The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines and fixed-wing aircraft. The missiles name was given by M. Guillot, the director at Nord Aviation. The Exocet is built by MBDA, a European missile company, development began in 1967 by Nord as a ship-launched weapon named the MM38. A few years Aerospatiale and Nord merged, the basic body design was based on the Nord AS30 air-to-ground tactical missile. The air-launched Exocet was developed in 1974 and entered service with the French Navy five years later, the relatively compact missile is designed for attacking small- to medium-size warships, although multiple hits are effective against larger vessels, such as aircraft carriers. It is guided inertially in mid-flight and turns on active radar late in its flight to find, as a countermeasure against air defence around the target, it maintains a very low altitude during ingress, staying one–two m above the sea surface. Due to the effect of the horizon, this means that the target may not detect an incoming attack until the missile is only 6,000 m from impact.
This leaves little time for reaction and stimulated the design of close-in weapon systems and its rocket motor, which is fuelled by solid propellant, gives the Exocet a maximum range of 70 kilometres. The submarine-launched version places the missile inside a launch capsule, the Exocet has been manufactured in a number of versions, including, MM38 – deployed on warships. A coast defence version known as Excalibur was developed in the United Kingdom, aM38 AM39 – B2 Mod 2, deployed on 14 types of aircraft. Range between 50 and 70 km, depending on the altitude and the speed of the launch aircraft, SM39 – B2 Mod 2, deployed on submarines. The missile is housed inside a watertight launched capsule, which is fired by the submarines torpedo-launch tubes, on leaving the water, the capsule is ejected and the missiles motor is ignited. It behaves like an MM40, the missile will be fired at depth, which makes it particularly suitable for discreet submarine operations. MM40 – Block 1, Block 2 and Block 3, deployed on warships, range,72 km for the Block 2, in excess of 180 km for the Block3.
In February 2004, the Délégation Générale pour lArmement notified MBDA of a contract for the design and production of a new missile, the MM40 Block 3. It has a range, in excess of 180 kilometres —through the use of a turbojet engine. The Block 3 Exocet is lighter than the previous MM40 Block 2 Exocet,45 Block 3 Exocets were ordered by the French Navy in December 2008 for its ships which were carrying Block 2 missiles, namely Horizon-class and Aquitaine-class frigates. These are not to be new productions but the conversion of older Block 2 missiles to the Block 3 standard, a MM40 Block 3 last qualification firing took place on the Île du Levant test range on 25 April 2007 and series manufacturing began in October 2008
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.
By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired.
The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis.
The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 miles east of South Americas southern Patagonian coast, the archipelago, with an area of 4,700 square miles, comprises East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory, the Falklands have internal self-governance, the islands capital is Stanley on East Falkland. Controversy exists over the Falklands discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans, at various times, the islands have had French, British and Argentine settlements. Britain reasserted its rule in 1833, although Argentina maintains its claim to the islands, in April 1982, Argentine forces temporarily occupied the islands. British administration was restored two months at the end of the Falklands War, most Falklanders favour the archipelago remaining a UK overseas territory, but its sovereignty status is part of an ongoing dispute between Argentina and the United Kingdom.
The population primarily consists of native-born Falkland Islanders, the majority of British descent, other ethnicities include French and Scandinavian. Immigration from the United Kingdom, the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, under the British Nationality Act 1983, Falkland Islanders are British citizens. The islands lie on the boundary of the oceanic and tundra climate zones. They are home to bird populations, although many no longer breed on the main islands because of competition from introduced species. Major economic activities include fishing and sheep farming, with an emphasis on high-quality wool exports, oil exploration, licensed by the Falkland Islands Government, remains controversial as a result of maritime disputes with Argentina. The Falkland Islands take their name from the Falkland Sound, a strait separating the two main islands. The name Falkland was applied to the channel by John Strong, Strong named the strait in honour of Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount of Falkland, the Treasurer of the Navy who sponsored their journey.
