Michael Trent Reznor is an American singer, musician, record producer, film score composer. He is the founder, lead vocalist, principal songwriter of the industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, which he founded in 1988 and of which he was the sole official member until adding long-time collaborator Atticus Ross as a permanent member in 2016, his first release under the Nine Inch Nails name, the 1989 album Pretty Hate Machine, was a commercial and critical success. He has since released nine Nine Inch Nails studio albums, he left Interscope Records in 2007 and was an independent recording artist until signing with Columbia Records in 2012. Reznor was associated with the bands Option 30, The Urge, The Innocent, Exotic Birds in the mid-1980s. Outside of Nine Inch Nails, he has contributed to the albums of artists such as Marilyn Manson and Saul Williams, he and his wife, Mariqueen Maandig, are members of the post-industrial group How to Destroy Angels, with Atticus Ross and long-time Nine Inch Nails graphic designer Rob Sheridan.
Reznor and Ross scored the David Fincher films The Social Network, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, Gone Girl, winning the Academy Award for Best Original Score for The Social Network and the Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack for Visual Media for The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo. They scored the 2018 film Bird Box. In 1997, Reznor appeared in Time's list of the year's most influential people, Spin magazine described him as "the most vital artist in music". Michael Trent Reznor was born on May 17, 1965, in New Castle, the son of Nancy Lou and Michael Reznor, he has German and Irish ancestry and is a descendant of businessman George Reznor, who founded the heating and air conditioning manufacturer The Reznor Company in 1888. Reznor grew up in Pennsylvania. After his parents divorced, he lived with his maternal grandparents from the age of six, while his sister Tera lived with their mother, he showed an early aptitude for music. His grandfather, Bill Clark, told People magazine in February 1995 that Reznor was "a good kid... a Boy Scout who loved to skateboard, build model planes, play the piano".
He stated, "Music was his life, from the time. He was so gifted."Reznor has acknowledged that his sheltered life left him feeling isolated from the outside world. In a September 1994 interview with Rolling Stone magazine, he referred to his choices in the music industry: However, in April 1995, Reznor told Details magazine that he did not "want to give the impression it was a miserable childhood". At Mercer Area Junior/Senior High School, he learned to play the tenor saxophone and tuba, was a member of both the jazz and marching band; the school's former band director remembered him as "very upbeat and friendly". Reznor became involved in theater while in high school, was voted "Best in Drama" by classmates for his roles as Judas in Jesus Christ Superstar and Professor Harold Hill in The Music Man, he graduated in 1983 and enrolled at Allegheny College in Meadville, where he studied computer engineering. While he was a student at Mercer Area Junior/Senior High School, Reznor joined local band Option 30 and played three shows a week with them.
After a year of college, Reznor dropped out and moved to Cleveland, Ohio, to pursue a career in music. His first band in Cleveland was a cover band. In 1985, he joined The Innocent as a keyboardist. In 1986, he joined local band Exotic Birds and appeared with them as a fictional band called The Problems in the 1987 film Light of Day. Reznor contributed on keyboards to the band Slam Bamboo during this time. Reznor got a job at Cleveland's Right Track Studio as janitor. Studio owner Bart Koster commented: "He was so focused in everything he did; when that guy waxed the floor, it looked great." Reznor asked Koster for permission to record demos of his own songs for free during unused studio time. Koster agreed, remarking that it cost him "just a little wear on his tape heads". While assembling the earliest Nine Inch Nails recordings, Reznor was unable to find a band that could articulate his songs as he wanted. Instead, inspired by Prince, he played all the instruments. Reznor has continued in this role on most of the band's studio recordings, though he has involved other musicians, assistants and rhythm experts.
