software company. As of March 2017, his wife Amy operates the business. For a few years, the company published an online newspaper called Stanton Street, that O'Rourke modeled on alternative periodicals like The Village Voice and New York Press. O'Rourke was involved with El Paso civic organizations and nonprofit groups, such as the Rotary Club, United Way, Center Against Sexual and Family Violence, he was a member of the boards of the El Paso Hispanic Chamber of Commerce and the Institute for Policy and Economic Development at UTEP. During his childhood, he accompanied his father Pat at other political events. While Pat was charismatic and outgoing, his son was more reserved. Pat would nudge Beto, suggesting he "go say hello to this person or that person...
I hated it...it was the kind of stuff you don't want to do when you are 10 years old, unless you were into that. And I wasn't. I was an awkward and shy kid, so
Tabloid (newspaper format)
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format; the term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, celebrity gossip and television, is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a high standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets if the newspaper is now printed on smaller pages; the word "tabloid" comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. to the compressed tablets they marketed as "Tabloid" pills in the late 1880s. The connotation of tabloid was soon applied to other small compressed items. A 1902 item in London's Westminster Gazette noted, "The proprietor intends to give in tabloid form all the news printed by other journals." Thus "tabloid journalism" in 1901 meant a paper that condensed stories into a simplified absorbed format.
The term preceded the 1918 reference to smaller sheet newspapers that contained the condensed stories. Tabloid newspapers in the United Kingdom, vary in their target market, political alignment, editorial style, circulation. Thus, various terms have been coined to describe the subtypes of this versatile paper format. There are, two main types of tabloid newspaper: red top and compact; the distinction is of editorial style. Red top tabloids are so named due to their tendency, in British and Commonwealth usage, to have their mastheads printed in red ink. Red top tabloids, named after their distinguishing red mastheads, employ a form of writing known as tabloid journalism. Celebrity gossip columns which appear in red top tabloids and focus on their sexual practices, misuse of narcotics, the private aspects of their lives border on, sometimes cross the line of defamation. Red tops tend to be written with a straightforward vocabulary and grammar; the writing style of red top tabloids is accused of sensationalism.
In the extreme case, red top tabloids have been accused of lying or misrepresenting the truth to increase circulation. Examples of British red top newspapers include the Daily Star and the Daily Mirror. In contrast to red-top tabloids, compacts use an editorial style more associated with broadsheet newspapers. In fact, most compact tabloids used the broadsheet paper size, but changed to accommodate reading in tight spaces, such as on a crowded commuter bus or train; the term compact was coined in the 1970s by the Daily Mail, one of the earlier newspapers to make the change, although it now once again calls itself a tabloid. The purpose behind this was to avoid the association of the word tabloid with the flamboyant, salacious editorial style of the red top newspaper; the early converts from broadsheet format made the change in the 1970s. In 2003, The Independent made the change for the same reasons followed by The Scotsman and The Times. On the other hand, The Morning Star had always used the tabloid size, but stands in contrast to both the red top papers and the former broadsheets.
Compact tabloids, just like broadsheet- and Berliner-format newspapers, span the political spectrum from progressive to conservative and from capitalist to socialist. In Morocco, Maroc Soir, launched in November 2005, is published in tabloid format. In South Africa, the Bloemfontein-based daily newspaper Volksblad became the first serious broadsheet newspaper to switch to tabloid, but only on Saturdays. Despite the format proving to be popular with its readers, the newspaper remains broadsheet on weekdays; this is true of Pietermaritzburg's daily, The Witness in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. The Daily Sun, published by Naspers, has since become South Africa's biggest-selling daily newspaper and is aimed at the black working class, it sells over 500,000 copies per day, reaching 3,000,000 readers. Besides offering a sometimes satirical view of the seriousness of mainstream news, the Daily Sun covers fringe theories and paranormal claims such as tokoloshes, ancestral visions and all things supernatural.
