Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S
Paul Francis Conrad was an American political cartoonist and winner of three Pulitzer Prizes for editorial cartooning. In the span of a career lasting five decades, Conrad provided a critical perspective on eleven presidential administrations in the United States, he is best known for his work as the chief editorial cartoonist for the Los Angeles Times during a time when the newspaper was in transition under the direction of publisher Otis Chandler, who recruited Conrad from the Denver Post. At the conservative Times, Conrad brought a more liberal editorial perspective that readers both celebrated and criticized, he was respected for his talent and courage to speak truth to power. On a weekly basis, Conrad addressed the social justice issues of the day: poverty in America, movements for civil rights, the Vietnam War, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and corporate/political corruption were leading topics, his criticism of president Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal landed Conrad on Nixon's Enemies List, which Conrad regarded as a badge of honor.
Conrad was born to Florence Conrad. He was raised in a conservative, Catholic family with his identical twin brother James and older brother Bob in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, he attended St. Augustin Elementary School in Des Moines, where he first began to show interest in art by writing on the bathroom wall, he was forced by teachers to favor his right hand. Up until the age of 12, Conrad stuttered. At an early age, Conrad was exposed to the work of Jay Norwood Darling, more popularly known as "Ding Darling", whose conservative cartoons were featured in local newspapers and who became a "childhood role model" for Conrad. After graduating Roosevelt High School, he and his brother spent time working construction jobs in Valdez, Alaska. Conrad honed his talent as a musician while playing piano in a bordello. With World War II raging and his brother enlisted; because of his poor eyesight, Conrad was found to be unfit for military service, but he served as a truck driver with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers in the Pacific Theater of Operations at Guam and Okinawa, where he was given the nickname of "Con".
He planned to attend Iowa State University after the war in 1945, but instead taught himself to play bass and joined a big band. When the band did not work out, Conrad enrolled at the University of Iowa in 1946, where he studied art, he first got the idea to become a cartoonist while hanging out at a local bar in Iowa City. At the bar, his friend Charlie Carroll the editor for the school's newspaper, the Daily Iowan, told Conrad that they needed a cartoonist, he invited Conrad to give it a try. One of his first cartoons for the Daily Iowan depicted Herbert Hoover, the 31st President of the United States. Conrad was soon creating six cartoons a week. Impressed with Conrad's cartoons, his professors sent the Denver Post copies of his work. After graduating from the University of Iowa with a degree in art in 1950, Conrad joined the Denver Post, where he drew cartoons for the next 14 years. Early in his career, Conrad sought out the retired Ding Darling in Florida for advice, showed him copies of his work from the Daily Iowan.
Unimpressed, Ding told Conrad to "get into another line of work". This discouragement from his childhood role model pushed Conrad to work harder at the Post. At the newspaper he received support and encouragement from his editor, Palmer Hoyt, although he ran into trouble when he attracted attention for creating critical, unflattering cartoons of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the 34th President of the United States. In 1960, Time magazine recognized Conrad's talent, saying that he was "probably the nation's hottest new cartooning property". Conrad received the Pulitzer Prize for editorial cartooning in 1964, his cartoons for the Post were distributed through the Register and Tribune Syndicate in 81 newspapers. In December 1963, lead cartoonist Bruce Russell of the Los Angeles Times died of a heart attack. Russell had worked for the conservative paper since 1927. Publisher Otis Chandler, in an attempt to replace Russell and to improve the reputation of the Times, recruited Paul Conrad with the help of editor Nick Boddie Williams.
Conrad took the offer of an initial three-year contract and was replaced at the Post in August 1964 by Australian cartoonist Pat Oliphant from the Adelaide Advertiser. Conrad lectured at the Denver Art Museum in 1964 under a sponsorship from the Cooke-Daniels Lecture Fund. Conrad moved his family to southern California, for three decades, from 1964 to 1993, he worked as the chief editorial cartoonist for the Los Angeles Times, his cartoons were now syndicated to hundreds of newspapers worldwide. In April 1967, Conrad drew the cover for Time magazine in an issue about the potential candidates for the 1968 United States presidential election; the cover art depicts the upcoming election as a horse race with the candidates as jockey's weighing-in. Caricatures of Lyndon B. Johnson, Bobby Kennedy, Hubert Humphrey, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, George Romney, Nelson Rockefeller, Charles Percy grace the cover. During the Watergate scandal, Conrad drew numerous cartoons about Richard Nixon's downfall. One cartoon showed Nixon, during his last days as president.
