Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us
The Final Programme
The Final Programme is a novel by British science fiction and fantasy writer Michael Moorcock. Written in 1965 as the underground culture was beginning to emerge, it was not published for several years. Moorcock has stated that publishers at the time considered it was "too freaky", it was the first of his Jerry Cornelius series of novels and stories and was published in paperback in the US by Avon Books in 1968 in London in hardback by Allison & Busby in October 1969. It was made into a 1973 film of the same name, but Moorcock was critical of the version released on the screen. Set in a world less abstract and chaotic than depicted in the volumes, it introduces Jerry Cornelius as a hip super agent playboy and follows his adventures as he attempts to subvert a plot by his disreputable brother Frank and Miss Brunner to build a super computer for nefarious ends. Jerry is sucked into the plans of Miss Brunner to create the perfect being by merging the bodies of Jerry and herself together; when this is done, a radiantly charismatic hermaphroditic being emerges from the machinery.
All who see the new creature fall quaking to their knees. As things turn out, Jerry discovers that "it's a tasty world". Contrary to the apparent chaos of the Cornelius novels, The Final Programme is quite structured, being an alternative retelling of major episodes of the saga of Elric of Melniboné, with the various characters each taking roles similar to those of the earlier stories: Jerry as Elric, Catherine as Cymoril, Miss Brunner as Stormbringer; the first US edition of this work was censored. The 1976 US edition of The Final Programme included an introduction by Norman Spinrad; the novel was first published in its revised form in 1979. Tuck, Donald H.. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. P. 317. ISBN 0-911682-22-8
Incest is human sexual activity between family members or close relatives. This includes sexual activity between people in consanguinity, sometimes those related by affinity, clan, or lineage; the incest taboo is one of the most widespread of all cultural taboos, both in present and in past societies. Most modern societies have laws regarding incest or social restrictions on consanguineous marriages. In societies where it is illegal, consensual adult incest is seen by some as a victimless crime; some cultures extend the incest taboo to relatives with no consanguinity such as milk-siblings, step-siblings, adoptive siblings, albeit sometimes with less intensity. Third-degree relatives on average share 12.5% genes, sexual relations between them are viewed differently in various cultures, from being discouraged to being acceptable. Children of incestuous relationships have been regarded as illegitimate, are still so regarded in some societies today. In most cases, the parents did not have the option to marry to remove that status, as incestuous marriages were, are also prohibited.
A common justification for prohibiting incest is avoiding inbreeding: a collection of genetic disorders suffered by the children of parents with a close genetic relationship. Such children are at greater risk for congenital disorders and developmental and physical disability, that risk is proportional to their parents' coefficient of relationship—a measure of how the parents are related genetically, but cultural anthropologists have noted that inbreeding avoidance cannot form the sole basis for the incest taboo because the boundaries of the incest prohibition vary between cultures, not in ways that maximize the avoidance of inbreeding. In some societies, such as those of Ancient Egypt, brother–sister, father–daughter, mother–son, cousin–cousin, aunt–nephew, uncle–niece, other combinations of relations within a royal family were married as a means of perpetuating the royal lineage; some societies, such as the Balinese and some Inuit tribes, have different views about what constitutes illegal and immoral incest.
However, sexual relations with a first-degree relative are universally forbidden. The English word incest is derived from the Latin incestus, which has a general meaning of "impure, unchaste", it was introduced into Middle English, both in the generic Latin sense and in the narrow modern sense. The derived adjective incestuous appears in the 16th century. Before the Latin term came in, incest was known in Old English as sib-leger or mǣġhǣmed but in time, both words fell out of use. Terms like incester and incestual have been used to describe those interested or involved in sexual relations with relatives among humans, while inbreeder has been used in relation to similar behavior among non-human animals or organisms. Other words that describe sexual attraction to relatives include consanguinophilia, synegenesophilia and incestophilia. In ancient China, first cousins with the same surnames were not permitted to marry, while those with different surnames were. Several of the Egyptian Pharaohs had several children with them.
For example, Tutankhamun married his half-sister Ankhesenamun, was himself the child of an incestuous union between Akhenaten and an unidentified sister-wife. It is now accepted that sibling marriages were widespread among all classes in Egypt during the Graeco-Roman period. Numerous papyri and the Roman census declarations attest to many husbands and wives being brother and sister, of the same father and mother; the most famous of these relationships were in the Ptolemaic royal family. The fable of Oedipus, with a theme of inadvertent incest between a mother and son, ends in disaster and shows ancient taboos against incest as Oedipus is punished for incestuous actions by blinding himself. In the "sequel" to Oedipus, his four children are punished for their parents' incestuousness. Incest appears in the accepted version of the birth of Adonis, when his mother, Myrrha has sex with her father Cinyras during a festival, disguised as a prostitute. In Ancient Greece, Spartan King Leonidas I, hero of the legendary Battle of Thermopylae, was married to his niece Gorgo, daughter of his half-brother Cleomenes I.
