Vilbrun Guillaume Sam
Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam was President of Haiti from 4 March to 27 July 1915. He was a cousin of Tirésias Simon Sam, Haiti's president from 1896 to 1902. Sam was the commander of Haiti's Northern Division when he led the revolt that brought President Cincinnatus Leconte to power, he headed the revolt that toppled President Oreste Zamor. Sam was proclaimed president when his predecessor, Joseph Davilmar Théodore, was forced to resign on 25 February 1915, when he was unable to pay the militiamen who had helped him overthrow Zamor; as the fifth president in five turbulent years, Sam was forced to contend with a revolt against his own regime, led by Dr. Rosalvo Bobo, who opposed the government's expanded commercial and strategic ties with the United States. Fearing that he would share the same fate as his predecessors, Sam acted harshly against his political opponents the better educated and wealthier mulatto population; the culmination of his repressive measures came on 27 July 1915, when he ordered the execution of 167 political prisoners, including former president Zamor, being held in a Port-au-Prince jail.
This infuriated the population, which rose up against Sam's government as soon as news of the executions reached them. Sam fled to the French embassy; the rebels' mulatto leaders found Sam. They dragged him out and beat him senseless threw his limp body over the embassy's iron fence to the waiting populace, who ripped his body to pieces and paraded the parts through the capital's neighborhoods. For the next two weeks, the country was in chaos. News of the murder soon reached. President Woodrow Wilson, wary about the turn of events in Haiti, the possibility that Bobo would take power, ordered American troops to seize the capital, claiming that the unrest might precipitate a German invasion of the country, they landed the next day, on 28 July, continued to occupy the country for nineteen years, until August 1934. His chief of police Charles Oscar Etienne, who cleaned out the jails by executing his political opponents, inspired the boogeymen Haitian carnival disguises known as "Chaloska". Eugene O'Neill stated that Sam was the inspiration for The Emperor Jones.
Sam is the main figure in Arthur J. Burks's short story, "Thus Spake the Prophetess". Sam appears as a supporting character in the 1993 Doctor Who novel White Darkness, set during his presidency; the novel takes several liberties with history, having Sam committing suicide rather than being murdered by the rebels as was the case
Honduras the Republic of Honduras, is a country in Central America. In the past, it was sometimes referred to as "Spanish Honduras" to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became modern-day Belize; the republic of Honduras is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Fonseca, to the north by the Gulf of Honduras, a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea. Honduras was home to several important Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya, before the Spanish invaded in the sixteenth century; the Spanish introduced Roman Catholicism and the now predominant Spanish language, along with numerous customs that have blended with the indigenous culture. Honduras became independent in 1821 and has since been a republic, although it has endured much social strife and political instability, remains one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere. In 1960, the northern part of what was the Mosquito Coast was transferred from Nicaragua to Honduras by the International Court of Justice.
The nation's economy is agricultural, making it vulnerable to natural disasters such as Hurricane Mitch in 1998. The lower class is agriculturally based while wealth is concentrated in the country's urban centers. Honduras has a Human Development Index of 0.625, classifying it as a nation with medium development. When the Index is adjusted for income inequality, its Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index is 0.443. Honduran society is predominantly Mestizo; the nation had a high political stability until its 2009 coup and again with the 2017 presidential election. Honduras has high levels of sexual violence. Honduras has a population exceeding 9 million, its northern portions are part of the Western Caribbean Zone, as reflected in the area's demographics and culture. Honduras is known for its rich natural resources, including minerals, tropical fruit, sugar cane, as well as for its growing textiles industry, which serves the international market; the literal meaning of the term "Honduras" is "depths" in Spanish.
The name could either refer to the bay of Trujillo as an anchorage, fondura in the Leonese dialect of Spanish, or to Columbus's alleged quote that "Gracias a Dios que hemos salido de esas Honduras". It was not until the end of the 16th century. Prior to 1580, Honduras referred to only the eastern part of the province, Higueras referred to the western part. Another early name is Guaymuras, revived as the name for the political dialogue in 2009 that took place in Honduras as opposed to Costa Rica. Hondurans are referred to as Catracho or Catracha in Spanish; the word was coined by Nicaraguans and derives from the last name of the Spanish Honduran General Florencio Xatruch, who in 1857 led Honduran armed forces against an attempted invasion by North American adventurer William Walker. The nickname is considered not derogatory. In pre-Columbian times, modern Honduras was part of the Mesoamerican cultural area. In the west, Mayan civilization flourished for hundreds of years; the dominant state within Honduras' borders was in Copán.