The name Falklands was not applied to the islands until 1765, the term Falklands is a standard abbreviation used to refer to the islands. The Spanish name for the archipelago, Islas Malvinas, derives from the French Îles Malouines — the name given to the islands by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville in 1764, who founded the islands first settlement, named the area after the port of Saint-Malo. The port, located in the Brittany region of western France, was in turn named after St. Malo, in Spanish, the territory was designated as Islas Malvinas. The nomenclature used by the United Nations for statistical processing purposes is Falkland Islands, although Fuegians from Patagonia may have visited the Falkland Islands in prehistoric times, the islands were uninhabited at the time of their discovery by Europeans. Claims of discovery date back to the 16th century, but no consensus exists on whether these early explorers discovered the Falklands or other islands in the South Atlantic, whether or not the settlements were aware of each others existence is debated by historians
International relations is an academic and a public policy field, and so can be positive and normative, because it analyzes and formulates the foreign policy of a given State. As political activity, international relations dates from the time of the Greek historian Thucydides, in practice International Relations and International Affairs forms a separate academic program or field from Political Science, and the courses taught therein are highly interdisciplinary. The history of international relations based on sovereign states is often traced back to the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, prior to this the European medieval organization of political authority was based on a vaguely hierarchical religious order. Contrary to popular belief, Westphalia still embodied layered systems of sovereignty, the centuries of roughly 1500 to 1789 saw the rise of the independent, sovereign states, the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies. The French Revolution added to this the new idea that not princes or an oligarchy, such a state in which the nation is sovereign would thence be termed a nation-state.
The term republic increasingly became its synonym, the same claim to sovereignty was made for both forms of nation-state. The particular European system supposing the sovereign equality of states was exported to the Americas and Asia via colonialism, the contemporary international system was finally established through decolonization during the Cold War. While the nation-state system is considered modern, many states have not incorporated the system and are termed pre-modern, further, a handful of states have moved beyond insistence on full sovereignty, and can be considered post-modern. The ability of contemporary IR discourse to explain the relations of different types of states is disputed. What is explicitly recognized as international relations theory was not developed until after World War I, IR theory, has a long tradition of drawing on the work of other social sciences. The use of capitalizations of the I and R in international relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline of international relations from the phenomena of international relations.
Similarly, liberalism draws upon the work of Kant and Rousseau, in the 20th century, in addition to contemporary theories of liberal internationalism, Marxism has been a foundation of international relations. International relations as a field of study began in Britain. IR emerged as an academic discipline in 1919 with the founding of the first IR professorship. Georgetown Universitys Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service is the oldest international relations faculty in the United States and this was rapidly followed by establishment of IR at universities in the US and in Geneva, Switzerland. The creation of the posts of Montague Burton Professor of International Relations at LSE, the International History department at LSE developed a focus on the history of IR in the early modern and Cold War periods. The first university dedicated to the study of IR was the Graduate Institute of International Studies. The Committee on International Relations at the University of Chicago was the first to offer a graduate degree, in 2012, Ramon Llull University initiated the first International Relations degree in Barcelona, fully in English
William Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw
Whitelaw was born at the family estate, Monklaw, at Nairn, in northeast Scotland. He never knew his father, William Alexander Whitelaw, a member of a Scottish landed gentry family and his grandmother Dorothy was the niece of the former Prime Minister and author Benjamin Disraeli. Whitelaw was educated first at Wixenford School, before passing the exam to Winchester College. From there he went up to Trinity College, where he won a blue for golf and he commanded Churchill tanks in Normandy during the Second World War and during Operation Bluecoat in late July 1944. His was the first Allied unit to encounter German Jagdpanther tank destroyers and he was awarded the Military Cross for his actions at Caumont, a photograph of Field-Marshal Bernard Montgomery pinning the medal to his chest appears in his memoirs. After the end of the war in Europe, Whitelaws unit was to have part in the invasion of Japan. Instead he was posted to Palestine, before leaving the army in 1946 to take care of the estates of Gartshore and Woodhall in Lanarkshire.
In 1964 Douglas-Home appointed him as Opposition Chief Whip and he was sworn of the Privy Council in January 1967. When the Conservatives returned to power in 1970 under Edward Heath, Whitelaw was made Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Commons, with a seat in the cabinet. He became the first Secretary of State for Northern Ireland after the imposition of rule in March 1972. During his time, in Northern Ireland he introduced Special Category Status for paramilitary prisoners and he attempted to negotiate with the Provisional Irish Republican Army with the PIRA Chief of Staff Seán MacStiofáin in July 1972. The talks ended in an agreement to change from a truce, to an open-ended truce. As a briefing for prime minister Edward Heath noted, Whitelaw found the experience of meeting and talking to Mr MacStíofáin very unpleasant, MacStiofáin in his memoir, complimented Whitelaw, saying he was the only Englishman ever to pronounce his name in Irish correctly. He left Northern Ireland in 1973 to become Secretary of State for Employment shortly before the Sunningdale Agreement was reached, the dispute was followed by the Conservative party losing the February 1974 general election.
Also in 1974, Whitelaw became a Companion of Honour, soon after Harold Wilsons Labour Party returned to government, Heath appointed Whitelaw as Deputy Leader of the Opposition and Chairman of the Conservative Party. Whitelaw loyally refused to run against Heath, and to widespread surprise, Whitelaw stood in his place and lost convincingly, against Thatcher in the second round. The vote polarised along right-left lines, with in addition the region, Whitelaw managed to maintain his position as Deputy Leader until the 1979 general election, when he was appointed Home Secretary and Deputy Prime Minister in Thatchers new government. Thatcher was a fan of Whitelaws, and appointed him Home Secretary in her first Cabinet
HMS Sheffield (D80)
HMS Sheffield was the second Royal Navy ship to be named after the city of Sheffield in Yorkshire. She was a Type 42 guided missile destroyer laid down by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering at Barrow-in-Furness on 15 January 1970 and she was launched by Queen Elizabeth II on 10 June 1971 and commissioned on 16 February 1975. An explosion during construction killed two workers and damaged a section of hull which was replaced with a section from an identical ship, Hércules. It was not until 1980 that Sheffield became effective, with Sea Dart, the ship was part of the task force sent to the Falkland Islands during the Falklands war. She was struck by an Exocet air-launched anti-ship missile from a Super Etendard aircraft belonging to the Argentine Navy on 4 May 1982, Sheffield was first detected by an Argentine Naval Aviation Lockheed SP-2H Neptune patrol aircraft at 07,50 on 4 May 1982. The Neptune kept the British ships under surveillance, verifying Sheffields position again at 08,14 and 08,43.
Two Argentine Navy Super Étendards, both armed with AM39 Exocets, took off from Río Grande naval air base at 09,45, the two aircraft were 3-A-202, piloted by mission commander Capitán de Fragata Augusto Bedacarratz, and 3-A-203, piloted by Teniente Armando Mayora. At 10,35, the Neptune climbed to 1,170 metres and detected a large, a few minutes later, the Neptune contacted the Super Étendards with this information. Flying at very low altitude at approximately 10,50, both Super Étendards climbed to 160 metres to verify these contacts, but failed to locate them,25 miles they climbed again and, after a few seconds of scanning, the targets appeared on their radar screens. The Super Étendards did not need to refuel again from the KC-130, which had been waiting, on some task force ships the threat from the type 209 submarine was seen as higher priority than the threat from the air. Sheffields radar operators had difficulty distinguishing Mirage and Super Etendard aircraft, Sheffield had assessed the Exocet threat overrated for the previous two days, and assessed another as a false alarm.
Sheffield apparently did not hear the incoming aircraft and missiles, detect them on its electronic support measures sets, no detections were reported via data link from Glasgow. Sheffield and Coventry were chatting over UHF, communications ceased until an unidentified message was heard flatly stating, Sheffield is hit. Sheffield picked up the incoming missiles on her type 965 radar, the operations officer informed the missile director, the launch aircraft had not been detected as the British had expected, and it was not until smoke was sighted that the target was confirmed as sea skimming missiles. Five seconds later, an Exocet hit Sheffield amidships, approximately 8 feet above the waterline on deck 2, the other missile splashed into the sea a half mile off her port beam. The flagship, HMS Hermes, dispatched the escorts Arrow and Yarmouth to investigate, confusion reigned until Sheffields Lynx helicopter unexpectedly landed aboard Hermes carrying the air operations officer and operations officer, confirming the strike.
The codeword used to start this procedure was handbrake, which had to be broadcast once the signal of the Agave radar of the Super Étendard was picked up. The initial Ministry of Defence Board of Inquiry on the sinking of the Sheffield concluded that, based upon available evidence, some of the crew and members of the task force believed that the missiles 165 kilograms warhead had detonated
The Suez Crisis, named the Tripartite Aggression and the Kadesh Operation or Sinai War, was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The aims were to regain Western control of the Suez Canal, after the fighting had started, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. The episode humiliated Great Britain and France and strengthened Nasser, on October 29, Israel invaded the Egyptian Sinai. Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to cease fire, which was ignored, on November 5, Britain and France landed paratroopers along the Suez Canal. The Egyptian forces were defeated, but they did block the canal to all shipping and it became clear that the Israeli invasion and the subsequent Anglo-French attack had been planned beforehand by the three countries. The three allies had attained a number of their objectives, but the Canal was now useless and heavy political pressure from the United States. U. S.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower had strongly warned Britain not to invade, historians conclude the crisis signified the end of Great Britains role as one of the worlds major powers. The Suez Canal was closed from October 1956 until March 1957, Israel fulfilled some of its objectives, such as attaining freedom of navigation through the Straits of Tiran. The Suez Canal was opened in 1869, after ten years of work financed by the French, the canal instantly became strategically important, as it provided the shortest ocean link between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. The canal eased commerce for trading nations and particularly helped European colonial powers to gain, in 1875, as a result of debt and financial crisis, the Egyptian ruler was forced to sell his shares in the canal operating company to the British government of Benjamin Disraeli. They were willing buyers and obtained a 44 percent share in the operations for less than £4 million. With the 1882 invasion and occupation of Egypt, the United Kingdom took de facto control of the country as well as the canal proper, the 1888 Convention of Constantinople declared the canal a neutral zone under British protection.
In ratifying it, the Ottoman Empire agreed to international shipping to pass freely through the canal, in time of war. The Convention came into force in 1904, the year as the Entente cordiale between Britain and France. Following the Japanese surprise attack on the Russian Pacific Fleet based at Port Arthur, the British denied the Russian fleet use of the canal and forced it to steam around Africa, giving the Japanese forces time to consolidate their position in East Asia. The importance of the canal as an intersection was again apparent during the First World War. The attempt by German and Ottoman forces to storm the canal in February 1915 led the British to commit 100,000 troops to the defense of Egypt for the rest of the war. The canal continued to be strategically important after the Second World War as a conduit for the shipment of oil, petroleum business historian Daniel Yergin wrote of the period, In 1948, the canal abruptly lost its traditional rationale
Sir John William Frederic Nott KCB is a former British Conservative Party politician prominent in the late 1970s and early 1980s. He featured heavily in the eye as Secretary of State for Defence during the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands. In 2016, he claimed David Cameron had poisoned the EU referendum debate, born in Bideford, the son of Richard Nott and Phyllis, Nott was educated at Bradfield College and was commissioned as a regular officer in the 2nd Gurkha Rifles. He served in the Malayan emergency after a period of service with the Royal Scots and he left to study law and economics at Trinity College, where he was President of the Cambridge Union Society. He was called to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1959, at Cambridge he met his future wife Miloska, a Slovene. Lady Nott was awarded an OBE in 2012 for her humanitarian work and they have two sons and a daughter. Nott was Member of Parliament for St Ives in Cornwall from 1966 to 1983 and he was the last person to commence his parliamentary career under the nearly obsolete National Liberal label.
The National Liberals were formally absorbed by the Conservatives in 1968, Nott served in the early 1970s government of Prime Minister Ted Heath as Economic Secretary to the Treasury. He joined the cabinet in 1976 and the Cabinet when Margaret Thatcher won the 1979 general election. With this appointment to the cabinet, he was made a Privy Counsellor and he served first as Secretary of State for Trade which incorporated The Department of Prices & Consumer Affairs. Nott was responsible for repealing the Prices & Incomes policy and played a role in the abolition of Exchange Control. The Department of Trade covered responsibility for Shipping and Aviation, Nott announced the privatisation of British Airways, the first privatisation of the Thatcher Government. He was moved to Defence in the reshuffle of January 1981 and he switched the resultant savings into nuclear submarines, naval weapon systems and air defence. He announced and took through Parliament the upgrading of the nuclear deterrent to the current Trident system, Nott offered his resignation as Defence Secretary to Thatcher following the Argentinian invasion of the Falklands in March 1982.
Unlike Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington, the resignation was not accepted, Nott remained Secretary of State for Defence throughout the four-month conflict. He was eventually replaced by Michael Heseltine in January 1983 when Nott announced he would not seek re-election in 1983, in the same year, he was knighted, as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. Nott, John Major and Malcolm Rifkind are the surviving members of Mrs Thatchers cabinet who do not currently sit in either house of Parliament. In 1985, he became Chairman and Chief Executive of the banking firm Lazard Brothers and he was Chairman of Hillsdown Holdings, a multi-national food company, the Canadian firm Maple Leaf Foods, Deputy Chairman of Royal Insurance and other companies
South Georgia Island
South Georgia is an island in the South Atlantic that is part of the British Overseas territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. South Georgia is 167.4 kilometres long and 1.4 to 37 km wide. The Island of South Georgia is said to have been first sighted in 1675 by Anthony de la Roché, a London merchant and it was sighted by a commercial Spanish ship named León operating out of Saint-Malo on 28 June or 29 June 1756
Nicholas Ridley, Baron Ridley of Liddesdale
Nicholas Ridley, Baron Ridley of Liddesdale, PC was a British Conservative Party politician and government minister. Responsible for the Falkland Islands, he tried to resolve the long-running sovereignty issue with Argentina, which detected Britain’s reluctance to defend the territory, and invaded it. As Secretary of State for Transport, Ridley performed a key function in building-up coal stocks in advance of the UK miners strike, as Secretary of State for the Environment, Ridley opposed a low-cost housing development near his own property, earning him the title of NIMBY. He was responsible for introducing the Community Charge, which was one of the factors leading to Thatchers resignation in 1990. He was created a peer in 1992. Ridley was the son of Matthew White Ridley, 3rd Viscount Ridley. His elder brother was Matthew Ridley, 4th Viscount Ridley, a contemporary at Eton was Tam Dalyell, Labour MP for West Lothian. Ridley held a national service commission as a Lieutenant in the 1st Battalion of The Loyal Regiment in 1947 and was a Territorial Army Captain in the Northumberland Hussars Yeomanry and he became a civil engineer and company director.
At the 1955 general election, Ridley unsuccessfully contested the safe Labour seat of Blyth and he was elected Member of Parliament for Cirencester and Tewkesbury at the 1959 election. He was appointed as Parliamentary Private Secretary in 1962, and from 1964 he was a Select Committee member before joining the front bench, in 1973, he formed the Selsdon Group, which was opposed to the abandonment of the radical 1970 manifesto by Edward Heath. He closed his speech at the groups launch by citing the Ten Cannots of William J. H. Boetcker. The members of the group were seen as disloyal at the time, in the face of this opposition the Conservative government once again reiterated that the Islanders wishes were paramount. British intelligence reports continued to suggest that Argentina would invade the Islands only if it was convinced there was no prospect of eventual transfer of sovereignty, Ridley advised that leaseback remained the only feasible solution and recommended that Britain initiate an education campaign to persuade the Islanders.
