Andrew Lang was a Scottish poet, literary critic, and contributor to the field of anthropology. He is best known as a collector of folk and fairy tales, the Andrew Lang lectures at the University of St Andrews are named after him. On 17 April 1875, he married Leonora Blanche Alleyne, youngest daughter of C. T. Alleyne of Clifton and she was variously credited as author, collaborator, or translator of Langs Color/Rainbow Fairy Books which he edited. He soon made a reputation as one of the most able and versatile writers of the day as a journalist, critic, in 1906, he was elected FBA. He died of angina pectoris at the Tor-na-Coille Hotel in Banchory, Banchory and he was buried in the cathedral precincts at St Andrews. Lang is now known for his publications on folklore, mythology. The interest in folklore was from early life, he read John Ferguson McLennan before coming to Oxford, the earliest of his publications is Custom and Myth. In Myth and Religion he explained the irrational elements of mythology as survivals from more primitive forms and his Blue Fairy Book was a beautifully produced and illustrated edition of fairy tales that has become a classic.
This was followed by other collections of fairy tales, collectively known as Andrew Langs Fairy Books. In the preface of the Lilac Fairy Book he credits his wife with translating and transcribing most of the stories in the collections, Lang examined the origins of totemism in Social Origins. Lang was one of the founders of psychical research and his writings on anthropology include The Book of Dreams and Ghosts and Religion. He served as President of the Society for Psychical Research in 1911. He collaborated with S. H. Butcher in a translation of Homers Odyssey. He was a Homeric scholar of conservative views, Langs writings on Scottish history are characterised by a scholarly care for detail, a piquant literary style, and a gift for disentangling complicated questions. He wrote monographs on The Portraits and Jewels of Mary Stuart and James VI, the somewhat unfavourable view of John Knox presented in his book John Knox and the Reformation aroused considerable controversy. He gave new information about the career of the Young Pretender in Pickle the Spy, an account of Alestair Ruadh MacDonnell, whom he identified with Pickle.
This was followed by The Companions of Pickle and a monograph on Prince Charles Edward, in 1900 he began a History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation. He edited The Poems and Songs of Robert Burns, and was responsible for the Life and Letters of JG Lockhart, and The Life and Diaries of Sir Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh
University College London
University College London is a public research university in London, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It is the largest postgraduate institution in the UK by enrollment and is regarded as one of the worlds leading research universities. UCL makes the claims of being the third-oldest university in England. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, which was granted a charter in the same year. UCL has its campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within there are over 100 departments, institutes. In 2015/16, UCL had around 38,300 students and 12,000 staff and had an income of £1.36 billion. UCL ranks highly in national and international league tables and its graduates rank among the most employable in the world, UCL academics discovered five of the naturally occurring noble gases, co-discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, and made several foundational advances in modern statistics.
There are at least 29 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists amongst UCLs alumni and current, UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge. London Universitys first Warden was Leonard Horner, who was the first scientist to head a British university and this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, in 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would become University College School, in 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a hospital for the universitys medical school.
In 1836, London University was incorporated by charter under the name University College. The Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, in 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women. The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. Armstrong College, an institution of Newcastle University, allowed women to enter from its foundation in 1871. Women were finally admitted to medical studies during the First World War in 1917, in 1898, Sir William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCL
Alfred Trübner Nutt was a British publisher, now best known for his writing as folklorist and Celticist. Nutt was born in London, the eldest son of publisher David Nutt and his mother was the granddaughter of another well-known publisher, William Miller. He was educated at the University College London School, University College London and at College de Vitry-le-François, in Vitry-le-François and he spent three years serving a business apprenticeship in Leipzig and Paris, before taking over his late fathers business in 1878. He was elected president of the Folklore Society in 1897, Nutt was a friend and supporter of Jessie Weston, sharing her interest in Celtic origins of the Grail legend, and publishing some of her books. He was associated with Whitley Stokes, Eleanor Hull and Kuno Meyer and he was instrumental to the establishment of the Irish Texts Society and his firm published the early volumes of Society from 1899 to 1914. He wrote studies of the Mabinogion and was working on an edition of Matthew Arnolds Study of Celtic Literature at the time of his death.