Copán fell with the other Lowland centres during the conflagrations of the Terminal Classic in the 9th century. The Maya of this civilization survive in western Honduras as the Ch'orti', isolated from their Choltian linguistic peers to the west. Remnants of other Pre-Columbian cultures are found throughout the country. Archaeologists have studied sites such as Naco and La Sierra in the Naco Valley, Los Naranjos on Lake Yojoa, Yarumela in the Comayagua Valley, La Ceiba and Salitron Viejo, Selin Farm and Cuyamel in the Aguan valley, Cerro Palenque, Curruste, Despoloncal in the lower Ulua river valley, many others. On his fourth and the final voyage to the New World in 1502, Christopher Columbus landed near the modern town of Trujillo, near Guaimoreto Lagoon, becoming the first European to visit the Bay Islands on the coast of Honduras. On 30 July 1502, Columbus sent his brother Bartholomew to explore the islands and Bartholomew encountered a Mayan trading vessel from Yucatán, carrying well-dressed Maya and a rich cargo.
Bartholomew's men stole the cargo they wanted and kidnapped the ship's elderly captain to serve as an interpreter in the first recorded encounter between the Spanish and the Maya. In March 1524, Gil González Dávila became the first Spaniard to enter Honduras as a conquistador. Followed by Hernán Cortés, who had brought forces down from Mexico. Much of the conquest took place in the following two decades, first by groups loyal to Cristóbal de Olid, by those loyal to Francisco de Montejo but most by those following Alvarado. In addition to Spanish resources, the conquerors relied on armed forces from Mexico—Tlaxcalans and Mexica armies of thousands who remained garrisoned in the region. Resistance to conquest was led in particular by Lempira. Many regions in the north of Honduras never fell to the Spanish, notably the Miskito Kingdom. After the Spanish conquest, Honduras became part of Spain's vast empire in the New World within the Kingdom of Guatemala. Trujillo and Gracias were the first city-capitals.
The Spanish ruled the region for three centuries. Honduras was organized as a province of the Kingdom of Guatemala and the capital was fixed, first at Trujillo on the Atlantic coast, at Comayagua, final
United States occupation of Haiti
The United States occupation of Haiti began on July 28, 1915, when 330 US Marines landed at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on the authority of US President Woodrow Wilson. The first invasion forces had disembarked from USS Montana on January 27, 1914; the July intervention took place following the murder of dictator President Vilbrun Guillaume Sam by insurgents angered by his political executions of elite opposition. The occupation ended on August 1, 1934, after President Franklin D. Roosevelt reaffirmed an August 1933 disengagement agreement; the last contingent of US Marines departed on August 15, 1934, after a formal transfer of authority to the Garde d'Haïti. Between 1911 and 1915, Haiti was politically unstable: a series of political assassinations and forced exiles resulted in six presidents holding office during this period. Various revolutionary armies carried out the coups; each was formed by cacos, or peasant militia from the mountains of the north, or who invaded along the porous Dominican border.
They were enlisted by rival political factions under the promises of money, which would be paid after a successful revolution, the opportunity to plunder. The United States was apprehensive about the roles played by Imperial Germany in the Western hemisphere. Controlling Tortuga, it had intervened in Haiti and other Caribbean nations at several times during the previous few decades to exert its influence as a rival power. Germany was hostile to United States domination of the region under its claimed Monroe Doctrine. In the lead-up to the World War I, the strategic importance of the island of Hispaniola, with its manpower, material wealth, port facilities, was understood by all navies operating in the Caribbean, including Germany and the still-neutral United States. Germany had invested in military and intelligence gathering across Hispaniola as part of a wider network of German interest in Latin America and the Caribbean during the 1890s through the 1910s; the United States' concern over Germany's ambitions was mirrored by apprehension and rivalry between American businessmen and the small German community in Haiti, which although numbering only about 200 in 1910 wielded a disproportionate amount of economic power.
