Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Royal Academy of Arts
The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London. The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through an act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition. Supporters wanted to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation, fashionable taste in 18th-century Britain was based on continental and traditional art forms, providing contemporary British artists little opportunity to sell their works. From 1746 the Foundling Hospital, through the efforts of William Hogarth, the success of this venture led to the formation of the Society of Artists of Great Britain and the Free Society of Artists. Both these groups were primarily exhibiting societies, their success was marred by internal factions among the artists. The combined vision of education and exhibition to establish a school of art set the Royal Academy apart from the other exhibiting societies. It provided the foundation upon which the Royal Academy came to dominate the art scene of the 18th and 19th centuries, supplanting the earlier art societies.
Sir William Chambers, a prominent architect, used his connections with George III to gain royal patronage and financial support of the Academy, the painter Joshua Reynolds was made its first president. Francis Milner Newton was elected the first secretary, a post he held for two decades until his resignation in 1788, the instrument of foundation, signed by George III on 10 December 1768, named 34 founder members and allowed for a total membership of 40. William Hoare and Johann Zoffany were added to this list by the King and are known as nominated members, among the founder members were two women, a father and daughter, and two sets of brothers. The Royal Academy was initially housed in cramped quarters in Pall Mall, although in 1771 it was given temporary accommodation for its library and schools in Old Somerset House, a royal palace. In 1780 it was installed in purpose-built apartments in the first completed wing of New Somerset House, located in the Strand and designed by Chambers, the Academy moved in 1837 to Trafalgar Square, where it occupied the east wing of the recently completed National Gallery.
These premises soon proved too small to house both institutions, in 1868,100 years after the Academys foundation, it moved to Burlington House, where it remains. Burlington House is owned by the British Government, and used rent-free by the Royal Academy, the first Royal Academy exhibition of contemporary art, open to all artists, opened on 25 April 1769 and ran until 27 May 1769. 136 works of art were shown and this exhibition, now known as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, has been staged annually without interruption to the present day. In 1870 the Academy expanded its programme to include a temporary annual loan exhibition of Old Masters. The range and frequency of these exhibitions have grown enormously since that time. Britains first public lectures on art were staged by the Royal Academy, led by Reynolds, the first president, a program included lectures by Dr. William Hunter, John Flaxman, James Barry, Sir John Soane, and J. M. W. Turner
Pasadena /ˌpæsəˈdiːnə/ is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. As of 2013, the population of Pasadena was 139,731. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County, Pasadena was incorporated on June 19,1886, becoming one of the first cities be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, the only one being incorporated earlier being its namesake. It is one of the cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game, the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They spoke the Tongva language and had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years, Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in thatched, dome-shape lodges and they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, and other small animals.
They traded for fish with the coastal Tongva. They made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island, the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon. When the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people Gabrielino Indians, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area. The Rancho comprised the lands of todays communities of Pasadena, before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area, Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton, much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians, owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles and he was the grandfather of WWII General George S.
Patton, Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. Berry was an asthmatic and claimed that he had his best three nights sleep at Rancho San Pascual, to keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area Muscat after the grape that Wilson grew. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it. The newcomers were able to purchase a portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31,1874. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, at the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue
Lambda Literary Award
Lambda Literary Awards are awarded yearly by the US-based Lambda Literary Foundation to published works which celebrate or explore LGBT themes. Categories include Humor and Biography, to qualify, a book must have been published in the United States in the year current to the award. The awards were instituted in 1988, the program has grown from 14 awards in early years to 22 awards today. In addition to the literary awards, the Lambda Literary Foundation presents a number of special awards. Beginning in 2011, the Lambda Literary Awards took over the Jim Duggins Outstanding Mid-Career Novelists Prize, formerly presented by the Saints and Sinners Literary Festival. The award, endowed by academic and writer James Duggins, is presented annually to two LGBT writers, one male and one female, to honor their body of work. In 2013, the instituted the Dr. Betty Berzon Emerging Writer Award. 1 In both the bisexual and transgender categories, presentation may vary according to the number of eligible titles submitted in any given year.