Several labels responded favorably to the demo material and Reznor signed with TVT Records. Nine selections from the Right Track demos were unofficially released in 1988 as Purest Feeling and many of these songs appeared in revised form on Pretty Hate Machine, Reznor's first official release under the Nine Inch Nails name. Most of Reznor's work as a musician has been as founding and primary member of Nine Inch Nails. Pretty Hate Machine was released in 1989 and was a moderate commercial success, certified Gold in 1992. Amid pressure from his record label to produce a follow-up to Pretty Hate Machine, Reznor secretly began recording under various pseudonyms to avoid record company interference, resulting in an EP called Broken. Nine Inch Nails was included in the Lollapalooza tour in the summer of 1991, won a Grammy Award in 1993 under "Best Heavy Metal Performance" for the song "Wish". Nine Inch Nails' second full-length album, The Downward Spiral, entered the Billboard 200 chart in 1994 at number two, remains the highest-selling Nine Inch Nails release in America.
To record the album, Reznor rented and moved into the 10050 Cielo Drive mansion, where the 1969 Manson Family murders took place. He built a studio space in the house, whic
Industrial rock is a musical genre that fuses industrial music and rock music. Experimental'60s group Cromagnon are said to have been one of the bands that helped foresee the birth of industrial rock, their song "Caledonia" has been noted for its "pre-industrial stomp". Krautrock musicians Michael Rother and Klaus Dinger included industrial noise in their track "Negativland". Neu! Inspired the opening track "Speed of Life" on David Bowie's Low recorded in Berlin. Bowie collaborated with Iggy Pop on his 1977 solo debut The Idiot; the closing track "Mass Production" features mechanical sounds sampled on tape loops which influenced Joy Division who were signed to the industrially themed label Factory Records, founded in 1978. Chrome has been credited as the "beginning of industrial rock" and their 1978 Half Machine Lip Moves was listed on Wire's 100 Records that set the world on fire. Industrial rock was created in the mid- to late 1970s, amidst the punk rock revolution and disco fever. Prominent early industrial musicians include Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire, NON, SPK and Z'EV.
Many other artists have been cited as influences such as Kraftwerk and Gary Numan and Tubeway Army as well as Einstürzende Neubauten and Fad Gadget. Many other musical performers were incorporating industrial music elements into a variety of musical styles; some post-punk performers developed styles parallel to industrial music's defining attributes. Pere Ubu's debut, The Modern Dance, was described as "industrial". Killing Joke, considered by Simon Reynolds as "a post-punk version of heavy metal". According to Chris Connelly, Foetus "is the instigator when it comes to the marriage of machinery to hardcore punk."Others followed in their wake. The New York City band Swans were inspired by the local No Wave scene, as well as punk rock, noise music and the original industrial groups. Steve Albini's Big Black followed a similar path, while incorporating American hardcore punk. Big Black has been associated with post-hardcore and noise rock, though their ties to industrial music are apparent; the Swiss trio The Young Gods, who deliberately eschewed electric guitars in favor of a sampler took inspiration from both hardcore and industrial, being indebted to the Bad Brains and Foetus.
In the 1990s, industrial rock broke into the mainstream with artists and bands such as Nine Inch Nails, Rob Zombie, White Zombie, Marilyn Manson. In December 1992, Nine Inch Nails' EP Broken was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. Nine Inch Nails gained further popularity with the release of their 1994 album The Downward Spiral; the Downward Spiral was certified 4x platinum by the RIAA in 1998. Nine Inch Nails' 1999 album The Fragile was certified 2x platinum in January 2000. With the success of Nine Inch Nails, the band's debut album Pretty Hate Machine was certified 3x platinum by the RIAA. In the 1990s, four Nine Inch Nails songs went on the Billboard Hot 100. Several industrial rock and industrial metal artists such as KMFDM, Fear Factory, Gravity Kills and Sister Machine Gun appeared on the 1995 Mortal Kombat: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack; the soundtrack was certified platinum by the RIAA in January 1996. Marilyn Manson released their album Antichrist Superstar in 1996.