Greek law allowed marriage between a sister if they had different mothers. For example, some accounts say. Incest is mentioned and condemned in Virgil's Aeneid Book VI: hic thalamum invasit natae vetitosque hymenaeos. Roman civil law prohibited marriages within four degrees of consanguinity but had no degrees of affinity with regards to marriage. Roman civil laws prohibited any marriage between parents and children, either in the ascending or descending line ad infinitum. Adoption was considered the same as affinity in that an adoptive father could not marry an unemancipated daughter or granddaughter if the adoption had been dissolved. Incestuous unions were considered nefas in ancient Rome. In AD 295 incest was explicitly forbidden by an imperial edict, which divided
David Terence Puttnam, Baron Puttnam, is a British film producer and educator. His productions include Chariots of Fire, he sits on the Labour benches in the House of Lords. Puttnam was born in Southgate, England, the son of Marie Beatrix, a homemaker of Jewish origin, Leonard Arthur Puttnam, a photographer. Educated at Minchenden Grammar School in London, Puttnam had an early career in advertising, including five formative years at Collett Dickenson Pearce, as agent acting for the photographers David Bailey and Brian Duffy, he turned to film production in the late 1960s, working with Sanford Lieberson's production company Goodtimes Enterprises. The first feature he produced was Melody based on a script by Alan Parker, a minor hit, he and Lieberson produced the documentaries Peacemaking 1919, Glastonbury Fayre, Bringing It All Back Home. Puttnam and Lieberson's second film, The Pied Piper, directed by Jacques Demy was not a success, but That'll Be the Day with David Essex was a hit, they produced The Final Programme, a science fiction film, made some more documentaries, Double Headed Eagle: Hitler's Rise to Power 1918-1933, Swastika.
Puttnam and Lieberson executive produced the Ken Russell biopic Mahler, did a sequel to That'll Be The Day, directed by Michael Apted. There were more documentaries: Radio Wonderful, Brother Can You Spare a Dime, James Dean: The First American Teenager and The Memory of Justice. A second film with Russell, was a box office disaster and led to the end of the Puttnam-Lieberson partnership. Puttnam had a box office success with Bugsy Malone, a musical he executive produced and directed by Alan Parker and produced by Alan Marshall, it was the last film. He set up Enigma Films. Puttnam produced Ridley Scott's debut as The Duellists. More successful was Midnight Express which he produced with Marshall, directed by Parker from a script by Oliver Stone, it was a notable box office success. Puttnam made his first film in America, the directorial debut of Adrian Lyne, it was a box office flop. Puttnam's next film was his most successful yet. Chariots of Fire, the first feature directed by Hugh Hudson, became a massive hit and won the Academy Award for Best Picture.
It was produced in association with Goldcrest Pictures. Puttnam set up a TV company, Enigma TV, made a series of TV movies in association with Goldcrest which carry Puttnam's name as executive producer. Six were made as a series called "First Love" for the fledgling Channel Four: P'tang, Kipperbang, directed by Apted, but Not Essential. Other films produced for television were Forever Young. Puttnam continued to produce features, he had another success with Local Hero and directed by Bill Forsythe. He did the acclaimed Cal, directed by Pat O'Connor and The Killing Fields, directed by Roland Joffe, he continued to executive produce TV movies like The Frog Prince, Mr. Love, Defense of the Realm, Knights & Emeralds, he produced The Mission directed by Joffe from a script by Robert Bolt which won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 1986). Puttnam was chairman and CEO of Columbia Pictures from June 1986 until September 1987. Puttnam returned to producing individual films with Memphis Belle, Meeting Venus, A Dangerous Man: Lawrence After Arabia, Being Human, War of the Buttons, The Confessional, My Life So Far.
He executive produced The Josephine Baker Story, Without Warning: The James Brady Story, The Burning Season. In 1998, he retired from film production to focus on his work in the environment. In 1983, Puttnam was appointed as a Commander of The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. In 1995 Puttnam was appointed as a Knight Bachelor. In 1997, Puttnam was created as a life peer and was granted Letters Patent to become Baron Puttnam, of Queensgate in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. In 1998, Puttnam was named in a list of financial donors to the British Labour Party. In 2002, he chaired the joint scrutiny committee on the Communications Bill, which recommended an amendment to prevent ownership of British terrestrial TV stations by companies with a significant share of the newspaper market; this was interpreted as being aimed at stopping Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation from buying channel Five. When the government opposed the amendment, Puttnam brokered a compromise – the introduction of a "public interest" test to be applied by the new regulator Ofcom, but without explicit restrictions.