Conrad described the cartoon as one of his all-time favorites. In 1973, the Associated Press contacted Conrad to inform him that he had been added to Nixon's Enemies List. Unperturbed, Conrad considered his place on this list as a badge of honor, but members of the list were exposed to greater scrutiny by the government and subject to investigation, his tax returns were subsequently audited by the IRS several times. Conrad a
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
The Oregonian is a daily newspaper based in Portland, United States, owned by Advance Publications. It is the oldest continuously published newspaper on the U. S. west coast, founded as a weekly by Thomas J. Dryer on December 4, 1850, published daily since 1861, it is the largest newspaper in Oregon and the second largest in the Pacific Northwest by circulation. It is one of the few newspapers with a statewide focus in the United States; the Sunday edition is published under the title The Sunday Oregonian. The regular edition was published under the title The Morning Oregonian from 1861 until 1937; the Oregonian received the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service, the only gold medal annually awarded by the organization. The paper's staff or individual writers have received seven other Pulitzer Prizes, most the award for Editorial Writing in 2014; the Oregonian is home-delivered throughout Multnomah, Washington and Yamhill counties in Oregon and Clark County, Washington four days a week. Although some independent dealers do deliver the newspaper outside that area, in 2006 it ceased to be available in far eastern Oregon and the southern Oregon Coast and, starting in December 2008, "increasing newsprint and distribution costs" caused the paper to stop delivery to all areas south of Albany.
One year prior to the incorporation of the tiny town of Portland, Oregon, in 1851, prospective leaders of the new community determined to establish a local newspaper—an institution, seen as a prerequisite for urban growth. Chief among these pioneer community organizers seeking establishment of a Portland press were Col. W. W. Chapman and prominent local businessman Henry W. Corbett. In the fall of 1850 Chapman and Corbett traveled to San Francisco, at the time far and away the largest city on the West Coast of the United States, in search of an editor interested in and capable of producing a weekly newspaper in Portland. There the pair met Thomas J. Dryer, a transplanted New Yorker, an energetic writer with both printing equipment and previous experience in the production of a small circulation community newspaper in his native Ulster County, New York. Dryer's press was transported to Portland and it was there on December 4, 1850 that the first issue of The Weekly Oregonian found its readers.
Each weekly issue consisted of four pages, printed six columns wide. Little attention was paid to current news events, with the bulk of the paper's content devoted to political themes and biographical commentary; the paper took a staunch political line supportive of the Whig Party—an orientation which soon brought it into conflict with The Statesman, a Democratic paper launched at Oregon City not long after The Weekly Oregonian's debut. A loud and bitter rivalry between the competing news organs ensued. Henry Pittock became the owner in 1861 as compensation for unpaid wages, he began publishing the paper daily, except Sundays. Pittock's goal was to focus more on news than the bully pulpit established by Dryer, he ordered a new press in December 1860 and arranged for the news to be sent by telegraph to Redding, California by stagecoach to Jacksonville, by pony express to Portland. From 1866 to 1872 Harvey W. Scott was the editor. Henry W. Corbett bought the paper from a cash-poor Pittock in October 1872 and placed William Lair Hill as editor.
Scott, fired by Corbett for supporting Ben Holladay's candidates, became editor of Holladay's rival Bulletin newspaper. The paper went bankrupt around 1874. Corbett sold The Oregonian back to Pittock in 1877, marking a return of Scott to the paper's editorial helm. A part-owner of the paper, Scott would remain as editor-in-chief until shortly before his death in 1910. One of the journalists who began his career on The Oregonian during this time period was James J. Montague who took over and wrote the column "Slings & Arrows" until he was hired away by William Randolph Hearst in 1902. In 1881, the first Sunday Oregonian was published; the paper became known as the voice of business-oriented Republicans, as evidenced by consistent endorsement of Republican candidates for president in every federal election before 1992. The paper's offices and presses were housed in a two-story building at the intersection of First Street and Morrison Street, but in 1892 the paper moved into a new nine-story building at 6th and Alder streets.