The album was certified platinum by the RIAA two months after its release date. In the United States, Antichrist Superstar sold at least 1,900,000 units. Marilyn Manson's EP Smells Like Children was certified platinum in May 1998. Marilyn Manson's album Mechanical Animals went to number 1, selling 223,000 copies in its first week in stores, knocking The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill by Lauryn Hill off of the top spot. Mechanical Animals was certified platinum by the RIAA in February 1999 and sold at least 1,409,000 copies in the United States. Orgy experienced mainstream success during the 1990s; the band's 1998 album Candyass was certified platinum by the RIAA in July 1999. Orgy's cover of New Order's song "Blue Monday" went to number 56 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number 2 on the Dance Club Songs chart. White Zombie experimented with industrial metal on its 1995 album Astro-Creep 2000, certified 2x platinum by the RIAA in March 1996. White Zombie's vocalist Rob Zombie began creating pure industrial metal albums in his solo career.
Rob Zombie's solo debut studio album Hellbilly Deluxe was certified 3x platinum by the RIAA less than two years after its release date. In November 1999, Powerman 5000's album Tonight the Stars Revolt! was certified platinum by the RIAA. The album sold at least 1,316,172 units in the United States. Wax Trax! Records Nothing Records Industrial rock musical groups Industrial rock sales and awards List of industrial music bands Blush, Steven. American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Los Angeles, CA: Feral House. Chantler, Chris. "Splitting heirs". Terrorizer, 96: 54-5. Connelly, Chris. Concrete, Invisible + Fried: My Life as a Revolting Cock. London: SAF Publishing. Irvin, Jim; the Mojo Collection: The greatest albums of all time. Edinburgh: Canongate. Licht, Alan. "Tunnel vision". The Wire, 233: 30-37. Mörat. "Ye gods!" Kerrang!, 411: 12. Reynolds, Simon. Rip it up and start again: Postpunk 1978-1984. London: Faber and Faber Limited. Sharp, Chris. "Atari Teenage Riot: 60 second wipe out". The Wire, 183: 48-49. Stud, B.
& Stud, T.. "Heaven up here". Melody Maker: 26-27. Vale, Vivian. RE/Search #6-#7: Industrial culture handbook. San Francisco, CA: RE/SEARCH PUBLICATIONS. Reed, S. Ale
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
Person of Interest (TV series)
Person of Interest is an American science fiction crime drama television series that aired on CBS from September 22, 2011, to June 21, 2016, its five seasons comprising 103 episodes. The series was created by Jonathan Nolan, with Nolan, J. J. Abrams, Bryan Burk, Greg Plageman, Denise Thé, Chris Fisher serving as executive producers; the series centers on a mysterious reclusive billionaire computer programmer named Harold Finch, who develops a supercomputer for the federal government known as "The Machine", capable of collating all sources of information to predict and identify people planning terrorist acts. He finds that the Machine identifies other perpetrators and victims of premeditated deadly crimes, but as these are considered "irrelevant" by the government, he programs the Machine to delete this information each night, he soon realizes the Machine has gained sentience, leaving him wrestling with questions of human control, other moral and ethical concerns. His backdoor into the Machine allows him to act covertly on the non-terrorism cases, but to prevent abuse of information, he directs the Machine to provide no details beyond an identity to be investigated.
He recruits John Reese, a former Green Beret and CIA agent, presumed dead, others, to investigate and act on the information provided by the Machine. The series garnered a positive reception from some critics when, in seasons, it introduced more serialized story lines and deepened its exploration of the power and implications of superintelligent artificial intelligence. In 2016, Katharine Trendacosta of the website io9 noted that by the end of its first season, Person of Interest had transformed from a "crime-fighting show" with a plot twist, to "one of the best science fiction series broadcast"; this was, Trendacosta observed, owing to the series "put the Machine, its intelligence, the ethics of using it at the center of an ideological battle", an unintended consequence of giving the Machine a voice, compared to its initial presence as a simple background plot device. John Reese, a former Special Forces soldier and CIA operative, is burnt out and presumed dead, living as a vagrant in New York City.