From 2004 to 2005, Puttnam chaired the Hansard Society Commission on Communication of Parliamentary Democracy, the final report of which urged all political parties to commit to a renewal of parliamentary life in an attempt to reinvigorate representative democracy. In 2007, he chaired the Joint Parliamentary Committee on the Draft Climate Change Bill. Since November 2012, he has been the Prime Ministerial Trade Envoy to Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar. In December 2012, who lives in Skibbereen, County Cork, was named Ireland’s Digital Champion by Communications Minister Pat Rabbitte, TD. In August 2014, Puttnam was one of 200 public figures who were signatories to a letter to The Guardian oppo
Julie Ege was a Norwegian actress and model, who appeared in many British films of the 1960s and 1970s. Ege was born in the daughter of brickyard worker Marton Ege and Hjørdis Halvorsen. At the age of 15, she began to work as a model. In 1962, she came second in Miss Norway at the age of 18, subsequently participated in Miss Universe. In 1967, she moved to England to work as an au pair to improve her English, there studied at a language school, she made her film debut in a low-budget Norwegian film Stompa til sjøs. She was a Penthouse Pet of May which landed her a role in 1969's On Her Majesty's Secret Service as Helen, the "Scandinavian girl", she starred in Hammer Film Productions' Creatures the World Forgot and The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires. Her other appearances include Every Home Should Have One with Marty Feldman, the Gluttony segment of The Magnificent Seven Deadly Sins. Ege is best remembered for her role in the 1971 comedy hit film Up Pompeii alongside Frankie Howerd, she played a Roman ruler.
Her voice, was overdubbed by another actress for the film. On being introduced to Lance Percival's character, who says "Madame, it's a pleasure", her famous response is "Yes, I know. I've tried it". On Saturday August 22 1971, Ege presented Ivan Mauger with the European Speedway title trophy at Wembley before a crowd of around 75,000. In a UK TV documentary a few years before her death, she stated that she never minded being labelled a glamour actress and that it had been a good life that helped pay the bills, she returned to Norway and did a few films before qualifying as a registered nurse in 1998. She lived in Oslo. Ege had two daughters. In the'70s she lived with The Beatles' tour roadie Tony Bramwell, with the Norwegian author Anders Bye. After her movie and modelling career she studied nursing, she graduated from the University of Oslo where she studied History and English, after which she finished her nursing exams and continued working in the public health sector in Oslo. Her career, as well as her illness is described in detail in her autobiography, published in 2002.
She died from breast cancer at the age of 64 on 29 April 2008. She had been treated for breast cancer and lung cancer. Robbery – Hostess Stompa til Sjøs! On Her Majesty's Secret Service – The Scandinavian girl Every Home Should Have One – Inga Giltenburg Up Pompeii – Voluptua Creatures the World Forgot – Nala – The Girl The Magnificent Seven Deadly Sins – Ingrid Go for a Take – April Rentadick – Utta Armitage The Alf Garnett Saga – Herself Not Now, Darling – Janie McMichael Kanarifuglen – Kari, flyvertinne The Final Programme – Miss Dazzle Craze – Helena The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires – Vanessa Buren Percy's Progress – Miss Hanson Den siste Fleksnes – Herself The Mutations – Hedi Bortreist på ubestemt tid – Christina The Amorous Milkman – Diana De Dwaze Lotgevallen von Sherlock Jones – Sondag's secretaresse Fengslende dager for Christina Berg – Krags hustru Naken H. Aschehoug & Co. Oslo 2002. ISBN 82-03-22706-6 Julie Ege on IMDb Julie Ege at HorrorStars Obituary: The Guardian Obituary: The Independent Biography in Norwegian, from the Norwegian Biographical Lexicon
Clement Graham Crowden was a Scottish actor. He was best known for his many appearances in television comedy dramas and films playing eccentric "offbeat" scientist and doctor characters. Graham Crowden was born in the son of Anne Margaret and Harry Graham Crowden, he was educated at Clifton Hall School and the Edinburgh Academy before serving in the Royal Scots Youth Battalion of the army until he was injured in a bizarre accident. During arms drill he was shot by his platoon sergeant; the sergeant enquired "What is it now, Crowden?", to which Crowden replied "I think you've shot me, sergeant." He found work in a tannery. Crowden had a long and distinguished theatrical career, most notably at Laurence Olivier's National Theatre where he performed as The Player King in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, the play by Tom Stoppard, he played mad scientists in film, taking the role of Doctor Millar in the Mick Travis films of director Lindsay Anderson, O Lucky Man! and Britannia Hospital and playing the sinister Doctor Smiles in the film of Michael Moorcock's first Jerry Cornelius novel, The Final Programme.