The new building was, the same as its predecessor, called the Oregonian Building. It included a clock tower at one corner, the building's overall height of 194 to 196 feet made it the tallest structure in Portland, a distinction it retained until the completion of the Yeon Building in 1911, it contained about 100,000 square feet of floor space, including the basement but not the tower. The newspaper did not move again until 1948; the 1892 building was demolished in 1950. Following the death of Harvey Scott in 1910, the paper's editor-in-chief was Edgar B. Piper, managing editor. Piper remained editor until his death in 1928. In 1922, The Morning Oregonian launched Oregon's first commercial radio station. Five years KGW affiliated with NBC; the newspaper purchased a second station, KEX, in 1933, from NBC subsidiary Northwest Broadcasting Co. In 1944, KEX was sold to Inc.. The Oregonian launched KGW-FM, the Northwest's first FM station, in 1946, known today as KKRZ. KGW and KGW-FM were sold to King Broadcasting Co in 1953.
In 1937, The Morning Oregonian shortened its name to The Oregonian. Two years associate editor Ronald G. Callvert rec
Samuel Irving Newhouse Sr.
Samuel Irving Newhouse Sr. was an American broadcasting businessman and newspaper publisher. He was the founder of Advance Publications. Newhouse was born Solomon Isadore Neuhaus in a tenement on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, the eldest of eight children born to Jewish immigrants, his father, Meier Neuhaus, was an immigrant from Belarus. Meier Neuhaus Americanized his name to Meyer Newhouse. Although his father had studied to become a rabbi, he was unskilled and only worked due to poor health; the family moved to Bayonne, New Jersey where his mother supported the family by peddling linens and in 1908, his father abandoned the family for health reasons to live with his sister in Connecticut. Newhouse quit school and enrolled in a six-week bookkeeping course at the Gaffrey School in Manhattan which enabled him to secure a job as an office boy working for Hyman Lazarus, a lawyer, police court judge, politician in Bayonne. At age sixteen, he was promoted to office manager of Lazarus' law firm.
Noting Newhouse's work ethic and enthusiasm, Lazarus tasked Newhouse to manage the money-losing Bayonne Times allowing Newhouse to keep half of the profits if successful. Newhouse determined that the paper was not earning enough fees from advertisements and solicited new customers while assisting them in planning the timing of store sales; the paper returned to profitability and he received a 20 percent ownership interest as payment. He decided to attend law school in the evenings and in 1916, he graduated from the New Jersey Law School in Newark, New Jersey, his career in the practice of law was short-lived: he was so humiliated after losing the one case he took to trial, he paid his client the full amount of the damages he had requested. Thanks to his support, Rutgers School of Law-Newark is presently housed in the S. I. Newhouse Center for Law and Justice. In 1922, taking all his personal savings and partnering Lazarus, he bought 51 percent of the Staten Island Advance for $98,000 and soon returned the paper to profitability.