It is published as the Sunday Sun. In Bangladesh, The Daily Manabzamin became the first and is now the largest circulated Bengali language tabloid in the world, in 1998. Published from Bangladesh, by renowned news presenter Mahbuba Chowdhury, the Daily Manab Zamin is ranked in the Top 500 newspaper websites, in the Top 10 Bengali news site categories in the world, is the only newspaper in Bangladesh which houses credentials with FIFA, UEFA, The Football Association, Warner Bros. A
Plano is a city in the U. S. state of Texas, located twenty miles north of downtown Dallas. The city of Plano is a part of the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area. Plano lies within Collin County, but includes a small portion that extends into Denton County; the city's population was estimated at 286,143 in 2017, making it the ninth most populous city in the state of Texas and the 69th most populous in the United States. The city is a hub for many corporate headquarters. Plano was considered to be the safest city in the nation by Forbes in 2011. European settlers came to the area near present-day Plano in the early 1840s. Facilities such as a sawmill, a gristmill, a store soon brought more people to the area. A mail service was established, after rejecting several names for the nascent town, residents suggested the name Plano, as a reference to the local terrain and devoid of any trees; the name was accepted by the post office. In 1872, the completion of the Houston and Central Texas Railway helped the city to grow, it was incorporated in 1873.
By 1874, the population had grown to more than 500. In 1881, a fire raged through the business district; the town was rebuilt and business again flourished through the 1880s. In 1881, the city assumed responsibility for what would become Plano Independent School District, ending the days of it being served only by private schools. At first, the population of Plano grew reaching 1,304 in 1900, rising to 3,695 in 1960. By 1970, Plano began to feel some of the boom its neighbors had experienced after World War II. A series of public works projects and a change in taxes that removed the farming community from the town helped increase the overall population. In 1970, the population reached 17,872, by 1980, it had exploded to 72,000. Sewers and street development kept pace with this massive increase because of Plano's flat topography, grid layout, planning initiatives. During the 1980s, many large corporations moved their headquarters to the city, including J. C. Penney and Frito-Lay, which encouraged further growth.
By 1990, the population reached 128,713. In 1994, the city was recognized as an All-America City. By 2000, the population grew to 222,030. Plano is surrounded by other municipalities and therefore cannot expand in area, there is little undeveloped land remaining within the city limits. However, as of July 2012, one large tract of land was being developed: Turnpike Commons at the intersection of Renner Road and the George Bush Turnpike; the development is expected to feature apartments, medical facilities, restaurants, a Race Trac gas station, a hotel. There was an epidemic of heroin abuse among young people in the 1990s; the Plano authorities created an anti-drug campaign with the name "Operation Rockfest."In 2013, Plano received top-scoring nationally in a livability index according to an algorithm created by AreaVibes.com, a Toronto-based company specializing in such data. AreaVibes ranked Plano at the top of the list of U. S. cities with populations between 100,000 and 10,000,000. Another chart, "Best Places to Live in 2013" has Plano ranked number 1.
In September 2017, a mass shooting occurred. According to the United States Census Bureau, Plano has a total area of 71.6 square miles. Plano is about 17 miles from Downtown Dallas. Plano is in the humid subtropical climate zone; the highest recorded temperature was 118 °F in 1936. On average, the coolest month is January and the warmest is July; the lowest recorded temperature was -7 °F in 1930. The maximum average precipitation occurs in May; as of the census of 2010, Plano had 259,841 people, 99,131 households and 69,464 families, up from 80,875 households and 60,575 families in the 2000 census. The population density was 3,629.1 people per square mile. There were 103,672 housing units at an average density of 1,448.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 66.9% White, 7.6% Black, 0.36% Native American, 16.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.86% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino made up 14.7% of the population As of 2009 western Plano has a higher concentration of Asians, while eastern Plano has a higher concentration of Hispanics and Latinos.
Of the 99,131 households, 35.8% had children under the age of 18. Married couples accounted for 56.7%. 24.4% of all households were individuals, 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61, the average family size was 3.15. Data indicates that 28.7% of Plano's population was under the age of 18, 7.0% was 18 to 24, 36.5% was 25 to 44, 22.9% was 45 to 64, 4.9% was 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $84,492, the median income for a family is $101,616. About 3.0% of families and 4.3% of the population live below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over. In 2007, Plano had the highest median income of a city with a popu
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa