Panzer Armee Afrika (board game)
Panzer Armee Afrika is a board wargame, published in 1973 by Simulations Publications, Inc. The game is a simulation of the campaign for North Africa during World War II, from the arrival of Erwin Rommel in April 1941 until November 1942, when the Second Battle of El Alamein took place in reality; the game was designed by Jim Dunnigan, with the system design and graphics by Redmond A. Simonsen and game development by Irad Hardy and Hank Zucker, it was first published in Strategy & Tactics #40, appeared in a boxed edition. It was republished by Avalon Hill in the mid-1980s; this game provided a realistic simulation of the actual campaign, with small numbers of units, rapid movements across the map, critical logistic effects, the ebb and flow of the forces, the strengths and weaknesses of both the Allied and Axis formations. This game was published using the compartmented plastic box, common with many of the wargames produced by Simulations Publications, it included a 22" × 34" stiff paper map printed in various shades of brown, a set of die-cut cardboard counters, the rules.
The map is overlaid by a hex grid to standardize movement, with a scale of 12 miles per hex. Each game turn represented one month during the war, the full campaign lasts 20 turns. Only about half the total height of the game board is used for the actual map; the remainder is covered by various tables used in the game. Along the bottom is the game turn track. There is a chart showing the various effects of the different terrain types, a combat results chart for resolving battles, a summary table of the various supply effects, tracks for marking replacements for allied and axis forces. Most of the game map consists of the western desert of Libya and Egypt, the various roads and tracks that were used for movement and supply. Important features include the array of escarpments near Tobruk, the Qattara Depression - impassably rugged terrain south of El Alamein and northern Cyrenaica; the hexes containing Tobruk and Bardia are fortified, aiding in their defense. At the start of the game the entire map is controlled by Commonwealth forces, who are deemed to have driven the Italians from Cyrenaica in late 1940, only for many of the Commonwealth forces to be withdrawn to fight in the Greek campaign.
The counters represent the major formations that took part in the campaign, including German and British allied units. Each counter represented regiment, or brigade-strength unit; the sheet is printed in different shades of brown for the different forces, with creme for Italy, tan for Germany, dark brown for Britain and her allies. There are various markers used to manage the supply rules; each of the military unit counters is printed with standard markings indicating the unit type, size and the combat strength and movement allowance. Typical movement allowances were 40, 50, 60, making for a fluid and mobile game; the types of units represented are infantry, glider infantry, armored infantry, reconnaissance. This is a two player game with one player controlling the allied forces and the other player the axis units; each turn resolves allied actions first, followed by the axis. A player's turn consists of the supply determination, followed by movement, combat resolution, the addition of reinforcements and the replacement of destroyed units.
The allied player has a command control phase before movement, which restricts certain units from moving. Each hex on the map grid has a unique 4-digit number. Based on a random die roll, units on a hex with last numbers matching the three values on the command control chart values are unable to move. Thus, although the allied forces enjoy numerical superiority 30% of them are stationary each turn. Movement across the map is measured in terms of movement points. Roads provide the optimal path for movement, it only costs 1 MP to advance a hex through a hex side with a road. Track hexes cost 2 MP, open hexes 3 MP, swamp or rough hexes and escarpment hex sides cost 10 MP. Only three friendly units can end their movement in the same hex. Supply is a key factor in this game. Supply is provided by supply units, which are indicated by markers on the map; each side must have a chain of these markers back to a supply base, with each supply unit within 20 movement points of the next. Supply units can be captured or moved about by each player's truck unit, but both sides only receive one such unit.
As the truck only has 40 MP and must move back and forth to carry the supply units, this can hinder the advance of a supply line. Additional truck units may be generated by immobilising combat units. In order to be considered in supply, a unit must be within 20 movement points of a supply unit, part of a supply chain. Unsupplied units are unable to move or attack, defend at half strength. Supplied units can move and defend and attack at half strength. Units within 8 MP of a supply unit receive a higher level of supply, can attack at full strength. By expending a supply unit, the combat strength of units within 8 MP is temporarily doubled; the six hexes surrounding the hex containing a unit on the map form a zone of control over which the unit exerts an influence. Units entering an enemy zone of control must cease their movement for the round. Units in an enemy zone of control can not directly move to another enemy zone of control. Zones of control block enemy supply lines. Attacks can be made against adjacent enemy units.