The proposal was rejected by Lord Carrington who felt that any attempt to put pressure on Islanders would be counter-productive. Argentina would go on to invade the islands in April 1982, beginning the Falklands War, from 1981 to 1983 Ridley was the Financial Secretary to the Treasury. After the 1983 election, Ridley – always regarded by Margaret Thatcher as one of us – was a beneficiary of her move to cull the Tory wets and joined her cabinet as Secretary of State for Transport. In that role he played a part in making preparations for a possible coal strike. The Thatcher government attached considerable importance to being prepared for a major miners strike
Michael Thomas Jeremy Clyde is an English actor and musician. During the 1960s, he was one-half of the folk duo Chad & Jeremy and he has enjoyed a long television acting career and continues to appear regularly, usually playing upper-middle class or aristocratic characters. Clyde was born in the village of Dorney in the English county of Buckinghamshire and is the son of Lady Elizabeth Wellesley, through his maternal line, Clyde is the great-great-great-grandson of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, and the cousin of the current Duke of Wellington. In 1953, he participated in the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II as a Page of Honour for his grandfather, in 1965, Clyde appeared in Passion Flower Hotel, a stage musical written by John Barry and Trevor Peacock, at The Prince of Wales theatre, London. It featured Jane Birkin, Francesca Annis, Pauline Collins, Nicky Henson, in 1969, he appeared in Conduct Unbecoming as part of the original cast, which included Paul Jones. He travelled to the US as part of the original Broadway cast and he appeared in the BBC TV adaptation of Moll Flanders in 1975, and in 1979 he played Godfried Schalcken in the BBCs television horror story Schalcken the Painter.
His other notable acting role was as Dick Spackman in the ITV sitcom Is it Legal, Clyde portrayed King Charles I in the BBC series By the Sword Divided, which focused on the English Civil War. In 2002, Clyde appeared in The Falklands Play as Sir Nicholas Henderson, in 2017 he played Dennis in The Girls at the Phoenix Theatre in the West End. Clyde is divorced from Vanessa Field, whom he married in 1970, Jeremy Clyde at the Internet Movie Database Official site of Chad Stuart & Jeremy Clyde / History
BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The corporation has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a royal charter since 1927 and it produced television programmes from its own studios since 1932, although the start of its regular service of television broadcasts is dated to 2 November 1936. The BBCs domestic television channels have no advertising and collectively they account for more than 30% of all UK viewing. The services are funded by a television licence, the BBC operates several television networks, television stations, and related programming services in the United Kingdom. As well as being a broadcaster, the corporation produces a number of its own programmes in-house. The simultaneous transmission of sound and pictures was achieved on 30 March 1930, by late 1930, thirty minutes of morning programmes were broadcast from Monday to Friday, and thirty minutes at midnight on Tuesdays and Fridays after BBC radio went off the air. Bairds broadcasts via the BBC continued until June 1932, the BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932.
Ally Pally housed two studios, various stores, make-up areas, dressing rooms and the transmitter itself. BBC television initially used two systems on alternate weeks, the 240-line Baird intermediate film system and the 405-line Marconi-EMI system. The use of both made the BBCs service the worlds first regular high-definition television service, it broadcast from Monday to Saturday between 15,00 and 16,00, and 21,00 and 22,00. The two systems were to run on a basis for six months, early television sets supported both resolutions. Television production was switched from Bairds company to what is now known as BBC One on 2 August 1932, regularly scheduled electronically scanned television began from Alexandra Palace in London on 2 November 1936, to just a few hundred viewers in the immediate area. The first programme broadcast – and thus the first ever, on a dedicated TV channel – was Opening of the BBC Television Service at 15,00, the first major outside broadcast was the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937.
The service was reaching an estimated 25, 000–40,000 homes before the outbreak of World War II which caused the service to be suspended in September 1939. Also, many of the services technical staff and engineers would be needed for the war effort. According to figures from Britains Radio Manufacturers Association,18,999 television sets had been manufactured from 1936 to September 1939, BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15,00. Jasmine Bligh, one of the announcers, made the first announcement, saying. Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh, the Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later