Ellen Hart has won five awards in the Lesbian Mystery category, the most by any single author, and is one of only three writers to have won the award more than once. Similarly, Michael Nava has won five awards in the Gay Mystery category, the most by any single author, and is one of only three writers to have won the award more than once. Alison Bechdel has won four awards in the Humor category, the most by any single author, the Humor category has been discontinued. Nicola Griffith and Melissa Scott have each won four awards in the Scifi/Fantasy/Horror category, colm Tóibín is the only writer to have won two awards in the Gay Fiction category, for The Master in 2004 and for The Empty Family in 2011. Paul Monette is the writer to have won two awards in the Gay Non-Fiction category, for Borrowed Time in 1989 and for Becoming a Man in 1993. A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics and Lipstick Lesbians in 2007 The LGBT Non-Fiction award for Gay L. A, a History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics and Lipstick Lesbians in 2007 The Pioneer Award in 2013.
Michael Nava received both Gay Mystery/Science Fiction and Gay Small Press awards for Golden Boy in 1989, dorothy Allison received both Lesbian Small Press and Lesbian Fiction awards for Trash, Short Stories in 1989. Duberman received both Gay Anthology and Lesbian Anthology awards for Hidden from History in 1990, jewelle Gomez received both Lesbian Scifi/Fantasy/Horror and Lesbian Fiction awards for The Gilda Stories in 1992. Loren Cameron received both Small Press and Transgender awards for Body Alchemy, Transsexual Portraits in 1997, Lisa C. Moore received both Small Press and Lesbian Studies awards for Does Your Mama Know. in 1998. James Saslow received both Gay Studies and Visual Arts awards for Pictures and Passions in 2000, noelle Howey and Ellen Samuels received both Anthologies/Non-Fiction and Childrens/Young Adult awards for Out of the Ordinary in 2001
Matthias Schoenaerts is a Belgian actor, film producer and graffiti artist of Flemish origin. He made his debut at the age of 13 in Daens. Schoenaerts received critical acclaim for his portrayal of an ex-soldier suffering from PTSD in Disorder, in 2015, he was named Knight of the Order of Arts and Letters in France. Schoenaerts was born in Antwerp, the Flemish region of Belgium and he is the son of actor Julien Schoenaerts and Dominique Wiche, a costume designer and French teacher. He has a half brother, Bruno Schoenaerts, who is a lawyer. Schoenaerts grew up bilingual speaking Dutch and French and he is fluent in English, which he learned by watching American movies. In 1987, at nine years old, he appeared on a production of Antoine de Saint-Exupérys The Little Prince opposite his father. His mother, was the designer of the play. He started producing graffiti as a teenager under the pseudonym Zenith and it is possible to watch some videos of Schoenaerts doing graffiti in Belgium on YouTube. Schoenaerts was close to becoming a soccer player and was on the books of Belgian team Beerschot AC.
In 2013, Schoenaerts stated that he is a fan of Spanish football club FC Barcelona, at the age of 13, Schoenaerts made his film debut with a small role in the 1992 Belgian film Daens, which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. His father starred in the film but they did not share any scenes together, in 2003, Schoenaerts was named one of Europes Shooting Stars by the European Film Promotion. After completing studies at The Academy of Dramatic Arts in Antwerp, he featured in several shorts, in 2006, Schoenaerts played Dennis in Hilde Van Mieghems Love Belongs to Everyone, and had a small role as a member of the Dutch resistance in Paul Verhoevens Black Book. In 2007, he starred in Ben van Lieshouts film De Muze, in the same year, Schoenaerts starred in the mini-series The Emperor of Taste, playing a Belgian soldier in World War II. In 2009, he starred in Dorothée Van Den Berghes My Queen Karo, in 2010, he played the lead role in Alex Stockmans Techno-thriller Pulsar, and had a cameo in Franck Richards La Meute.