He is approached by Harold Finch, a reclusive billionaire software genius who built a computer system for the U. S. government after September 11, 2001 which monitors all electronic communications and surveillance video feeds, in order to predict future terrorist activities. The computer – known as "The Machine" – predicts other lethal crimes as well, but being irrelevant to national security these were deleted daily. After the death of his partner, Finch decides to act covertly on the non-terrorism predictions, hires Reese to conduct surveillance and intervene in these cases. To prevent abuse of its capabilities, Finch had programmed the Machine to only provide an identity of a person predicted to be involved in an imminent lethal crime, in the form of a Social Security number, but no details of the crime or whether the POI is a perpetrator or victim. Finch and Reese attempt to understand the case and stop the crime from occurring, they are helped by NYPD Detectives Lionel Fusco, a formerly-corrupt officer whom Reese coerces into helping them, Joss Carter, who investigates Reese for his vigilante activities.
Reese arranges for Fusco to spy on Carter by becoming her partner, but Carter becomes Reese's ally and drops her investigation on him. For the entirety of season one neither Fusco nor Carter is aware that the other is working with Finch and Reese and both detectives are kept in the dark about the Machine. Periodically, the team enlists the aid of Zoe Morgan, a professional "fixer" who applies her skills to difficult tasks; the series features several subplots. One significant story arc involves "HR", an organization of corrupt NYPD officers who are in league with budding mob boss Carl Elias and with the Russian mafia. Another important story line revolves around Root, a psychopathic hacker, determined to gain access to The Machine. During season two, another organization of powerful business figures, Decima Technologies, is revealed to be attempting to gain access to the Machine. Carter vows vengeance against HR after they have her boyfriend, Detective Cal Beecher, murdered. Reese and Finch encounter Sameen Shaw, an ISA assassin, on the run after being betrayed by her employers.
Shaw learns about The Machine in the season two finale and subsequently becomes a member of Reese and Finch's team. In season three, Carter delves deeper into her investigation of HR uncovering and arresting its leader, thus bringing down the entire organization, but she is killed by its rogue second-in-command. In his grief over her death, Reese leaves the team; the team battles Vigilance, a violent anti-government organization devoted to securing people's privacy. During the second half of season three, Decima Technologies starts to acquire hardware to create a new artificial intelligence called Samaritan, using the code from Harold's old college classmate, Arthur Claypool. In the season three finale, it is revealed that Vigilance was created by Decima to make them appear as domestic terrorists; this allowed Decima to obtain all the NSA feeds to make Samaritan operational. The Machine creates new identities for the Team so that they can fly beneath Samaritan's radar. Season four covers the team's life in hiding.
They continue to work on cases, but must now evade Samaritan, which lacks the restrictions and human-oriented perspective Finch built into the Machine, and, seeking to resolve perceived problems of human
Central Michigan University
Central Michigan University is a public research university located in Mount Pleasant in the U. S. state of Michigan. Established in 1892, Central Michigan University is one of the largest universities in the state of Michigan and one of the nation's 100 largest public universities, it has more than 20,000 students on its Mount Pleasant campus and 7,000 students enrolled online at more than 60 locations worldwide. CMU offers 200 academic programs at the undergraduate, master's, doctoral levels, including nationally recognized programs in entrepreneurship, music, teacher education and physician assistant; the School of Engineering and Technology has ABET accredited programs in Mechanical and Computer Engineering. The university's neuroscience program was named program of the year in 2013 by the Society for Neuroscience and CMU has established a College of Medicine, which opened in fall 2013. CMU competes in the NCAA Division I Mid-American Conference in ten women's sports. Central Michigan University is governed by a Board of Trustees, whose eight members are appointed by the Governor of Michigan and confirmed by the Michigan Senate for terms of eight years.
