The Defiant Ones

The Defiant Ones is a 1958 adventure drama film which tells the story of two escaped prisoners, one white and one black, who are shackled together and who must co-operate in order to survive. It stars Sidney Poitier; the film was adapted by Harold Jacob Smith from the story by Nedrick Young credited as Nathan E. Douglas, it was directed by Stanley Kramer. The film was regarded at the time of its release. Poitier won the Silver Bear for Best Actor at the Berlin International Film Festival. One night in the American South, a truck loaded with prisoners in the back swerves to miss another truck and crashes through a barrier; the rescuers clear up the debris and cover the men killed, two are missing: a black man shackled to a white man, because "the warden had a sense of humor." They are told not to look too hard as "they will kill each other in the first five miles." A large posse and many bloodhounds are dispatched the next morning to find them. The two missing men are the white John "Joker" Jackson.

Despite their mutual hatred, they are forced to cooperate. At first their cooperation is motivated by self-preservation but they begin to respect and like each other. Cullen and Joker flee through difficult terrain and weather, with a brief stop at a turpentine camp where they attempt to break into a general store, in hopes of obtaining food and tools to break the chain that holds them together. Instead, they are captured by the inhabitants, who form a lynch mob. Sam persuades the onlookers to lock the convicts up and turn them in the next morning, but that night, he secretly releases them, after revealing to them that he is a former chain-gang prisoner, they run into a young boy named Billy. They make him take them to his mother, whose husband has abandoned his family; the escapees are able to break their chains. When they spend the night there, the lonely woman is attracted to Joker and wants to run off with him, she advises Cullen to go through the swamp to reach the railroad tracks, while she and Joker drive off in her car.

The men agree to split up. However, after Cullen leaves, the woman reveals that she had lied — she sent Cullen into the dangerous swamp to die to eliminate any chance he would be captured and reveal where Joker had gone. Furious, Joker runs after his friend. Wounded, Joker warns him about the swamp; as the posse led by humane Sheriff Max Muller gets close, the escapees can hear the dogs on their trail. They hear a train whistle and run toward it. Cullen jumps aboard. In this pivotal scene, Joker is running alongside trying to catch up. Cullen calls to Joker, urging him to run faster, holds out his hand for Joker to catch hold, they are so close. Their fingers touch, trying to catch a grip, but are unable to do so. Cullen will not leave his friend; as Joker falters, weakened from loss of blood and pain, Cullen abandons hope of escape and jumps from the train. Both men tumble to the ground. Too exhausted to run, they realize; the sheriff finds Joker lying in his arms. Sidney Poitier as Noah Cullen Tony Curtis as John “Joker” Jackson Theodore Bikel as Sheriff Max Muller Charles McGraw as Captain Frank Gibbons Lon Chaney Jr. as Big Sam King Donovan as Solly Claude Akins as Mack Lawrence Dobkin as Editor Whit Bissell as Lou Gans Carl "Alfalfa" Switzer as Angus Kevin Coughlin as Billy Cara Williams as Billy's mother Robert Mitchum, a veteran of a Southern chain gang, turned down the role of Jackson because blacks and whites would never be chained together in the segregated South.

The story was corrupted into the claim - repeated by Curtis and others - that Mitchum refused to work with a black man. Kramer wrote that Poitier was unsure of Curtis' casting but became supportive. Curtis, denied this. However, despite Curtis' many claims and stories, Kramer had cast Poitier and Marlon Brando as the two leads when a previous contractual obligation prevented Poitier from being able to accept the role. Kramer wanted Poitier for the role so badly that he delayed the film's production, which led to Brando having to decline because the delay caused shooting to overlap with another obligation he had. Curtis was cast afterwards. Curtis did request Poitier's name appear with his above the movie title marking a first for Poitier in his career. Carl "Alfalfa" Switzer, of the Our Gang comedies, has a small role, it was his last before his death. The film earned rentals of $2.5 million in the United States and Canada but did not perform as well overseas but made a profit of $1 million. When the film was first released, Bosley Crowther, film critic for The New York Times, lauded the production and the acting in the film, writing, "A remarkably apt and dramatic visualization of a social idea—the idea of men of different races brought together to face misfortune in a bond of brotherhood—is achieved by producer Stanley Kramer in his new film, The Defiant Ones...

Between the two principal performers there isn't much room for a choice. Mr. Poitier stands out as the Negro convict and Mr. Curtis is goo

Jan Benzien

Jan Benzien is a German slalom canoeist who has competed at the international level since 1999. Benzien started out as a C1 paddler. Since 2012 he has been competing in C2, teaming up with Franz Anton, he won eleven medals at the ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships with two golds, eight silvers, a bronze. He won additional 16 medals at the European Championships. Benzien competed at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. In the C1 event, he finished second in the qualification round. In the semifinals, Benzien finished twelfth, failing to reach the final round. At the 2016 Summer Olympics, he placed fourth in the C2 event, together with teammate Franz Anton. Benzien serves with the German Army and has a degree in sport management from the Vocational Academy of Riesa, he is married to the Olympic canoeist Mandy Planert. In 2014, he launched a canoe rental company in Leipzig. 13 September 2009 final results of the men's C1 event at the 2009 ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships. – accessed 13 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine "2010 ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships 12 September 2010 C1 men's team final results – accessed 12 September 2010".

Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2010. "ICF medalists for Olympic and World Championships – Part 2: rest of flatwater and remaining canoeing disciplines: 1936–2007". Archived from the original on 9 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2019. Official website Jan Benzien at the International Olympic Committee Jan Benzien at the Olympic Channel Jan Benzien at the Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund


Elathalam, or Ilathalam, is a metallic musical instrument which resembles a miniature pair of cymbals. This instrument from Kerala and Tamil Nadu in southern India is made out of bronze and has two pieces in it. Elathalam is played by keeping one part of the cymbal in left hand banging the other cymbal to the one in left hand. Though this instrument is small by size, it does have more thickness than the common cymbal, thus gives a distinct chime. Elathalam is never a lead instrument but is used in a number of ethnic Kerala percussion ensembles like Panchavadyam, Chenda melam and Kailaya vathiyam besides by second singer on a Kathakali stage besides providing the beat in Kuzhal Pattu and Kombu Pattu. Leading elathalam masters of the present day include:Cheriyath Thanku Marar, Chelakkara Unnikrishnan, Maniyamparambil Mani, Kothachira Sekharan Nair, Chengamanad Paramu Nair, Pallavur Raghava Pisharody, Pookottur Sasidharan, Guruvayur Velutty and Peruvanam Murali, Ajith marar, panjal velukutty, Venu Bharanganam, Hari Thalanadu, Azhakam Ajayan, mani kenoor Pandi Melam Panchari melam Thayambaka Panchavadyam