Nutt drowned in the Seine on 21 May 1910 while attempting to rescue his invalid 17-year-old son who had been dragged into the river when his horse bolted and his wife M. L. Nutt succeeded him as head of the firm. J. Wood, Folklore studies at the Celtic dawn, the rôle of Alfred Nutt as publisher and scholar, Folklore,110, 3–12
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUPs chief executive, Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The university became involved in the print trade around 1480, and grew into a printer of Bibles, prayer books. OUP took on the project became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, by contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year. OUP was first exempted from United States corporation tax in 1972, as a department of a charity, OUP is exempt from income tax and corporate tax in most countries, but may pay sales and other commercial taxes on its products.
The OUP today transfers 30% of its surplus to the rest of the university. OUP is the largest university press in the world by the number of publications, publishing more than 6,000 new books every year, the Oxford University Press Museum is located on Great Clarendon Street, Oxford. Visits must be booked in advance and are led by a member of the archive staff, displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, and the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary. The first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood, the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinuss Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer. Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as 1468, thus apparently pre-dating Caxton, roods printing included John Ankywylls Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century, the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxfords case.
Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, Oxfords chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the universitys printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute, Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, and benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers Company and the Kings Printer and these were brought together in Oxfords Great Charter in 1636, which gave the university the right to print all manner of books. Laud obtained the privilege from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford and this privilege created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although initially it was held in abeyance. The Stationers Company was deeply alarmed by the threat to its trade, under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes
Margaret Alice Murray was an Anglo-Indian Egyptologist, anthropologist and folklorist. The first woman to be appointed as a lecturer in archaeology in the United Kingdom and she served as President of the Folklore Society from 1953 to 1955, and published widely over the course of her career. Born to a wealthy middle-class English family in Calcutta, British India, recognising that British Egyptomania reflected the existence of a widespread public interest in Ancient Egypt, Murray wrote several books on Egyptology targeted at a general audience. Murray became involved in the first-wave feminist movement, joining the Womens Social and Political Union. Although academically discredited, the theory gained widespread attention and proved a significant influence on the new religious movement of Wicca. From 1921 to 1931 Murray undertook excavations of sites on Malta and Minorca. Awarded an honorary doctorate in 1927, she was appointed assistant professor in 1928 and that year she visited Palestine to aid Petries excavation of Tall al-Ajjul and in 1937 she led a small excavation at Petra in Jordan.
Conversely, Murrays work in folkloristics and the history of witchcraft has been academically discredited, the influence of her witch-cult theory in both religion and literature has been examined by various scholars, and she herself has been dubbed the Grandmother of Wicca. Margaret Murray was born on 13 July 1863 in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, James Murray, born in India of English descent, was a businessman and manager of the Serampore paper mills who was thrice elected President of the Calcutta Chamber of Commerce. His wife, had moved to India from Britain in 1857 to work as a missionary, preaching Christianity and she continued with this work after marrying James and giving birth to her two daughters. During her childhood, Murray never received an education. In 1870, Margaret and her sister Mary were sent to Britain, there moving in with their uncle John, a vicar, in 1873, the girls mother arrived in Europe and took them with her to Bonn in Germany, where they both became fluent in German.
In 1875 they returned to Calcutta, staying there till 1877 and they moved with their parents back to England, where they settled in Sydenham, South London. There, they spent much time visiting The Crystal Palace, while their father worked at his firms London office, in 1880, they returned to Calcutta, where Margaret remained for the next seven years. In 1887, she returned to England, moving to Rugby, here she took up employment as a social worker dealing with local underprivileged people. When her father retired and moved to England, she moved into his house in Bushey Heath, Hertfordshire, in 1893 she travelled to Madras, Tamil Nadu, where her sister had moved to with her new husband. Encouraged by her mother and sister, Murray decided to enroll at the newly opened department of Egyptology at University College London in Bloomsbury, Murray began her studies at UCL at age 30 in January 1894, as part of a class composed largely of other women and older men. There, she took courses in the Ancient Egyptian and Coptic languages which were taught by Francis Llewellyn Griffith, Murray soon got to know Petrie, becoming his copyist and illustrator and producing the drawings for the published report on his excavations at Qift, Koptos
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
The Warburg Institute is a research institution associated with the University of London in central London, England. A member of the School of Advanced Study, its focus is the study of cultural history and it is concerned with the histories of art and science, and their relationship with superstition and popular beliefs. Its researches are historical and anthropological, based originally in Hamburg, Germany, in 1933 the collection was moved to London, where it became incorporated into the University of London in 1944. In 2015, the Institute welcomed its new Director, Professor David Freedberg, the Institute was formed in Hamburg, from the library of Aby Warburg, a student of Renaissance art and culture, and a scion of the wealthy Jewish Warburg family. As an art historian, Warburg had become dissatisfied with an approach to art history and was interested in a more philosophical. While studying the culture of Renaissance Florence, he interested in the influence of antiquity on modern culture.
Warburg was joined in 1913 by the Vienna art historian Fritz Saxl, neo-Kantian Philosopher and professor at the newly founded University Ernst Cassirer used it, and his students Erwin Panofsky and Edgar Wind worked there. The original Warburg Library building in Hamburg is now a research institute, the Institute moved to the Imperial Institute Buildings in 1937. In 1944 it became associated with the University of London, Henri Frankfort succeeded Saxl as Director in 1949, and in 1955 was succeeded by Gertrud Bing, who had joined the organization in 1922. During her term as Director, the Institute moved to its current home at the University in 1958, Bing was succeeded by Ernst Gombrich in 1959. Trapp was Director, and from 1991 to 2001, Nicholas Mann, in 1994 the Warburg became a founding institute of the University of Londons School of Advanced Study. Recent directors have been Charles Hope, Peter Mack and David Freedberg, several students and scholars who had used the Warburg resources or studied there protested this planned merge.
A petition on Change. org to save the Warburgs independence was started by Brooke Palmieri, in only two months, the petition had almost twenty five thousand signatures. In recent years, the University has charged a proportion of its total expenditure to the Warburg Institute, as a result. In November 2014, a judgement established that the Universitys conduct in this regard was not acceptable, the Institute occupies a large building in the University of Londons Bloomsbury campus in the central London Borough of Camden. The Warburg Institute maintains a library of more than 350,000 volumes. These volumes, except for a number of rare and valuable books, are kept on open shelves and are accessible to all. The Institute holds a large photographic collection and the archives of Aby Warburg
Edward Clodd was an English banker and anthropologist. He was the surviving child of seven. He had a variety of literary and scientific friends, who periodically met at Whitsunday gatherings at his home at Aldeburgh in Suffolk. Although born in Margate, where his father was captain of a trading brig, born to a Baptist family, his parents wished him to become a minister, but he instead began a career in accountancy and banking, relocating to London in 1855. He first worked unpaid for six months at an office in Cornhill in London when he was 14 years of age. He worked for the London Joint Stock Bank from 1872 to 1915 and he married his first wife Eliza Garman, a doctors daughter in 1862. He had eight children with Eliza, though two died when they were young, in his old age, he married his secretary, Phyllis Maud Rope, who survived him by 27 years. Clodd was an devotee of the work of Charles Darwin and had personal acquaintance with Thomas Huxley. He wrote biographies of all three men, and worked to popularise evolution with books like The Childhood of the World and The Story of Creation, A Plain Account of Evolution.