German nationals controlled about 80 percent of the country's international commerce. They owned and operated utilities in Cap-Haïten and Port-au-Prince, including the main wharf and a tramway in the capital, had built the railway serving the Plain of the Cul-de-Sac; the German community was more willing to integrate into Haitian society than any other group of Caucasian foreigners, including the more numerous French. Some Germans had married into Haiti's most prominent families of "persons of color"; this enabled them to bypass the constitutional prohibition against foreigners owning land. The German residents retained strong ties to their homeland and sometimes aided the German military and intelligence networks in Haiti, they served as the principal financiers of the nation's numerous revolutions, floating loans at high interest rates to the competing political factions. Because of this, they were regarded as a threat to American businessmen's financial interests; the United States political and military leadership believed the Haitian Germans were tied directly to the government in Berlin.
In an effort to reduce German influence, the U. S. State Department in 1910–11 backed a consortium of American investors, headed by the National City Bank of New York, to acquire control of the Banque Nationale d'Haïti; this was the country's sole commercial bank and served as the Haitian government's treasury. In December 1914, the U. S. military seized the Haitian government's gold reserve, urged on by the National City Bank and the National Bank of Haiti. The U. S. took the gold to National City Bank's New York City vault. In February 1915, Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam, son of a former Haitian president, established a dictatorship. Five months facing a new anti-American revolt, he ordered the massacre of 167 political prisoners. All of the victims were from prominent families members of the better educated and wealthier mixed-race population with German connections. "President" Sam was lynched by an enraged mob in Port-au-Prince as soon as they learned of the executions. The United States regarded the anti-American revolt against Sam as a threat to American business interests in the country the Haitian American Sugar Company.
When the caco-supported anti-American Rosalvo Bobo emerged as the next president of Haiti, the United States government decided to act to preserve their economic dominance. On July 28, 1915, American President Woodrow Wilson ordered 330 U. S. Marines to occupy Port-au-Prince. Secretary of the Navy instructed the invasion commander, Admiral William Deville Bundy, to "protect American and foreign" interests. Wilson wanted to rewrite the Haitian constitution, which banned foreign ownership of land, replace it with one that guaranteed American financial control. To avoid public criticism, Wilson claimed the occupation was a mission to "re-establish peace and order... has nothing to do with any diplomatic negotiations of the past or the future," as disclosed by Rear Admiral Caperton. Only one Haitian soldier, Pierre Sully, tried to resist the invasion, he was shot dead by the Marines. On November 17, 1915, the Marines captured Fort Rivière, a stronghold of the Cacos rebels, which marked the end of the First Caco War.
For several decades, the Haitian government had been receiving large loans from both American and French banks, with the political chaos was growing incapable of repaying their debts. If the ant
Beyond the Horizon (play)
Beyond the Horizon is a play written by American playwright Eugene O'Neill. Although he first copyrighted the text in June 1918, O'Neill continued to revise the play throughout the rehearsals for its 1920 premiere, his first full-length work to be staged, Beyond the Horizon won the 1920 Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Beyond the Horizon premiered on Broadway at the Morosco Theatre, from February 3, 1920 to February 20, 1920, transferred to the Criterion Theatre from February 24, 1920 to March 5, 1920, transferred to the Little Theatre, from March 9, 1920 to June 26, 1920. Directed by Homer Saint-Gaudens, the cast featured Erville Alderson, Richard Bennett, Robert Kelly, Mary Jeffery, Sidney Macy; this production won the 1920 Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Beyond the Horizon was revived on Broadway at the Mansfield Theatre on November 30, 1926 and closed on February 5, 1927 after 79 performances. Directed by James Light, the cast featured Malcolm Williams, Judith Lowry, Albert Tavernier, Thomas Chalmers, Robert Keith, Aline MacMahon, Eleanor Wesselhoeft, Elaine Koch.
The play was presented by Royal & Derngate in Northampton in November 2009. This production subsequently transferred to London's National Theatre in March 2010; the play takes place on a farm in the Spring, moves forward three years in the Summer, five years in late Fall. The play focuses on the portrait of a family, only two brothers Andrew and Robert. In the first act of the play, Robert is about to go off to sea with their uncle Dick, a sea captain, while Andrew looks forward to marrying his sweetheart Ruth and working on the family farm as he starts a family; the play was adapted for television and broadcast on PBS Great Performances series in July 1975, directed by Rick Hauser and Michael Kahn. The cast featured Richard Backus, Kate Wilkinson, John Randolph, Edward J. Moore, Maria Tucci, Geraldine Fitzgerald, John Houseman, James Broderick; the play was adapted into an opera by composer Nicolas Flagello in 1983. According to the PBS American Experience program, "Theater historians point to O'Neill's Beyond the Horizon, which debuted in 1920, as the first native American tragedy.
