Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Stardust We Are
Stardust We Are is the third studio album by the progressive rock band The Flower Kings, released in 1997. It is the band's first double-CD studio album and includes the epic composition and title track, "Stardust We Are," which has since become one of the band's signature songs. All songs composed by Roine Stolt, except where noted. An * denotes instrumental tracks. Roine Stolt – vocals, keyboards, bass guitar Tomas Bodin – keyboards Michael Stolt – bass guitar Jaime Salazar – drums Hasse Bruniusson – percussion Hasse Fröberg – vocals Ulf Wallander – soprano saxophoneProductionHippiefied Art – book Stefan Bodin – photography Lilian Forsberg – photography Dexter Frank Jr. – engineer, mixing Per Nordin – photography David Palermo – artwork, image design
The saxophone is a family of woodwind instruments. Saxophones are made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet. Although most saxophones are made from brass, they are categorized as woodwind instruments, because sound is produced by an oscillating reed, traditionally made out of woody cane, rather than lips vibrating in a mouthpiece cup as with the brass instrument family; as with the other woodwinds, the pitch of the note being played is controlled by covering holes in the body tube to control the resonant frequency of the air column by changing the effective length of the tube. The saxophone is used in classical music, military bands, marching bands and contemporary music; the saxophone is used as a solo and melody instrument or as a member of a horn section in some styles of rock and roll and popular music. Saxophone players are called saxophonists. Since the first saxophone was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in the early 1840s, saxophones have been produced in a variety of series distinguished by transpositions within instrument sets and tuning standard.
Sax patented the saxophone on June 1846, in two groups of seven instruments each. Each series consisted in alternating transposition; the series pitched in B♭ and E♭ soon became dominant and most saxophones encountered today are from this series. Instruments from the series pitched in C and F never gained a foothold and constituted only a small percentage of instruments made by Sax. High Pitch saxophones tuned sharper than the A = 440 Hz standard were produced into the early twentieth century for sonic qualities suited for outdoor uses, but are not playable to modern tuning and are considered obsolete. Low Pitch saxophones are equivalent in tuning to modern instruments. C soprano and C melody saxophones were produced for the casual market as parlor instruments during the early twentieth century. Saxophones in F never gained acceptance; the modern saxophone family consists of instruments in the B♭ - E♭ series and experimental instruments notwithstanding. The saxophones with widest use and availability are the sopranos, altos and baritones.
In the keyed ranges of the various saxophones, the pitch is controlled by keys with shallow cups in which are fastened leather pads that seal toneholes, controlling the resonant length, thereby frequency, of the air column within the body tube. Small holes called vents, located between the toneholes and the mouthpiece, are opened by an octave key to raise the pitch by eliminating the fundamental frequency, leaving the first harmonic as the frequency defining the pitch. Most modern saxophones are keyed to produce a low B♭ with all keys closed; the highest keyed note has traditionally been F two and a half octaves above low B♭, while the keyed range is extended to F♯ on most recent performance-class instruments. A high G key is most common on modern soprano saxophones. Notes above F are considered part of the altissimo register of any saxophone, can be produced using advanced embouchure techniques and fingering combinations. Keywork facilitating altissimo playing is a feature of modern saxophones.
Modern saxophone players have extended the range to over four octaves on alto. Music for most saxophones is notated using treble clef; because all saxophones use the same key arrangement and fingering to produce a given notated pitch, it is not difficult for a competent player to switch among the various sizes when the music has been suitably transposed, many do so. Since the baritone and alto are pitched in E♭, players can read concert pitch music notated in the bass clef by reading it as if it were treble clef and adding three sharps to the key signature; this process, referred to as clef substitution, makes it possible for the Eb instruments to play from parts written for baritone horn, euphonium, string bass, trombone, or tuba. This can be useful if a orchestra lacks one of those instruments; the straight soprano and sopranino saxophones consist of a straight conical tube with a flared bell at the end opposite the mouthpiece. The interior of the tube is called the bore. Alto and larger saxophones include a detachable curved neck above the highest tone hole, directing the mouthpiece to the player's mouth and, with rare exceptions, a U-shaped bow that directs the bell upward and a curve in the throat of the bell directing it forward.
The set of curves near the bell has become a distinctive feature of the saxophone family, to the extent that soprano and sopranino saxes are sometimes made in the curved style. The baritone and contrabass saxophones accommodate the length of the bore with extra bows and right-angle bends between the main body and the mouthpiece; the left hand operates keys from the upper part of the body tube while the right hand operates keys from the lower part. The right thumb sits under a thumb hook and left thumb is placed on a thumb rest to stabilize and balance the saxophone, while the weight of most saxophones is supported by a neckstrap attached to a strap ring on the rear of the body of the instrument; the left thumb operates the octave key. With soprano and smaller saxophones weight tends to be borne by the right thumb while a neckstrap provides security for the instrument. Keys consist of the cups, and
The Sum of No Evil
The Sum of No Evil is the tenth studio album by the progressive rock band The Flower Kings, with the return of the drummer Zoltan Csörsz. The limited edition is supplied with a bonus disc. All tracks written except where noted. Roine Stolt - vocals, additional keyboards Tomas Bodin - piano, synthesizers, mellotron Hasse Fröberg - vocals, guitars Jonas Reingold - bass guitar Zoltan Csörsz - drumswith Hasse Bruniusson - marimba, percussion Ulf Wallander - soprano saxophone Ed Unitsky - album artwork
Kaipa is a Swedish progressive rock musical group. The band was begun as Ura Kaipa by Tomas Eriksson. Roine Stolt joined Kaipa as guitarist when he was 17. In 1974, shortly after they had cut the "Ura" from the name of the band, they released their self-titled debut album. Stolt, who founded The Flower Kings, quit after the recording of Mindrevolutions, the band has continued without him. In 2014, original members Roine Stolt, Ingemar Bergman, Tomas Eriksson re-grouped under the name Kaipa DaCapo to play the old music from the first three albums as well as brand new music. New members of the band are Mikael Stolt, brother of Roine, on vocals and guitar, renowned Swedish musician Max Lorentz on keyboards. Recording of a new album began in June 2016 with a scheduled release in September and an extended European and Scandinavian tour in the autumn. Current Line-Up Hans Lundin – keyboards, backing vocals Patrik Lundström – vocals Aleena Gibson – vocals Jonas Reingold – bass Morgan Ågren – drums Per Nilsson – guitars Former Members Roine Stolt – guitars, backing vocals Ingemar Bergman – drums Tomas Eriksson – bass Mats Lindberg – bass Mats Löfgren – vocals Max Åhman – guitars Mats "Microben" Lindberg – bass Per "Pelle" Andersson – drums Kaipa Inget Nytt Under Solen Solo Händer Nattdjurstid Stockholm Symphonie Notes from the Past Keyholder Mindrevolutions Angling Feelings In the Wake of Evolution Vittjar Sattyg Children of the Sounds The Decca Years 1975–1978 The Flower Kings Kaipa: Notes From the Past 2010 interview with Hans Lundin on Prog Sphere 2013 Interview with Hans Lundin on Lebmetal
Desolation Rose is the twelfth studio album by the progressive rock band The Flower Kings, released on 28 October 2013. The album peaked at #35 in the 2013 Top Heatseekers chart. Roine Stolt - vocals, guitars Hasse Fröberg - vocals, guitars Jonas Reingold - bass guitar Tomas Bodin - keyboards Felix Lehrmann - drums
Roine Stolt is a Swedish guitarist and composer. A major figure in Sweden's rock history, Stolt led two of his country's most successful progressive rock bands: Kaipa in the 1970s and The Flower Kings in the 1990s onward. Stolt started his career in the late 1960s playing bass guitar in local rock bands, he switched in the brief sojourn with Allman Brothers-influenced Orexis. In 1974 he became the guitarist in Kaipa, a professional progressive rock band, he was 17 years old at that time, the group made three successful albums and toured more than 100 gigs a year, including national TV and radio performances in Scandinavia. In 1979 he made two albums; the group split up in 1983 and Stolt started working as a solo and session musician and producer. It was at this point I felt I had learned to master the guitar that my career as singer started on the 1985 album "Behind The Walls", a melodic and romantic album more in the style of Jackson Browne or Hall & Oates. In the late 80's he started his own publishing and recording label called Foxtrot Music and was involved in various projects including live performances and recording sessions with other artists going from symphonic rock towards more traditional rock, pop, folk and jazz.
Under the "Stolt" project he released "The Lonely Heartbeat" in 1989, the sound is a mix of pop and complex rock. Witnessing the progressive rock revival of the 1990s, a movement that originated from Sweden with bands like Landberk and Änglagård, Roine Stolt was quick to come back to his ancient love. Recruiting ex-Jonas Hellborg drummer Jaime Salazar and ex-Samla Mammas Manna percussionist Hasse Bruniusson, he released The Flower King in mid-August 1994. Stimulated by the warm response, he enlisted brother Michael Stolt and longtime friend Tomas Bodin and formed the Flower Kings, which would remain his principal musical project for years to come, it was an album that tried to unleash the forces of good in the negative, aggressive, competitive music business of today. Reinstate the old hippie ideals and musically. In 1998 he released his second solo album Hydrophonia which reveals major influences by early progressive musicians such as Frank Zappa and Steve Howe among others. In the year 2000 Stolt worked in two different projects, the supergroup Transatlantic, the re-launch of Kaipa in which he was involved in three albums from 2002–2005.
He re-entered the studio with Transatlantic in 2009, for an album release in the year. In 2013, Stolt and The Flower Kings joined Neal Morse for a co-headlining tour in which the members of both bands collaborated for an encore consisting of Transatlantic songs, as 3 of the 4 members of Transatlantic were present. In 2015 Stolt joined Steve Hackett's touring band as bassist and guitarist for Hackett's Acolyte to Wolflight with Genesis Revisited Tour. On 24 June 2016, the duo Stolt and Jon Anderson had formed released their debut studio album entitled Invention of Knowledge. In 2017, Stolt co-formed the supergroup The Sea Within. Stolt and his wife Lilian have two sons, Johan Sebastian and Peter Gabriel, named after two of his all-time musical idols. Roine Stolt biography at The Flower Kings official site Article in AMG by François Couture