People Places
History Art
Science
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries

The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries is an 1812 painting by Jacques-Louis David. It shows. Despite the detail, it is unlikely, it was a private commission from the Scottish nobleman and admirer of Napoleon, Alexander Hamilton, 10th Duke of Hamilton in 1811 and completed in 1812. Shown at Hamilton Palace, it was sold to Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery in 1882, from whom it was bought by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation in 1954, which deposited it in Washington D. C.'s National Gallery of Art. Vertical in format, it shows Napoleon standing, three-quarters life size, wearing the uniform of a colonel of the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers, he wears his Légion d'honneur and Order of the Iron Crown decorations, along with gold epaulettes, white French-style culottes and white stockings. His face is turned towards the viewer and his right hand is in his jacket. Piled on the desk are a pen, several books and rolled papers. More rolled papers and a map are on the green carpet to the left of the desk - on these papers is the painter's signature LVDci DAVID OPVS 1812.

All this, along with Napoleon's unbuttoned cuffs, wrinkled stockings, disheveled hair, the flickering candles and the time on the clock are all meant to imply he has been up all night, writing laws such as the Code Napoléon - the word "Code" is prominent on the rolled papers on the desk. This maintains his new civil rather than heroic or military image, though the sword on the chair's armrest still refers back to his military successes; the fleurs-de-lys and heraldic bees imply the stability of the imperial dynasty. An analysis of the original painting reveals that the artist reedited the composition and details several times to balance the image, add allusions, capture a complete story. Brush strokes and texture indicate that an earlier version had Napoleon's upper body flanked by two fluted columns about the width of the figure's torso; these strong vertical elements would have created a distraction from the central figure. These columns were revised to a carved panel in shadow and a clock with a large face on level with and somewhat larger than the figure's face.

The clock was repainted with a smaller face moved up and to the right, with the clock body still covering the underlying column brush strokes. These revisions improved the compositional balance of the painting's upper section, reducing the impression of three vertical columns, they moved the viewer's focus to Napoleon's face and expression and away from the accurate stature and middle-heavy build. The change allowed incorporating additional symbology, most notably the time. Other revisions were added symbols on the table items and lower section, many painted over fleurs-de-lis which are conspicuously rare in the final image. Mayer, Manuel. Die Erschöpfung des Kaisers. Jacques-Louis Davids Napoleon im Washingtoner Tuilerien-Portrait. ART-Dok. Publikationsplattform Kunst- und Bildwissenschaften der Universität Heidelberg. Pp. 1–11. Antoine Schnapper David, 1748-1825, catalogue de l'exposition Louvre-Versailles 1989 ed. Réunion des musées nationaux, Paris, 1989 - Sur le tableau No 206 et 207 pages 474 - 477.

Bordes, Philippe. Jacques-Louis David: Empire to Exile. Yale University Press. P. 400. ISBN 9780300123463. National Gallery of Art - catalogue entry Second version - image

The Turning Point (book)

The Turning Point: Science and the Rising Culture is a 1982 book by Fritjof Capra, in which the author examines perceived scientific and economic crises through the perspective of systems theory. Capra outlines and traces the history of science and economics, highlighting flaws in the Cartesian and reductionist paradigms which have come to light in the context of contemporary empirical understanding of the physical sciences, he writes that these paradigms are now inadequate to guide human behavior and policy with regard to modern technology and ecology argues that society needs to develop the concepts and insights of holism and systems theory to solve its complex problems. The 1990 film, Mindwalk, is based on the book. Fritjof Capra, The Turning Point: Science and the Rising Culture and Schuster, Bantam paperback 1983: ISBN 0-553-34572-9 Doubleday Dell, mass market paperback 1984: ISBN 0-553-34148-0 Flamingo Press, 1990 edition: ISBN 0-00-654017-1 Sounds True audio cassette, 1990

1999 San Francisco 49ers season

The 1999 San Francisco 49ers season was the team's 50th year with the National Football League. This would be Steve Young's last season as he was forced to retire due to concussions. San Francisco started the season with a 3–1 record, but Young suffered his season- and career-ending concussion against the Arizona Cardinals in Week 3. After defeating the Cardinals and the Tennessee Titans without Young, the 49ers went on to lose ten of the remaining eleven games of the season, it was the first time the team had missed the postseason since 1991, their second time missing the postseason in 17 seasons, their first losing season, as well as their first season without at least 10 wins since 1980. Statistics site Football Outsiders calculates that the 1999 49ers had the second-worst pass defense they had tracked. 49ers on Pro Football Reference 49ers Schedule on jt-sw.com