Clodd was an agnostic and wrote that the Genesis creation narrative of the Bible is similar to religious myths. He wrote many books on evolutionary science. He wrote a biography of Thomas Henry Huxley and was a lecturer and populariser of anthropology and he was a keen folklorist, joining the Folklore Society from 1878, and becoming its president. He was chairman of the Rationalist Press Association from 1906 to 1913 and he was a Suffolk Secretary of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia from 1914 to 1916. Clodd was a critic of the paranormal and psychical research, which he wrote were the result of superstition and he criticised the spiritualist writings of Oliver Lodge as non-scientific. His book Question, A Brief History and Examination of Modern Spiritualism exposed fraudulent mediumship, Clodd had a talent for friendship, and liked to entertain his friends at literary gatherings in Aldeburgh at his seafront home there, Strafford House, during Whitsuntides. Ray Lankester, H. G. Wells and many others as acquaintances and his hospitality and friendship was an important part of the development of their social relations.
Biographies of Darwin, Wallace and Spencer exist,1872, The Childhood of the World 1880, Jesus of Nazareth. 1888, The Story of Creation, A plain account of evolution 1891, Myths,1893, The Story of Human Origins
Estella Canziani was a British portrait and landscape painter, an interior decorator and a travel writer and folklorist. Born in London, Estella Canziani was the daughter of the painter Louisa Starr and Enrico Canziani and she lived all her life in the family home at 3 Palace Green, in the grounds of Kensington Palace. She trained as an artist, studying first at the Copernicus and she exhibited at the RA London, Milan and France. Her most famous work was a water colour entitled The Piper of Dreams, reproductions of the work are said to rivalled Holman Hunts The Light of the World in popularity. She travelled extensively throughout Europe, particularly in Italy and her paintings document the clothes and lifestyle of the local people living in remote villages in Northern Italy. She worked as a book illustrator and she published a number of articles in the journal of the Folklore Society. She published an autobiography, Round About Three Palace Green, a large part of her collection is preserved in the Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery
Sir George Laurence Gomme, FSA was a public servant and leading British folklorist. He helped found both the Victoria County History and the Folklore Society and he had an interest in old buildings and persuaded the London County Council to take up the blue plaque commemorative scheme. Gomme was born in the London district of Stepney, the second of ten children of William Laurence Gomme, an engineer, and his wife Mary. His position as officer, from 1893, and as clerk to the council, from 1900, gave him a major role in policy. His interests included folklore and history, the former he shared with his wife Alice Bertha Gomme, born Alice Merck, whom he married on 31 March 1875. The couple had seven sons, including Arthur Allan Gomme, a librarian and historian of technology, and Arnold Wycombe Gomme, both Gomme and his wife were founder members of the Folklore Society in 1878, and Gomme went on to be its honorary secretary and president. Gomme wrote many books and articles on folklore, including Primitive Folk Moots, Folklore Relics of Early Village Life, Ethnology in Folklore and Folklore as a Historical Science.
His work in the field is now regarded as too dependent on a survivals theory, which tried to trace folk customs back to earlier stages of civilisation. His historical writings show a particular interest in the history of London, alongside his own works, his contribution to history includes the Victoria County History project, of which he was one of the founders. He had a passion for old buildings and used his position to protect threatened buildings and to advance the Survey of London. Not long afterwards, in 1914, ill health caused him to retire early, Works by Laurence Gomme at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Laurence Gomme at Internet Archive Clodd, Sir George Laurence Gomme, Folk-Lore, Volume 27 pp
Joseph Jacobs was an Australian folklorist, literary critic, social scientist and writer of English literature who became a notable collector and publisher of English folklore. He edited editions of The Thousand and One Nights and he went on to join The Folklore Society in England and became an editor of the society journal Folklore. Joseph Jacobs contributed to The Jewish Encyclopedia and he was the sixth surviving son of John Jacobs, a publican who had emigrated from London around 1837, and his wife Sarah, née Myers. Jacobs was educated at Sydney Grammar School and at the University of Sydney and he did not complete his studies in Sydney, but left for England at the age of 18 and entered St Johns College, Cambridge. He graduated with a B. A. in 1876, and in 1877, Jacobs married Georgina Horne and fathered two sons and a daughter. In 1900, when he became revising editor of the Jewish Encyclopedia, based in New York and he died on 30 January 1916 at his home in Yonkers, New York. Jacobs was secretary of the Society of Hebrew Literature from 1878 to 1884 and this led to the formation of the mansion house fund and committee, of which Jacobs was secretary from 1882 to 1900.