That play emerged from O'Neill's association with the Provincetown Players, one of many so-called'little theaters' that developed in the 1910s to provide alternative fare to commercial drama of the time." Beyond the Horizon at the Internet Broadway Database Beyond the Horizon at the Internet Broadway Database Beyond the Horizon public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Expressionism is a modernist movement in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists have sought to express the meaning of emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War, it remained popular during the Weimar Republic in Berlin. The style extended to a wide range of the arts, including expressionist architecture, literature, dance and music; the term is sometimes suggestive of angst. In a historical sense, much older painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco are sometimes termed expressionist, though the term is applied to 20th-century works; the Expressionist emphasis on individual and subjective perspective has been characterized as a reaction to positivism and other artistic styles such as Naturalism and Impressionism.
While the word expressionist was used in the modern sense as early as 1850, its origin is sometimes traced to paintings exhibited in 1901 in Paris by obscure artist Julien-Auguste Hervé, which he called Expressionismes. An alternative view is that the term was coined by the Czech art historian Antonin Matějček in 1910 as the opposite of impressionism: "An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself... immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures... Impressions and mental images that pass through... people's soul as through a filter which rids them of all substantial accretions to produce their clear essence are assimilated and condense into more general forms, into types, which he transcribes through simple short-hand formulae and symbols."Important precursors of Expressionism were the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche his philosophical novel Thus Spoke Zarathustra. In 1905, a group of four German artists, led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, formed Die Brücke in the city of Dresden.
This was arguably the founding organization for the German Expressionist movement, though they did not use the word itself. A few years in 1911, a like-minded group of young artists formed Der Blaue Reiter in Munich; the name came from Wassily Kandinsky's Der Blaue Reiter painting of 1903. Among their members were Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, Auguste Macke. However, the term Expressionism did not establish itself until 1913. Though a German artistic movement and most predominant in painting and the theatre between 1910 and 1930, most precursors of the movement were not German. Furthermore, there have been expressionist writers of prose fiction, as well as non-German-speaking expressionist writers, while the movement had declined in Germany with the rise of Adolf Hitler in the 1930s, there were subsequent expressionist works. Expressionism is notoriously difficult to define, in part because it "overlapped with other major'isms' of the modernist period: with Futurism, Cubism and Dadaism." Richard Murphy comments, “the search for an all-inclusive definition is problematic to the extent that the most challenging expressionists such as Kafka, Gottfried Benn and Döblin were the most vociferous `anti-expressionists.'
”What can be said, however, is that it was a movement that developed in the early twentieth century in Germany, in reaction to the dehumanizing effect of industrialization and the growth of cities, that "one of the central means by which expressionism identifies itself as an avant-garde movement, by which it marks its distance to traditions and the cultural institution as a whole is through its relationship to realism and the dominant conventions of representation." More explicitly, that the expressionists rejected the ideology of realism. The term refers to an "artistic style in which the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions and responses that objects and events arouse within a person." It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there are many examples of art production in Europe from the 15th century onward which emphasize extreme emotion. Such art occurs during times of social upheaval and war, such as the Protestant Reformation, German Peasants' War, Eighty Years' War between the Spanish and the Netherlands, when extreme violence, much directed at civilians, was represented in propagandist popular prints.