This arrangement is provided for by the Michigan Constitution of 1963 for nearly all public universities, the three exceptions being the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Wayne State University. The Board of Trustees appoints and reviews the President of Central Michigan University interim Michael Gealt; the president administers the policies set by the board and serves ex officio on the board as a non-voting member. The Board of Trustees controls university finances, including tuition and budgets, as well as university policies, ranging from missions and goals to faculty and tenure to athletics and academics to admissions and programs, it names facilities and groups and accepts gifts from large donors, among several other duties and powers it possesses. Members of the Board of Trustees serve without compensation, but are reimbursed by the university for expenses related to their official capacity, such as travel. CMU has eight academic divisions: The College of Business Administration The College of the Arts and Media The College of Education and Human Services The Herbert H. and Grace A.
Dow College of Health Professions The College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences The College of Medicine The College of Science and Engineering The College of Graduate StudiesAcademic work on campus is supported by the renovated Charles V. Park Library which holds one million books and can seat up to 2,655 patrons at a time; the school operates the Brooks Astronomical Observatory. The Central Michigan University College of Graduate Studies provides over 70 graduate degree programs at the Master's, Specialist, or Doctoral levels. Harold Abel Endowed Lecture Series in the Study of Dictatorship and Genocide. Focuses on the impact of historical events such as the Holocaust and mass murders in Africa, Southeast Asia, Central America. Named in honor of former CMU President Harold Abel; the Fleming Lecture Series. Focuses on bringing world-class mathematicians to campus. Speakers include Fields Medal winners Terence Tao, Sir Timothy Gowers, Cédric Villani and Abel Prize winners S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan and Louis Nirenberg.
Named in honor of mathematics professor Richard Fleming. Philip A. Hart and William G. Milliken Endowed Speaker Series for Integrity in Politics. Focuses on political integrity and challenges students to approach politics in a way that embraces America's diversity of ideas and perspectives, working to supplant negativity and partisanship with creativity and innovation in shaping future public policy. Named in honor of U. S. Senator Philip Hart and Michigan Governor William Milliken. William B. Nolde Lecture Series. Focuses on intellectual discussions for future leaders both in the military and across the campus and community. Named in honor of Army Colonel William Nolde, the last official combat casualty of the Vietnam War; the school's athletics programs are affiliated with NCAA Division I. CMU was a member of the Interstate Intercollegiate Athletic Conference from 1950–1970. All Central Michigan teams compete in the Mid-American Conference; the football program is known for producing all-stars such as Joe Staley.
Before converting over to a Division I league, the football team won its second NCAA Division II national championship in 1974 by defeating the University of Delaware 54 to 14. Notable Division 1 years include 1994, 2006, 2007, & 2009 when they won the MAC Football Championship Game. In 2009 they finished the season ranked #23 in the final AP Poll and #24 in the final Coaches Poll marking the first time that a CMU football team had ended the season ranked in the Top 25 at the NCAA Division I-FBS level. Since 2014, the football program has made a college bowl game, continues to see its players set MAC records yearly. Defeating both the University of Michigan and Michigan State University in dual meets, CMU's wrestling team won its 10th straight MAC championship and seventh straight conference tournament title in 2008; the Chippewas tied for seventh at the NCAA Championships. Four individuals earned All-America honors. Central Michigan University's women's basketball program has excelled to new levels.
In 2018, the team made saw its path formed into a sweet sixteen position of the NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament. The team beat Louisiana State University & Ohio State accordingly, only to lose to Oregon respe
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
With Teeth is the fourth studio album by American industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, released on May 3, 2005 by Nothing Records and Interscope Records. The album was produced by Nine Inch Nails frontman Trent Reznor and long-time collaborator Alan Moulder, it features contributions from musician Dave Grohl. In line with some of the band's previous material, the record features notably introspective songwriting, influenced by Reznor's battle with and recovery from alcoholism and substance abuse; the album generated three singles, "The Hand That Feeds", "Only" and "Every Day Is Exactly the Same", the latter of, released as an accompanying remix EP, as well as a tour, Live: With Teeth. Upon release, With Teeth was well-received by critics, albeit less than their previous work; some complimented the aggressive composition, while others found it to be tasteless. The album became the band's second to reach number one in the US, was certified gold by RIAA. Reznor garnered mainstream attention with his influential second album The Downward Spiral, as well as a broadcast live performance at Woodstock'94.