He was a student of anthropology at the Statistical Laboratory at University College London in the 1880s under Francis Galton and his Studies in Jewish Statistics, Social and Anthropometric made his reputation as the first proponent of Jewish race science. He wrote many articles for the Athenaeum, which published in 1891 the collection, George Eliot, Matthew Arnold, Newman, Essays. In the same year appeared his Studies in Jewish Statistics, in 1892, Tennyson and In Memoriam, and in 1893, his important book on The Jews of Angevin England. His historical novel dealing with the life of Jesus, As Others Saw Him, A Retrospective A. D.54, was published anonymously in 1895, in the year his Jewish Ideals. In this year, he was invited to the United States of America to give a course of lectures on the Philosophy of Jewish History, the Story of Geographical Discovery was published towards the end of 1898 and ran into several editions. He had been compiling and editing the Jewish Year Book since 1896, in 1900, he accepted an invitation to become revising editor of the Jewish Encyclopedia, which was being prepared at New York.
He settled permanently in the United States, where he wrote articles for the Jewish Encyclopedia. He became registrar and professor of English at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York, in 1908, he was appointed a member of the board of seven, which made a new English translation of the Bible for the Jewish Publication Society of America. In 1913, he resigned his positions at the seminary to become editor of the American Hebrew, in 1920, Book I of his Jewish Contributions to Civilization, which was practically finished at the time of his death, was published at Philadelphia. Jacobs was a contributor to the Encyclopædia Britannica, and James Hastings Encyclopaedia of Religion, although he collected many tales under the name of fairy tales, many of them are unusual sorts of tales. Binnorie and Tamlane are prose versions of ballads, The Old Woman and Her Pig is a rhyme, Henny-Penny is a fable
Folklore is the body of expressive culture shared by a particular group of people, it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales and jokes and they include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore includes customary lore, the forms and rituals of celebrations like Christmas and weddings, folk dances, each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact. Just as essential as the form, folklore encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next, for folklore is not taught in a formal school curriculum or studied in the fine arts. Instead these traditions are passed along informally from one individual to another either through verbal instruction or demonstration, the academic study of folklore is called folkloristics. To fully understand folklore, it is helpful to clarify its component parts and it is well-documented that the term was coined in 1846 by the Englishman William Thoms.
He fabricated it to replace the contemporary terminology of popular antiquities or popular literature, the second half of the compound word, proves easier to define as its meaning has stayed relatively stable over the last two centuries. Coming from Old English lār instruction, and with German and Dutch cognates, it is the knowledge and traditions of a particular group, the concept of folk proves somewhat more elusive. When Thoms first created this term, folk applied only to rural, frequently poor, a more modern definition of folk is a social group which includes two or more persons with common traits, who express their shared identity through distinctive traditions. Folk is a concept which can refer to a nation as in American folklore or to a single family. This expanded social definition of folk supports a view of the material, i. e. the lore. These now include all things people make with words, things they make with their hands, Folklore is no longer circumscribed as being chronologically old or obsolete.
The folklorist studies the traditional artifacts of a group and how they are transmitted. Transmission is a part of the folklore process. Without communicating these beliefs and customs within the group over space and time, for folklore is a verb. These folk artifacts continue to be passed along informally, as a rule anonymously, the folk group is not individualistic, it is community-based and nurtures its lore in community. As new groups emerge, new folklore is created… surfers, motorcyclists, in direct contrast to high culture, where any single work of a named artist is protected by copyright law, folklore is a function of shared identity within the social group. Having identified folk artifacts, the professional folklorist strives to understand the significance of these beliefs, for these cultural units would not be passed along unless they had some continued relevance within the group