These were unimpressive aesthetically but had the capacity to arouse extreme emotions in the viewer. Expressionism has been likened to Baroque by critics such as art historian Michel Ragon and German philosopher Walter Benjamin. According to Alberto Arbasino, a difference between the two is that "Expressionism doesn't shun the violently unpleasant effect, while Baroque does. Expressionism throws some terrific'fuck yous', Baroque doesn't. Baroque is well-mannered." Some of the style's main visual artists of the early 20th century were: Armenia: Martiros Saryan Australia: Sidney Nolan, Charles Blackman, John Perceval, Alb
Federal Theatre Project
The Federal Theatre Project was a New Deal program to fund theatre and other live artistic performances and entertainment programs in the United States during the Great Depression. It was one of five Federal Project Number One projects sponsored by the Works Progress Administration, it was created not as a cultural activity but as a relief measure to employ artists, writers and theater workers. It was shaped by national director Hallie Flanagan into a federation of regional theatres that created relevant art, encouraged experimentation in new forms and techniques, made it possible for millions of Americans to see live theatre for the first time; the Federal Theatre Project ended when its funding was canceled after strong Congressional objections to the left-wing political tone of a small percentage of its productions. We let out these works on the vote of the people. Part of the Works Progress Administration, the Federal Theatre Project was a New Deal program established August 27, 1935, funded under the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935.
Of the $4.88 billion allocated to the WPA, $27 million was approved for the employment of artists, musicians and actors under the WPA's Federal Project Number One. Government relief efforts through the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration in the two preceding years were amateur experiments regarded as charity, not a theatre program; the Federal Theatre Project was a new approach to unemployment in the theatre profession. Only those certified as employable could be offered work, that work was to be within the individual's defined skills and trades."For the first time in the relief experiments of this country the preservation of the skill of the worker, hence the preservation of his self-respect, became important," wrote Hallie Flanagan, director of the Federal Theatre Project. A theater professor at Vassar College who had studied the operation of government-sponsored theatre abroad for the Guggenheim Foundation, Flanagan was chosen to head the Federal Theatre Project by WPA head Harry Hopkins, a former classmate at Grinnell College.
Roosevelt and Hopkins selected her despite considerable pressure to choose someone from the commercial theatre. Flanagan was given the daunting task of building a nationwide theater program to employ thousands of unemployed artists in as little time as possible; the problems of the theatre preceded the financial collapse of 1929. By that time it was threatened with extinction due to the growing popularity of films and radio, but the commercial theatre was reluctant to adapt its practices. Many actors and stagehands had suffered since 1914, when movies began to replace stock and other live stage performances nationwide. Sound motion pictures displaced 30,000 musicians. In the Great Depression, people who had no money for entertainment found an entire evening of entertainment at the movies for 25 cents, while commercial theatre charged $1.10 to $2.20 admission to cover the cost of theater rental and fees to performers and union technicians. Unemployed directors, designers and stagecrew took any kind of work they were able to find, whatever it paid, charity was their only recourse."This is a tough job we're asking you to do," Hopkins told Flanagan at their first meeting in May 1935.
"I don't know why I still hang on to the idea that unemployed actors get just as hungry as anybody else."Hopkins promised "a free, uncensored theatre" — something Flanagan spent the next four years trying to build. She emphasized the development of local and regional theatre, "to lay the foundation for the development of a creative theatre in the United States with outstanding producing centers in each of those regions which have common interests as a result of geography, language origins, tradition, occupations of the people." On October 24, 1935, Flanagan prefaced her instructions on the Federal Theatre's operation with a statement of purpose: The primary aim of the Federal Theatre Project is the reemployment of theatre workers now on public relief rolls: actors, playwrights, vaudeville artists, stage technicians, other workers in the theatre field. The far reaching purpose is the establishment of theatres so vital to community life that they will continue to function after the program of this Federal Project is completed.
Within a year the Federal Theatre Project employed 15,000 women, paying them $23.86 a week. During its nearly four years of existence it played to 30 million people in more than 200 theaters nationwide — renting many, shuttered — as well as parks, churches, factories and closed-off streets, its productions totalled 1,200, not including its radio programs. Because the Federal Theatre was created to employ and train people, not to generate revenue, no provision was made for the receipt of money when the project began. At its conclusion, 65 percent of its productions were still presented free of charge; the total cost of the Federal Theatre Project was $46 million."In any consideration of the cost of the Federal Theatre," Flanagan wrote, "it should be borne in mind that the funds were allotted, according to the terms of the Relief Act of 1935, to pay wages to unemployed people. Therefore, when Federal Theatre was criticized for spending money, it was criticized for doing what it was set up to do."The Federal Theatre Project established five regional centers in New York, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans.