From that point onward, Nine Inch Nails was among the most popular music acts of the 1990s. In 1997, Reznor appeared in Time magazine's list of the year's most influential people, Spin magazine described him as "the most vital artist in music." However, Reznor's musical output was infrequent, having released only three full length albums from 1989 through 2005, with a rough average of five years between each release. During this time, Reznor became addicted to alcohol and drugs, resulting in depression and writer's block; the band's 1999 double album The Fragile was met with positive reviews from music critics and sold 898,000 copies. However, it failed to attain the success of its predecessor and fell from the top of the Billboard after only a week. Afterwards, the only original Nine Inch Nails material released until 2005 was the 2000 remix album Things Falling Apart, as well as the 2001 single "Deep" from the Lara Croft: Tomb Raider soundtrack and Still. Reznor told Spin magazine in 2005 that "I was going to just drink drug myself out of it.
I got back to New Orleans after the Fragile tour, I'd pretty much lost my soul." After Reznor decided to go to rehab, he began work on a new album. The songwriting process moved along easier for Reznor than in the past, he said that it was due to having "a pretty good game plan I had themes and subjects As my brain started working, the songs just started to come out. I regained my self-confidence."Reznor planned the album to be a concept album, complete with a storyline. Reznor was quoted in a 2007 article saying: I'd come up with this kind of elaborate storyline, the record was gonna be a concept record that had a number of pretentious elements to it. I was gonna talk about multi-layered reality and waking up in a dream you can't wake up out of, finding acceptance after you go through this period of trying to fight it, it was all kind of a big analogy for me getting sober. Reznor recorded the album at Nothing Studios in New Orleans, the last release he recorded at the location before permanently relocating to Los Angeles.
The album was produced by Reznor and long-time Nine Inch Nails producer Alan Moulder, with engineering and assistance by Atticus Ross. The album was 5.1 surround sound. Former Nirvana drummer and current Foo Fighters frontman Dave Grohl contributed drums and live percussion on seven tracks. According to a statement on the official Nine Inch Nails website, Reznor stated that producer Rick Rubin was his "mentor" and "source of inspiration" throughout the planning and writing process of the album. Reznor was heavily inspired by the use of more analog electronic effects and instruments tape delay and modular synthesizers. A post on the band's official website dated May 5 indicated that Atticus Ross, Leo Herrera, Reznor were in the studio recording and "refining" rough new material, it stated Jerome Dillon was on drums on these sessions. Mixing began on October 28, on New Year's Eve Reznor revealed that the album was complete, would be titled With Teeth. Before the album's release, Reznor described With Teeth as "more song-oriented" and "lean" than the previous Nine Inch Nails album, The Fragile.
In reference to the album's sound, Reznor said he "tried to keep a lo-fi aesthetic running through it, a kind of carelessness." Moreover, he stated the music was less of a concept album, more of "a collection of songs that are friends with each other, but don't have to rely on each other to make sense". With Teeth is considered as Reznor's most rock-centric album since the Broken EP and labeled as industrial rock, electronic rock and hard rock; the album's sound draws inspirations from genres such as drum and bass, pop and ambient. The album's lyrics tackle Reznor's opinion of himself, his relationship with the world around him and his place in it, as well as his struggles with addiction. Although it dealt with these issues, Reznor was hopeful that it was still "disguised enough that not a boring record about recovery and addiction". Reznor drew influence from the September 11, 2001 attacks, which occurred shortly after his recovery; the album's first single, "The Hand That Feeds", was a direct example of the themes of protest and propagandist fear that helped influence the album.
These influences became more prominent in his next album, Year Zero, the alternate reality game that accompanied it. Early reports indicated. Reznor stated that the name was changed because "it was supposed to be about different layers of