In 1924, Lazarus died and he purchased Lazarus' share from his widow as well as the 49 percent that he did not own. Newhouse had found his calling and began to expand his empire purchasing and returning to profitability numerous papers. Newhouse focused on purchasing bargain-priced papers in growing communities, he acquired a city's oldest newspaper and purchase the city's second newspaper thereby allowing him to set advertising rates. Although he promised to keep both papers in business and in competition, he merged the two closing the afternoon paper and keeping the morning establishing a monopoly and using the profits to purchase additional newspapers. Newhouse ran his various interests out of a brown leather briefcase and kept its figures in his head as they grew into an empire of 20 newspapers, as well as numerous magazines, radio stations and television stations, he never had. 1932: Long Island Daily Press 1935: Newark Ledger 1939: Newark Star Eagle merged with Newark Ledger to form the Newark Star-Ledger 1939: Syracuse Herald and Syracuse Journal 1941: Syracuse Post-Standard 1945: Jersey Journal 1948: Harrisburg News, the first paper in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
1949: Advance Publications Inc. formed as the primary holding company for all his newspaper assets. 1950: Portland Oregonian 1955: The Birmingham News, The Huntsville Times and the St. Louis Globe-Democrat 1959: Condé Nast Publications purchased for $5 million at the suggestion of his wife. According to Newhouse, "She asked for a fashion magazine and I went out and got her Vogue." Condé Nast published Glamour, House & Garden, Young Bride. He soon purchased another magazine publisher, Street & Smith and merged it with Condé Nast, becoming a major magazine publisher. 1961: Oregon Journal 1962: Times-Picayune and States-Item, both in New Orleans, Louisiana 1967: Cleveland Plain Dealer 1976: he purchased Booth Newspapers for $305 million, a chain of eight dailies in Michigan as well as the Sunday supplement Parade. He was married to arts patron and philanthropist Mitzi Epstein, who grew up in an upper middle class, Jewish family on the Upper West Side, the daughter of a silk tie importer, they had two sons, Samuel Irving Newhouse Jr. known as Si Newhouse, chairman and CEO of Advance, Donald Newhouse, president of Advance.
Samuel Newhouse resided in Manhattan for much of his life. His great-grandson, S. I. Newhouse IV, is featured in a documentary called Born Rich about the experience of growing up as the heir to one of the world's greatest fortunes. In 1942, he bought a working farm of 143 acres in Harbourton, Mercer County, New Jersey. In his published memoir, A Memo to my Children, he documented his strained relationship with his two sons. Newhouse died in 1979, aged 84, in New York
Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography
The Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography is one of the American Pulitzer Prizes annually awarded for journalism. It recognizes a distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence or an album; the Feature Photography prize was inaugurated in 1968 when the single Pulitzer Prize for Photography was replaced by the Feature prize and "Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography", renamed for "Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Photography" in 2000. One Feature Photography Pulitzer has been awarded annually from 1968 without exception. 1968: Toshio Sakai, United Press International, "for his Vietnam War combat photograph,'Dreams of Better Times'." 1969: Moneta Sleet Jr. of Ebony magazine, "for his photograph of Martin Luther King Jr.'s widow and child, taken at Dr. King's funeral." 1970: Dallas Kinney, Palm Beach Post, "for his portfolio of pictures of Florida migrant workers,'Migration to Misery'." 1971: Jack Dykinga, Chicago Sun-Times, "for his dramatic and sensitive photographs at the Lincoln and Dixon State Schools for the Retarded in Illinois."
1972: David Hume Kennerly, United Press International, "for his dramatic photographs of the Vietnam War in 1971." 1973: Brian Lanker, Topeka Capital-Journal, "for his sequence on child birth, as exemplified by his photograph,'Moment of Life'." 1974: Slava Veder, Associated Press, "for his picture Burst of Joy, which illustrated the return of an American prisoner of war from captivity in North Vietnam." 1975: Matthew Lewis, Washington Post, "for his photographs in color and black and white." 1976: Photographic staff of the Louisville Courier-Journal and Times, "for a comprehensive pictorial report on busing in Louisville's schools." 1977: Robin Hood, Chattanooga News-Free Press, "for his photograph of a disabled veteran and his child at an Armed Forces Day parade." 1978: J. Ross Baughman, Associated Press, "for three photographs from guerrilla areas in Rhodesia." 1979: Staff photographers of the Boston Herald American, "for photographic coverage of the blizzard of 1978." 1980: Erwin H. Hagler, Dallas Times Herald, "for a series on the Western cowboy."