In 2011, Schoenaerts starred in the Dutch films The Gang of Oss, in 2011, Schoenaerts played the lead role in Bullhead, directed by Michaël R. Roskam, which was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Oscar. His performance in the film was received and won him the FIPRESCI Award for best actor at the Palm Springs International Film Festival in January 2012. The jury praised the actors portrayal of an innocent and sensitive man trapped in a truculent body
In 1998 it became a subsidiary of Amazon Inc, who were able to use it as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. As of January 2017, IMDb has approximately 4.1 million titles and 7.7 million personalities in its database, the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Although all data is checked before going live, the system has open to abuse. The site featured message boards which stimulate regular debates and dialogue among authenticated users, IMDb shutdown the message boards permanently on February 20,2017. Anyone with a connection can read the movie and talent pages of IMDb. A registration process is however, to contribute info to the site. A registered user chooses a name for themselves, and is given a profile page. These badges range from total contributions made, to independent categories such as photos, bios, if a registered user or visitor happens to be in the entertainment industry, and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO.
Actors and industry executives can post their own resume and this fee enrolls them in a membership called IMDbPro. PRO can be accessed by anyone willing to pay the fee, which is $19.99 USD per month, or if paid annually, $149.99, which comes to approximately $12.50 per month USD. Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality, as well as agent contact information for any actor, director etc. that has an IMDb page. Enrolling in PRO for industry personnel, enables those members the ability to upload a head shot to open their page, as well as the ability to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page. Anyone can register as a user, and contribute to the site as well as enjoy its content, however those users enrolled in PRO have greater access and privileges. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled Those Eyes, others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own.
Needham subsequently started an Actors List, while Dave Knight began a Directors List, and Andy Krieg took over THE LIST from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the Actress List. Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, the goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible. By late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17,1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, at the time, it was known as the rec. arts. movies movie database
Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House. It was founded in New York City on March 1,1925, by Harold K. Guinzburg and George S. Oppenheim and acquired by the Penguin Group in 1975. The firms name and logo—a Viking ship drawn by Rockwell Kent—were meant to evoke the ideas of adventure, the house has been home to many prominent authors of fiction, non-fiction, and play scripts. Viking publishes approximately 100 books a year and it is notable for publishing both successful commercial fiction and acclaimed literary fiction and non-fiction, and its paperbacks are most often published by Penguin Books. Vikings current president is Brian Tart, the Viking Childrens Book department was established in 1933, its founding editor was May Massee. Viking Kestrel was one of its imprints and its paperbacks are published by Puffin Books, which includes the Speak and Firebird imprints. From 2012 and as of 2016, Viking Childrens publisher is Kenneth Wright, jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Consulting Editor Viking Press history at Penguin Viking Childrens Books history at Penguin
The New York Times Book Review
The New York Times Book Review is a weekly paper-magazine supplement to The New York Times in which current non-fiction and fiction books are reviewed. It is one of the most influential and widely read book review publications in the industry, the offices are located near Times Square in New York City. The New York Times has published a review section since October 10,1896, announcing. Associated with news of the day, the target audience is an intelligent, general-interest adult reader. Each week the NYTBR receives 750 to 1000 books from authors and publishers in the mail, Books are selected by the preview editors who read over 1,500 advance galleys a year. The selection process is based on finding books that are important and notable, self-published books are generally not reviewed as a matter of policy. Books not selected for review are stored in a discard room, as of 2006, Barnes & Noble arrived about once a month to purchase the contents of the discard room, and the proceeds are donated by NYTBR to charities.
Books that are actually reviewed are usually donated to the reviewer, as of 2015, all review critics are freelance, the NYTBR does not have staff critics. In prior years, the NYTBR did have in-house critics, or a mix of in-house, for freelance critics, they are assigned an in-house preview editor who works with them in creating the final review. Freelance critics might be employees of The New York Times whose main duties are in other departments and they include professional literary critics, novelists and artists who write reviews for the NYTBR on a regular basis. In addition to the magazine there is an Internet site that offers content, including audio interviews with authors. The book review publishes each week the widely cited and influential New York Times Best Seller list, pamela Paul was named Senior Editor in spring 2013. Sam Tanenhaus was Senior Editor from the spring of 2004 to spring 2013, each year, around the beginning of December, a 100 Notable Books of the Year list is published.