The FTP did not operate in every state, since many lacked a sufficient number of unemployed p
King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare. It depicts the gradual descent into madness of the title character, after he disposes of his kingdom by giving bequests to two of his three daughters egged on by their continual flattery, bringing tragic consequences for all. Derived from the legend of Leir of Britain, a mythological pre-Roman Celtic king, the play has been adapted for the stage and motion pictures, with the title role coveted by many of the world's most accomplished actors; the first attribution to Shakespeare of this play drafted in 1605 or 1606 at the latest with its first known performance on St. Stephen's Day in 1606, was a 1608 publication in a quarto of uncertain provenance, in which the play is listed as a history; the Tragedy of King Lear, a more theatrical revision, was included in the 1623 First Folio. Modern editors conflate the two, though some insist that each version has its own individual integrity that should be preserved. After the English Restoration, the play was revised with a happy, non-tragic ending for audiences who disliked its dark and depressing tone, but since the 19th century Shakespeare's original version has been regarded as one of his supreme achievements.
The tragedy is noted for its probing observations on the nature of human suffering and kinship. George Bernard Shaw wrote, "No man will write a better tragedy than Lear." King Lear of Britain and wanting to retire from the duties of the monarchy, decides to divide his realm among his three daughters, declares he will offer the largest share to the one who loves him most. The eldest, speaks first, declaring her love for her father in fulsome terms. Moved by her flattery Lear proceeds to grant to Goneril her share as soon as she has finished her declaration, before Regan and Cordelia have a chance to speak, he awards to Regan her share as soon as she has spoken. When it is the turn of his youngest and favourite daughter, Cordelia, at first she refuses to say anything and declares there is nothing to compare her love to, nor words to properly express it. Infuriated, Lear divides her share between her elder sisters; the Earl of Gloucester and the Earl of Kent observe that, by dividing his realm between Goneril and Regan, Lear has awarded his realm in equal shares to the peerages of the Duke of Albany and the Duke of Cornwall.
Kent objects to Lear's unfair treatment of Cordelia. Lear summons the Duke of Burgundy and the King of France, who have both proposed marriage to Cordelia. Learning that Cordelia has been disinherited, the Duke of Burgundy withdraws his suit, but the King of France is impressed by her honesty and marries her nonetheless; the King of France is shocked by Lear's decision because up until this time Lear has only praised and favoured Cordelia. Meanwhile, Gloucester has introduced his illegitimate son Edmund to Kent. Lear announces he will live alternately with Goneril and Regan, their husbands, he reserves to himself a retinue of one hundred knights, to be supported by his daughters. Goneril and Regan speak revealing that their declarations of love were fake and that they view Lear as a foolish old man. Gloucester's bastard son Edmund resents his illegitimate status and plots to dispose of his legitimate older brother Edgar, he tricks his father with a forged letter. Earl of Kent returns from exile in disguise, Lear hires him as a servant.
At Albany and Goneril's house and Kent quarrel with Oswald, Goneril's steward. Lear discovers, she orders him to reduce the number of his disorderly retinue. Enraged, Lear departs for Regan's home; the Fool reproaches Lear with his foolishness in giving everything to Regan and Goneril and predicts that Regan will treat him no better. Edmund learns from Curan, a courtier, that there is to be war between Albany and Cornwall and that Regan and Cornwall are to arrive at Gloucester's house that evening. Taking advantage of the arrival of the duke and Regan, Edmund fakes an attack by Edgar, Gloucester is taken in, he proclaims him an outlaw. Bearing Lear's message to Regan, Kent meets Oswald again at Gloucester's home, quarrels with him again and is put in the stocks by Regan and her husband Cornwall; when Lear arrives, he objects to the mistreatment of his messenger, but Regan is as dismissive of her father as Goneril was. Lear is impotent. Goneril supports Regan's argument against him. Lear yields to his rage.
He rushes out into a storm to rant against his ungrateful daughters, accompanied by the mocking Fool. Kent follows to protect him. Gloucester protests against Lear's mistreatment. With Lear's retinue of a hundred knights dissolved, the only companions he has left are his Fool and Kent. Wandering on the heath after the storm, Edgar, in the guise of a madman named Tom o' Bedlam, meets Lear. Edgar babbles madly. Kent leads them all to shelter. Edmund betrays Gloucester to Cornwall and Goneril, he reveals evidence that his father knows of an impending French invasion designed to reinstate Lear to the throne. Once Edmund leaves with Goneril to warn Albany about the invasion, Gloucester is arrested