1981: Taro Yamasaki, Detroit Free Press, "for his photographs of Jackson State Prison, Michigan." 1982: John H. White, Chicago Sun-Times, "for excellent work on a variety of subjects." 1983: James B. Dickman, Dallas Times Herald, "for his telling photographs of life and death in El Salvador." 1984: Anthony Suau, The Denver Post, "for a series of photographs which depict the tragic effects of starvation in Ethiopia and for a single photograph of a woman at her husband's gravesite on Memorial Day." 1985: Stan Grossfeld, Boston Globe, "for his series of photographs of the famine in Ethiopia and for his pictures of illegal aliens on the U. S.-Mexico border." 1986: Tom Gralish, The Philadelphia Inquirer, "for his series of photographs of Philadelphia's homeless." 1987: David C. Peterson, Des Moines Register, "for his photographs depicting the shattered dreams of American farmers." 1988: Michel du Cille, Miami Herald, "for photographs portraying the decay and subsequent rehabilitation of a housing project overrun by the drug crack."
1989: Manny Crisostomo, Detroit Free Press, "for his series of photographs depicting student life at Southwestern High School in Detroit." 1990: David C. Turnley, Detroit Free Press, "for photographs of the political uprisings in China and Eastern Europe." 1991: William Snyder, The Dallas Morning News, "for his photographs of ill and orphaned children living in subhuman conditions in Romania." 1992: John Kaplan, Block Newspapers, Ohio, "for his photographs depicting the diverse lifestyles of seven 21-year-olds across the United States." 1993: Staff of Associated Press, "for its portfolio of images drawn from the 1992 presidential campaign." 1994: Kevin Carter, a free-lance photographer, "for a picture first published in The New York Times of a starving Sudanese girl who collapsed on her way to a feeding center while a vulture waited nearby." 1995: Staff of Associated Press, "for its portfolio of photographs chronicling the horror and devastation in Rwanda." 1996: Stephanie Welsh, "a free-lancer, for her shocking sequence of photos, published by Newhouse News Service, of a female genital cutting rite in Kenya."
1997: Alexander Zemlianichenko, Associated Press, "for his photograph of Russian President Boris Yeltsin dancing at a rock concert during his campaign for re-election. This was nominated in the Spot News Photography section, but was moved by the board to Feature Photography." 1998: Clarence Williams, Los Angeles Times, "for his powerful images documenting the plight of young children with parents addicted to alcohol and drugs." 1999: Staff of Associated Press, "for its striking collection of photographs of the key players and events stemming from President Clinton's affair with Monica Lewinsky and the ensuing impeachment hearings." 2000: Carol Guzy, Michael Williamson and Lucian Perkins, Washington Post, "for their intimate and poignant images depicting the plight of the Kosovo refugees." 2001: Matt Rainey, Star-Ledger, "for his emotional photographs that illustrate the care and recovery of two students critically burned in a dormitory fire at Seton Hall University." 2002: The New York Times staff, "for its photographs chronicling the pain and the perseverance of people enduring protracted conflict in Afghanistan and Pakistan."
2003: Don Bartletti, Los Angeles Times, "for his memorable portrayal of how undocumented Central American youths facing deadly danger, travel north to the United States." 2004: Carolyn Cole, Los Angeles Times, "for her cohesive, behind-the-scenes look at the effects of civil war in Liberia, with special attention to innocent citizens caught in the conflict." 2005: Deanne Fitzmaurice, San Francisco Chronicle
Helen Gilmer Bonfils was an American heiress, theatrical producer, newspaper executive, philanthropist. She acted in local theatre in Denver, on Broadway, co-produced plays in Denver, New York City, London, she succeeded her father, Frederick Gilmer Bonfils, as manager of The Denver Post in 1933, became president of the company. Lacking heirs, she invested her fortune into providing for the city of Denver and the state of Colorado, supporting the Belle Bonfils Blood Bank, the Bonfils Memorial Theatre, the University of Denver, the Denver Zoo, the Dumb Friends League and synagogues, her estate endowed the Denver Center for the Performing Arts. She was posthumously inducted into the Colorado Women's Hall of Fame in 1985 and the Colorado Performing Arts Hall of Fame in 1999. Helen Gilmer Bonfils was born in Peekskill, New York to American newspaper publisher Frederick Gilmer Bonfils and his wife Belle Barton Bonfils, she and her older sister, Mary Madeline Bonfils, had a strict Catholic upbringing.