It contains fiction and non-fiction titles of books previously reviewed,50 of each, from the list of 100,10 books are awarded the Best Books of the Year title, five each of fiction and non-fiction. Other year-end lists include the Best Illustrated Childrens Books, in which 10 books are chosen by a panel of judges. In 2010, Stanford professors Alan Sorenson and Jonah Berger published a study examining the effect on sales from positive or negative reviews in the New York Times Book Review. They found all books benefited from positive reviews, while popular or well-known authors were negatively impacted by negative reviews, lesser-known authors benefited from negative reviews, in other words, bad publicity actually boosted book sales. A study published in 2012, by university professor and author Roxane Gay, Gay said, The numbers reflect the overall trend in publishing where the majority of books published are written by white writers
Sebastian Koch is a German television and film actor. He is known for roles in the 2007 Academy Award winning film The Lives of Others, in Steven Spielberg’s Bridge of Spies, Koch grew up in Stuttgart with his single mother. He originally wanted to be a musician, but the production of the artistic director Claus Peymann influenced him in the late 70s to change his career aspiration in becoming an actor, from 1982 to 1985 Koch studied at the renowned Otto Falckenberg School in Munich. In addition to his work, he showed a diversity of different roles on stage. Koch portrayed amongst other Peer Gynt and Leonce in Leonce and Lena at the theatre of Darmstadt. At the Schiller theatre in Berlin he played the character Roller in Schillers The Robbers, a couple of years he took over the role the Lord Goring in Oscar Wildes An Ideal Husband in the playhouse Bochum under the direction of Armin Holz. Koch had his first TV appearance in 1980 in the 77th episode of the series Derrick, the latter was furthermore distinguished as TV event of the year with the German Television Award.
Koch received in addition the Bavarian TV Award for the same movie, first international productions like the historical drama Napoleon, in which Koch played alongside Gérard Depardieu, John Malkovich and Isabella Rossellini brought him more attention. He portrayed the youthful lover of Catherine Deneuve, Rodolphe Löwenstein, in Marie und Freud and again Sebastian Koch has portrayed historically significant personalities, among Rudolf Höss in Costa-Gavras Hochhuth’s adaptation Amen. Sebastian Koch played in Florian Henckel von Donnersmarcks drama The Lives of Others in 2006 one of the leading roles and he portrayed the playwright Georg Dreyman, who lived in East Germany with his lover, who was a dissident, who was spied on and monitored. The movie received an Oscar as Best foreign language film in 2007 as well as the BAFTA-Award, the César, and the German and European Film Award. Sebastian Koch himself was nominated several times for his work in The Lives of Others and received the Globo doro for Best European Actor, The Quadriga.
Paul Verhoeven’s movie Black Book was shot in 2006, Koch plays a Nazi Officer in occupied Holland who falls in love with a Jewish member of the resistance. Black Book celebrated its premiere at the Venice Film Festival and the Toronto International Film Festival, the shooting of this two-parter after Nigel Williams’ script and under Mike Barker’s direction took place in Halifax, Canada. The mini series won the Directors Guild of Canada Award and Koch was nominated in 2010 for his role as Wolf Larsen for the international Emmy Award, the shooting of the movie Manipulation took place in 2008, with Sebastian Koch and Klaus Maria Brandauer as leading roles. Koch was in 2010 the male role in the English independent tragicomedy Albatross under the direction of Niall MacCormick. He played in addition the role of Prof. Bressler in the movie Unknown under the direction Jaume Collet-Serra, as a host of the ZDF production Terra X, Sebastian Koch presented the Cologne Cathedral, the Neuschwanstein Castle and the Dresden Frauenkirche.