He played the eccentric history master in Anderson's if..... In 1970, he appeared in the popular Thames Television series Callan as The Groper, a de-registered doctor, in Wormwood Scrubs called on by Callan, when unofficial medical assistance was required. In 1975, he made an appearance in "No Way Out" – an episode of the British sitcom Porridge alongside Ronnie Barker, Brian Wilde, Richard Beckinsale and Fulton Mackay, as the prison doctor when Fletcher was complaining of an injured leg, he was offered the role of the Fourth Doctor in Doctor Who in 1974, when Jon Pertwee left the role but turned it down, informing producer Barry Letts that he was not prepared to commit himself to the series for three years. The role went to Tom Baker, he appeared in The Horns of Nimon as a villain opposite Baker. This was the reason why Ian Marter was hired, as the producers and directors considered Crowden too old to be seen running about and taking on a larger physical role. A regular role was in the BBC comedy-drama A Very Peculiar Practice as the alcoholic Dr. Jock McCannon.
In 1990, he appeared as a lecherous peer in the BBC comedy Don't Wait Up and in 1991 he played a modest role in the Rumpole of the Bailey episode "Rumpole and the Quacks", portraying Sir Hector MacAuliffe, the head of a medical inquest into the potential sexual misconduct on the part of Dr. Ghulam Rahmat. In 1990, he landed the role of Tom Ballard in the sitcom Waiting for God, opposite Stephanie Cole's character Diana Trent, as the two rebellious retirement home residents; the show was a major success. In 1994, Crowden played the part of Professor Pollux in the BBC TV adaptation of the John Hadfield novel Love on a Branch Line. Crowden voiced the role of Mustrum Ridcully in the 1997 animated Cosgrove Hall production of Terry Pratchett's Soul Music. In 2001, he guest-starred in the Midsomer Murders episode "Ring Out Your Dead" and played The Marquis of Auld Reekie in The Way We Live Now. Between 2001 and 2002, he played a role in the BBC Radio 4 comedy series The Leopard in Autumn. In 2003, he made a cameo appearance as a sadistic naval school teacher in The Lost Prince.
In 2005–08, he starred in the BBC Radio 4 sci-fi comedy Nebulous as Sir Ronald Rolands. In 2008, he appeared as a guest star in Foyle's War. For many years towards the end of his life, he lived in Mill Hill, London NW7. Crowden died on 19 October 2010 in Edinburgh after a short illness. Crowden is survived by his wife, Phyllida Hewat, whom he married in 1952, a son and three daughters, one of whom, followed him into acting. Michael Palin, Halfway to Hollywood, p. 162 Graham Crowden on IMDb Obituary in The Guardian Obituary in The Independent
A needlegun known as a needler, flechette gun or fletcher, is a firearm that fires small, sometimes fin-stabilized, metal darts or flechettes. Theoretically, the advantages of a needlegun over conventional projectile firearms are in its compact size, high rate of fire, extreme muzzle velocity. A needlegun leverages the principles of kinetic energy and conservation of momentum, resulting in a low-recoil delivery system capable of inflicting significant damage to a soft target. Although it has extreme velocity, the needle possesses little mass, delivering the equivalent kinetic energy of a larger projectile, but with less recoil-causing momentum. There have been experiments to make guided flechettes; the first projectiles in early gun systems dating from the 14th century were hand wrought iron flechettes wrapped in a leather sabot. However, due to the expense and trouble of making these darts in a pre-industrial society, they were soon replaced with the less accurate stone cannonball. Flechettes again came into mass use in the years before World War I.
Starting as early as 1910, the French began experimenting with air-dropped flechettes. A June 1978 issue of Gallery Magazine quotes L. Fletcher Prouty observing a test of flechette weapons in 1960 and the testimony of William E. Colby in the Church Committee on September 16 to 18, 1975 describing flechette weapons. Charles A. Senseney testified that he was a project engineer of the M-1 dart launcher, described as resembling a M1911 pistol with a sight mount at the top. Senseney claimed the M-1 was designed for the US Army Special Forces to be used in the Vietnam war but never got there due to not being able to get into the US Army's logistics system in time. Flechette ammunition encased in a sabot was available for the M-16, other weapons for use in Vietnam. A June 1965 Esquire magazine story on the making of the then-upcoming James Bond film Thunderball featured drawings of dart firing pistols that were not used in the completed film. At the same time several makes of underwater firearms fired a steel bolt just over 4 inches long.
The Special Purpose Individual Weapon was a long-running United States Army program to develop, in part, a workable XM-216 flechette-based "rifle", though other concepts were involved. The concepts continued to be tested under the Future Rifle Program and again in the 1980s and 1990s under the Advanced Combat Rifle program, but neither program resulted in a system useful enough to warrant replacing the current M16. SCMITR Steyr ACR