In 1894 the family moved to Kansas where Frederick ran legal lotteries, in 1895 to Denver, where Frederick and his partner Harry H. Tammen bought a newspaper that they renamed The Denver Post. In Denver, the Bonfils girls attended an elite private girls' school. Helen attended finishing school at the National Park Seminary in Maryland. Frederick kept a tight rein on his daughters, forbidding them to date and warning them that "the boys were only out for their money". Helen became the "favored daughter" after May eloped at age 21 with a non-Catholic salesman, a move that estranged May from her family for decades. Upon their father's death in 1933, who still lived at home, received $14 million from his estate, she received another $10 million bequest in 1935 upon the death of her mother, plus newspaper stock and possession of the family's Humboldt Street mansion. May received only a $25,000 annual allowance from a trust, sued her sister over her mother's estate. After a pitched, three-year legal battle, May was awarded $5 million cash from her mother's estate, some cash from her father's estate, 15% of the Denver Post stock, additional real estate.
The court case divided the sisters further and they cut off all communication with each other. In 1933 Bonfils assumed the management of The Denver Post and served as secretary-treasurer of the corporation, her flair for the theatrical extended to her ordering two dozen yellow roses to be placed in the lobby of The Denver Post to welcome her arrival. In 1934 she introduced a free summer series of Broadway plays and light opera staged outdoors at the Cheesman Park Pavilion under the auspices of The Denver Post. Starring Broadway performers in the lead roles and local players in lesser parts, these performances attracted up to 20,000 people per performance, were staged every year until Bonfil's death in 1972. In 1946 she hired Palmer Hoyt, to give the paper more journalistic integrity. In 1966 she became president of the paper and asked Donald Seawell, a theatrical producer whom she had met on Broadway, to move to Denver and become chairman and publisher. Bonfils' first love was the theatre, she acted with the Elitch Stock Theatre, helped organize and performed in the Civic Theatre at the University of Denver, performed at the Bonfils Memorial Theatre, acted on Broadway under the stage name Gertrude Barton.
With her first husband, George Somnes, she co-produced plays in Denver and in New York City through the Bonfils & Somnes Producing Co. Among their hit productions were The Greatest Show on Earth, in which Helen performed. After Somnes' death in 1956, Helen co-produced plays on Broadway and in London with actress Haila Stoddard and Donald Seawell under Bonard Productions, co-produced Broadway plays with Seawell under Bonfils-Seawell Enterprises; the latter partnership produced the successful Broadway musical Sail Away, The Hollow Crown, The Last Analysis, Sleuth, which won the 1971 Tony Award. Bonfils met English actor and theatrical producer George Somnes when he was hired by the Elitch Theatre in 1936, they married that year, when Bonfils was 47. The couple – always referred to as "Helen Bonfils and George Somnes" – bought a condominium at River House in New York City and resided in Denver at the Humboldt Street mansion. In 1948 Helen sold the mansion to the Conservative Baptist Theological Seminary and purchased the Wood–Morris–Bonfils House, a French Mediterranean Revival mansion at 707 Washington Street in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Denver.
The couple's amicable personal and professional partnership ended with Somnes' death in February 1956 due to liver failure. Craving companionship, Helen turned to Edward Michael "Tiger Mike" Davis, she married him in April 1959 at the age of 69. Bonfils sued for divorce in December 1971 after 12 years of marriage to preempt any claim Davis might have to her estate; the divorce was granted on the grounds of cruelty. Bonfils retained the rights to her name, Davis received the Wood–Morris–Bonfils House, $1.6 million in promissory notes, $50,000 cash. Lacking heirs, Bonfils invested her fortune into supporting culture, healthcare and humanitarian causes in Denver and the state of Colorado, she inherited the presidency of the philanthropic Frederick G. Bonfils Foundation after her father's death and between 1936 and 1973 distributed nearly $11 million; this included the Belle Bonfils Blood Bank, established in 1943 in memory of her mother. The blood bank became self-supporting.