In the German production adapted by Bernhard Schlink’s novel Das Wochenende in 2012, Koch portrays an amnestied RAF terrorist, the international cast included Catherine Deneuve as Catherine the Great of Russia and John Cleese as Officer McCormick
Allen & Unwin
Unwins son Rayner S. Unwin and nephew Philip helped run the company, which published the works of Bertrand Russell, Arthur Waley, Roald Dahl and Thor Heyerdal. Rayner Unwin retired at the end of 1985, and the firm was amalgamated in 1986 with Bell & Hyman to form Unwin Hyman Limited, robin Hyman became chief executive of the combined Unwin Hyman. From this time Allen & Unwin was an Australia-based, child company of Unwin Hyman, Rayner Unwin returned for a while as part-time chairman of Unwin Hyman, retiring again at the end of 1988. It was over the objections of largest shareholder Unwin that Hyman sold the firm to HarperCollins, HarperCollins has since sold Unwin Hymans academic book list to Routledge. Allen & Unwin Australia Pty Ltd became independent in July 1990 by means of a management buy-out when the UK firm was bought by HarperCollins. Now known simply as Allen & Unwin the company went on to become the most successful independent in Australia, Allen & Unwin is co-sponsor and publisher of the annual Australian/Vogel Literary Award.
The Allen & Unwin head office is in Sydney and the company publishes out of offices in Melbourne, Allen & Unwin represents a number of leading independent British publishers in the Australian and New Zealand markets. These include Bloomsbury, Faber & Faber, Profile Books and Serpents Tail and Corvus, Granta and Portobello, Nicholas Brealey, Allen & Unwin distributes the Harry Potter series of books in Australia and New Zealand under the Bloomsbury imprint. Since the inaugural award in 1992, Allen & Unwin has been voted Publisher of the Year twelve times including in 2013, the Founder and Chairman of Allen & Unwin is Patrick Gallagher, the CEO is Robert Gorman and the Publishing Director is Sue Hines. In 2012, legal actions were initiated against Allen & Unwin regarding a book authored by Fairfax Media journalist Eamonn Duff, in the first case the judge awarded $50,000 damages for breach of copyright in the unauthorised use of family photographs. Defamation cases followed, and in August 2014 two family members were awarded $325,000 in damages, references Sources Records of George Allen & Unwin Ltd
Amber Laura Heard is an American actress. She made her debut in 2004 in the sports drama Friday Night Lights. After small roles in North Country and Alpha Dog, Heard played her first leading role in All the Boys Love Mandy Lane and her breakthrough came in 2008 with roles in Never Back Down and Pineapple Express. She received the Breakthrough Award at Young Hollywood Awards and her appearance in films such as The Informers, The Stepfather and The Joneses brought her further attention. She next starred in John Carpenters The Ward, alongside Nicolas Cage in Drive Angry, in 2014 she appeared in 3 Days to Kill, and in 2015 in Magic Mike XXL and The Danish Girl. In 2017, Heard will appear as Mera in Zack Snyders upcoming superhero film, Heard was born in Austin, the daughter of Patricia Paige, an Internet researcher, and David Clinton Heard, a contractor. She dropped out of school, eventually earning a diploma through a home-study course. When Heard was 16, her best friend died in a car crash and she said of Rand, Ive read all of her books.
Ever since then, I have been obsessed with her ideals, All Ive ever needed is myself. C. She made her debut in the sports drama Friday Night Lights. Heard was next cast as the characters love interest in the CWs teen drama Hidden Palms. In order to get the part, she was required to lose 25 pounds, the series premiered in the United States on May 30,2007 to mixed to negative reviews from the critics. It was not popular with audiences, and thus the CW decided to cancel it. In 2007, Heard appeared in the short movie Day 73 with Sarah, the critically panned indie drama Remember the Daze and she won a Breakthrough Award in Hollywood Film Festival. Certainly, not something you would find in somebody her age, the wisdom she projects, I thought was pretty remarkable. Mandy Lane had already premiered at the 2006 Toronto International Film Festival, after a negative test screening, Weinstein dropped the film, and it was released in the United Kingdom in 2008 by a different distributing company. It did not have theatrical release in the United States until 2013, the Los Angeles Times stated that Heard gave her most definitive to date in the film, and The Washington Post wrote that she gave a psychologically interesting performance.
In 2009, Heard had roles in the horror film The Stepfather, in their review of the latter, Variety wrote that she steals the show from films more established star, Demi Moore
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker