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The Evolution of Cooperation

The Evolution of Cooperation is a 1984 book by political scientist Robert Axelrod that expanded a influential paper of the same name, popularized the study upon which the original paper had been based. Since 2006, reprints of the book have included a foreword by Richard Dawkins and been marketed as a revised edition. "The Evolution of Cooperation" is a 1981 paper by Axelrod and evolutionary biologist W. D. Hamilton in the scientific literature, which became the most cited publication in the field of political science. Evolution of cooperation is a general term for investigation into how cooperation can emerge and persist as elucidated by the application of game theory. Traditional game theory did not explain some forms of cooperation well; the academic literature concerned with those forms of cooperation not handled in traditional game theory, with special consideration of evolutionary biology took its modern form as a result of Axelrod's and Hamilton's influential 1981 paper and the book that followed.

The idea that human behavior can be usefully analyzed mathematically gained great credibility following the application of operations research in World War II to improve military operations. One famous example involved, it had seemed to make sense to patrol the areas where submarines were most seen. It was pointed out that "seeing the most submarines" depended not only on the number of submarines present, but on the number of eyes looking. Making an allowance for patrol density showed that patrols were more efficient – that is, found more submarines per patrol – in other areas. Making appropriate adjustments increased the overall effectiveness. Accounts of the success of operations research during the war, publication in 1944 of John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern's Theory of Games and Economic Behavior on the use of game theory for developing and analyzing optimal strategies for military and other uses, publication of John William's The Compleat Strategyst, a popular exposition of game theory, led to a greater appreciation of mathematical analysis of human behavior.

But game theory had a little crisis: it could not find a strategy for a simple game called "The Prisoner's Dilemma" where two players have the option to cooperate for mutual gain, but each takes a risk of being suckered. The prisoner's dilemma game takes its name from the following scenario: you and a criminal associate have been busted. For you, most of the evidence was shredded, so you are facing only a year in prison, but the prosecutor wants to nail someone, so he offers you a deal: if you squeal on your associate – which will result in his getting a five-year stretch – the prosecutor will see that six months is taken off of your sentence. Which sounds good, until you learn your associate is being offered the same deal – which would get you five years. So what do you do? The best that you and your associate can do together is to not squeal: that is, to cooperate in a mutual bond of silence, do your year, but wait: if your associate cooperates, can you do better by squealing to get that six month reduction?

It's tempting, but he's tempted. And if you both squeal, oh, no, it's half years each. So you should cooperate – but wait, that's being a sucker yourself, as your associate will undoubtedly defect, you won't get the six months off. So what is the best strategy to minimize your incarceration? To cooperate, or not cooperate? This simple question, expressed in an simple game, is a crucial issue across a broad range of life. Why shouldn't a shark eat the little fish that has just cleaned it of parasites: in any given exchange who would know? Fig wasps collectively limit the eggs, but why shouldn't any one fig wasp cheat and leave a few more eggs than her rivals? At the level of human society, why shouldn't each of the villagers that share a common but finite resource try to exploit it more than the others? At the core of these and myriad other examples is a conflict formally equivalent to the Prisoner's Dilemma, yet sharks, fig wasps, villagers all cooperate. It has been a vexatious problem in evolutionary studies to explain how such cooperation should evolve, let alone persist, in a world of self-maximizing egoists.

Charles Darwin's theory of how evolution works is explicitly competitive, Malthusian gladiatorial. Species are pitted against species for shared resources, similar species with similar needs and niches more so, individuals within species most of all. All this comes down to one factor: out-competing all predators in producing progeny. Darwin's explanation of how preferential survival of the slightest benefits can lead to advanced forms is the most important explanatory principle in biology, powerful in many other fields; such success has reinforced notions that life is in all respects a war of each against all, where every individual has to look out for himself, that your gain is my loss. In such a struggle for existence altruism and cooperation seem so antithetical to self-interest as to be the kind of behavior that should be selected against, yet cooperation and ev

9968 Serpe

9968 Serpe, provisional designation 1992 JS2, is an asteroid from the middle regions of the asteroid belt 12 kilometers in diameter. This asteroid was discovered on 4 May 1992, by Belgian astronomer Henri Debehogne at ESO's La Silla Observatory in northern Chile, it was named after Belgian physicist Jean Serpe. Serpe orbits the Sun in the middle main-belt at a distance of 2.4–2.7 AU once every 4 years and 1 month. Its orbit has an inclination of 13 ° with respect to the ecliptic. In 1977, it was first observed as 1977 VT at Cerro El Roble Station in Argentina, extending the body's observation arc by 15 years prior to its official discovery at La Silla. According to the survey carried out by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, the asteroid measures 12.355 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.088. As of 2017, no rotational lightcurve has been obtained of Serpe; the body's rotation period and shape, as well as its spectral type remain unknown.

This minor planet was named after Belgian Jean Nicolas François Jules Serpe, theoretical-physicist, professor at Liège University and member of the RASAB. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 17 May 2011. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 9968 Serpe at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 9968 Serpe at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

List of Melbourne Storm representatives

Including players from the Melbourne Storm that have represented while contracted at the club and the years they achieved their honours, if known. 603 Glenn Lazarus 660 Rodney Howe 666 Robbie Kearns 675 Brett Kimmorley 677 Robbie Ross 682 Scott Hill 727 Matt King 737 Greg Inglis 738 Cameron Smith 742 Antonio Kaufusi 714 Michael Crocker 744 Cooper Cronk 745 Israel Folau 746 Dallas Johnson 748 Ryan Hoffman 751 Billy Slater 767 Brett White 800 Will Chambers 818 Jordan McLean 821 Felise Kaufusi 822 Cameron Munster 827 Josh Addo-Carr Fred Makimare Aaron Teroi Josh Minhinnick Charnze Nicoll-Klokstad 701 Gareth Widdop Sisa Waqa Marika Koroibete Ben Nakubuwai Tui Kamikamica Suliasi Vunivalu Isaac Lumelume Dane Chisholm Danny Williams Travis Robinson 640 Stephen Kearney 680 Richard Swain 681 Matt Rua 683 Tasesa Lavea 690 Henry Perenara 679 David Kidwell 714 Alex Chan 719 Jake Webster 732 Adam Blair 742 Jeremy Smith 743 Jeff Lima 750 Sika Manu 765 Matt Duffie 771 Kevin Proctor 775 Jesse Bromwich 778 Tohu Harris 796 Kenny Bromwich 804 Nelson Asofa-Solomona 816 Brandon Smith 819 Jahrome Hughes Kurt Bernard 167 Marcus Bai 176 John Wilshere 230 Jay Aston Joe Bond 273 Justin Olam Zev John Smith Samau Jeff Lima Willie Isa Junior Sa'u Junior Moors Young Tonumaipea Ben Roberts Sam Kasiano Marion Seve Tino Faasuamaleaui Fifita Moala Antonio Kaufusi Pita Maile Mahe Fonua Siosaia Vave Felise Kaufusi Nafe Seluini Justin O'Neill Keith Mason Josh Addo-Carr Ryan Papenhuyzen Curtis Scott Suliasi Vunivalu Isaac Lumelume Justin Olam Tino Faasuamaleaui Marion Seve 114 Russell Bawden 140 Cameron Smith 142 Billy Slater 152 Greg Inglis 156 Dallas Johnson 163 Antonio Kaufusi 136 Michael Crocker 164 Israel Folau 168 Cooper Cronk 171 Dane Nielsen 179 Will Chambers 191 Tim Glasby 192 Cameron Munster 195 Felise Kaufusi 202 Christian Welch 93 Glenn Lazarus 144 Rodney Howe 146 Robbie Kearns 152 Robbie Ross 150 Matt Geyer 159 Brett Kimmorley 162 Scott Hill 195 Matt King 202 Brett White 207 Ryan Hoffman 209 Anthony Quinn 213 Steve Turner 268 Josh Addo-Carr 287 Dale Finucane Scott Hill Matt King Brett White Clint Newton Anthony Quinn Ben Cross Ryan Hinchcliffe Dale Finucane Jordan McLean Cheyse Blair Matt Orford Robbie Kearns Matt Geyer Ryan Hoffman Beau Champion Josh Addo-Carr 02 Brett Finch 08 Adam Blair 09 Cameron Smith 38 Cooper Cronk 47 Justin O'Neill 63 Jesse Bromwich 84 Jordan McLean 04 Beau Champion 37 Dane Nielsen 41 Will Chambers Tom Learoyd-Lahrs 64 Josh Addo-Carr Kenny Bromwich Jesse Bromwich Jahrome Hughes Brandon Smith Will Chambers Ryan Hoffman Curtis Scott Tino Faasuamaleaui Hep Cahill Kevin Proctor Kenny Bromwich Justin O'Neill Ben Hampton Mahe Fonua Cameron Munster Curtis Scott Brodie Croft Tino Fa'asuamaleaui Louis Geraghty Ryan Papenhuyzen Glen Turner Adam Blair Sam Tagataese Sika Manu Liam Foran Kevin Proctor Tohu Harris Kenny Bromwich Nelson Asofa-Solomona Tony Tumusa Brandon Smith Kayleb Milne Kelma Tuilagi 04 Ben Hampton 08 Kurt Mann 35 Cameron Munster 37 Christian Welch 56 Brodie Croft 57 Charlie Galo 59 Josh Kerr 67 Lachlan Timm 68 Jake Turpin Harry Grant Louis Geraghty Tino Fa'asuamaleaui 17 Young Tonumaipea 18 Dean Britt 24 Matthew Lodge 37 Rhys Kennedy 59 Joe Stimson 71 Curtis Scott Ryan Papenhuyzen Cooper Johns Queensland Cameron Smith Billy Slater Australia Cameron Smith Australia Cameron Smith Cameron Smith New Zealand Adam Blair

Chemistry Central

Chemistry Central was a scientific publisher specializing in open access publications in chemistry. It was operated by BioMed Central. Along with BioMed Central and the now-defunct PhysMath Central, Chemistry Central was part of "Open Access Central", representing open access publishing in life science and medicine and maths, chemistry, respectively; when Springer acquired the BioMed Central Group in 2008, Chemistry Central was transferred with it. At the end of 2015 the Chemistry Central brand was retired, with the existing journals transferring to the SpringerOpen portfolio. In January 2019, Chemistry Central Journal was renamed BMC Chemistry and brought within the BMC Series journals. Journal of Cheminformatics Chemistry Central Journal Journal of Systems Chemistry Geochemical Transactions Heritage Science Sustainable Chemical Processes Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture Official website

Henri Niessel

Henri Albert Niessel was a French general. Niessel was commander of the 37th Infantry Division, 11th Army Corps, 12th Army Corps and 9th Army Corps during World War One. Niessel was a Russian speaker. In August 1917 Foch sent him to lead the French Military Mission in Russia a Republic under the Provisional Government, in the hope that he could rebuild the Russian Army by repeating Berthelot’s success in rebuilding the Romanian Army. Niessel oversaw the withdrawal of German Freikorps troops who had entered Latvia and Lithuania as part of Pavel Bermondt-Avalov's West Russian Volunteer Army. Corporal Louis Barthas, serving in the 296th Infantry Regiment, wrote extensively of General Niessel in his diaries, including incidents he witnessed. Niessel was described as being arrogant and indifferent to the lives and well being of the soldiers who served beneath him, willing to sustain overwhelming casualties for overly optimistic and unachievable military gain. Barthas noted cases where Niessel's subordinate officers mutinied and refused to follow his commands out of concern that the attacks they were ordered to make were futile.

Notes sur la Prusse dans sa grande catastrophe, 1806, translated from the German, original by Carl von Clausewitz, R. Chapelot, Paris, 1903 D. A. T: Défense aérienne du territoire, Éditions cosmopolites, Paris, 1934, 250 p. L'évacuation des pays baltiques par les Allemands: contribution à l'étude de la mentalité allemande, Charles-Lavauzelle, Limoges, Nancy, 1935, 272 p. Le triomphe des Bolchéviks et la paix de Brest-Litovsk: Souvenirs 1917-1918, Plon, 1940, 381 p. Greenhalgh, Elizabeth; the French Army and the First World War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-60568-8. Les carnets de guerre de Louis Barthas, tonnelier, 1914-1918, preface by Rémy Cazals, first edition: Maspero, 1977. Most recent edition, 2014

CMLL World Trios Championship

The CMLL World Trios Championship is a professional wrestling championship promoted by Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre in Mexico. The title is contested for by teams of three wrestlers; as it is a professional wrestling championship, it is not won or lost competitively but instead by the decision of the bookers of a wrestling promotion. The title is awarded to the chosen team after they "win" a match to maintain the illusion that professional wrestling is a competitive sport; the first champions were Los Infernales who won a tournament on November 22, 1991. Since a total of 26 different trios have held the championship; the current champions are Los Guerreros Laguneros after having defeated the previous champions The Cl4n on September 14, 2018. The championship has been vacated on four different occasions, each time leading to CMLL holding a tournament to determine new champions. Only two teams have held the title on more than one occasion, Los Infernales and the trio of Héctor Garza, Hijo del Fantasma and La Máscara.

With the emergence of trios such as Los Misioneros de la Muerte, Los Brazos and more, the six-man tag team match became popular in the early 1980s. Its popularity led to the trios format becoming the most prevalent match format in Lucha libre to this day. In 1985, the Mexican lucha libre, or professional wrestling, promotion Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre was given control of the newly created Mexican National Trios Championship. Over the subsequent six years, that championship became the focal point of the popular trios division, serving as the highest honor EMLL could bestow on a trio at the time. In 1991, EMLL changed their name to Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre and began to establish a series of CMLL-branded world championships, relegating the Mexican National championships to being a secondary level of championships within the company. In 1991, CMLL added a CMLL-branded world championship for the trios division, they held a 16-team tournament to crown the first champions, a tournament that saw "Los Infernales" defeat "Los Brazos" to become the first CMLL World Trios Champions.

Over the next couple of years, the championship would be held by such teams as "Los Intocables" and "La Ola Blanca". In 1993, the then-reigning Mexican National Trios Champions left CMLL, the Mexico City Boxing and wrestling commission allowed the champions to take the Mexican National Trios Championship with them. From 1993 through 2001, when the Mexican National Trios Championship returned to CMLL, the CMLL World Trios Championship was the only championship for the division. In 1997 then-reigning champion Héctor Garza, who held the title along with Dos Caras and La Fiera, left CMLL, forcing the championship to be vacated. Subsequently, the team of Rey Bucanero, Emilio Charles Jr. and El Satánico won the championship in a tournament final over Apolo Dantés, Black Warrior, Dr. Wagner Jr. In October 1998, the championship was vacated again when Mr. Niebla was injured, forcing his teammates Atlantis and Lizmark to give up the championship; the Lagunero team of Black Warrior, Blue Panther and Dr. Wagner Jr. defeated "Los Guapos" in the tournament finals, but vacated the championship in February 2002.

Blue Panther and Dr. Wagner Jr. replaced Black Warrior with Fuerza Guerrera and defeated Black Warrior's new team of Mr. Niebla, Antifaz del Norte and Black Warrior himself. In 2006, the championship were vacated once again after not being defended for 20 months. Los Guerreros de Atlantida won the championship on September 29, 2006, began defending it on a regular basis. In February 2007 Los Perros del Mal won the championship and held it for 15 months before splitting up and vacating the championship; the team of El Hijo del Fantasma, Héctor Garza and La Máscara won the tournament, defeating Blue Panther, Dos Caras Jr. and Místico in the finals. In 2015 CMLL's Guadalajara branch brought back the Occidente Trios Championship for their shows held in Jalisco, Guadalajara; the Occidente championship is considered tertiary to national championships. Los Guerreros Laguneros are the current trios champions, having defeated The Cl4n to win the title on September 28, 2018 as part of the CMLL 85th Anniversary Show.

They are the 30th overall championship team and this is their first reign as a team. 27 different teams have held the title. Three teams have held the title more than once, the first champions Los Infernales, the team of Héctor Garza, Hijo del Fantasma and La Máscara and the current champions Los Guerreros Lagunero. Black Warrior, Blue Panther and Dr. Wagner Jr. holds the record for the longest single reign of any team, but due to the uncertainty of when the championship was vacated it can only be verified that they held them for a minimum of 1,141 days. Dr. Wagner Jr.'s four reigns combine to the highest of any wrestler. Héctor Garza's five individual reigns is the reco