The player selects w
Hitler's War (game)
Hitler's War is a strategic level World War II war game. It covers the war in Europe, for 3 players, it was first printed by Metagaming Concepts in 1981, in a "pocket game" sized box with all paper components reprinted in 1984 by Avalon Hill in a standard box with cardboard mounted game board. It uses standard square counters on a hex map, but at a larger scale than most other treatments of the subject: Italy and Poland are only two hexes wide, for example. Units are armies, each side has fewer than 10 units on the board at a time. To make up for that, unoccupied hexes have a defense strength, must be attacked and captured; the strength of each army is measured in abstract force points, recorded off the board, that changes with combat and reinforcement. Each turn represents 4 months; the game includes rules for economics, submarine warfare, a few generals, military research, including the A-bomb. There are three scenarios included: Operation Barbarossa, simulating the Eastern Front. Game play is estimated at between 1½ to 5 hours.
Dragon #61 Hitler's War - controversial 1977 book by David Irving. Hitler's War at BoardGameGeek Hitler's War Wargame Academy page on the Avalon Hill game Hitler's War for Windows Fan-made free computer game version of the board game
Afrika Korps (game)
Afrika Korps is a two-player wargame published by the Avalon Hill Game Company in 1963-1964 and re-released in 1965 and 1977. Played on a mapboard depicting the northern coastline of eastern Libya and western Egypt, the game follows Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps and their Italian allies as they fought back-and-forth campaigns against British forces in World War II; the game uses small cardboard counters and the newly popular hex-based movement system pioneered by Avalon Hill's D-Day in 1961. The mapboard's hexes represent terrain ten to fifteen kilometers across, the military units, represented by the cardboard counters, vary from regiment up to division size; the game's system emphasizes the importance of supply the variability of Afrika Korps' supply and reinforcements. Unlike other similar wargames published by Avalon Hill around the same time, units could not attack at will, but used up supply counters to attack. Jon Freeman, The Complete Book of Wargames, pp. 167-168 Afrika Korps at BoardGameGeek
Squad Leader is a tactical level board wargame published by Avalon Hill in 1977. It was designed by John Hill and focuses on infantry combat in Europe during World War II. One of the most complex wargames of its time, Squad Leader is the natural extension of the trend towards greater realism initiated by several earlier games, including Avalon Hill's own PanzerBlitz and Panzer Leader; those two earlier games were larger in scope, with counters representing platoons and map hexes measuring 250 metres across, compared to Squad Leader's 40 meter hexes and squad sized units. The original Squad Leader was produced in time to debut at Origins 1977. Avalon Hill sold well in excess of 100,000 games of Squad Leader, making it one of the most successful wargames made. Combined with the sales of Advanced Squad Leader, its sales totaled over 1 million copies by 1997. Pieces in Squad Leader represent regular squads and vehicle crews, elite squads, individual leaders, support weapons, vehicles; the original game contains counters representing the German and American armies.
Russian troops are portrayed as poorly armed and with fewer leaders, but with the capacity to become "berserk" in combat. US troops are shown as having unusually high firepower, but with lower base morale than German or Soviet troops, representing the supposed greater tendency of more individualistic Americans to break from their orders or the group under fire - however, American troops are easier to rally under fire, as they were exempt from the usual penalty paid by broken squads in these circumstances. British troops, when added to the game system, are shown as similar to the Germans, albeit with somewhat inferior equipment; the mapboards are divided into hexagonal grids with each hex said to represent 40 metres of terrain, the result of the designer being asked what the ground scale was, rolling a die and it coming up'four'. In reality, European village streets are not 40 meters across, for example. Time was said to be two minutes per turn, though the developer admits that this is inexact and that each game turn should be considered a "module of time, such that the events can occur and interact with one another."
As well, by being geomorphic mapboards, increased flexibility is given to scenario designers as well as "design your own" players. The semi-simultaneous system of play developed in the mid-1970s can be seen in Squad Leader's sequence of play; each turn consists of two player turns, each of which have eight "phases": Rally phase Prep fire phase Movement phase Defensive fire phase Advancing fire phase Rout phase Advance phase, the close combat phase The name of the game is a misnomer, as in most ways the player assumes the role of a company commander. The squad leaders in Squad Leader are "factored in" to the squad counters, only exceptional leaders - officers and NCOs - are portrayed separately, by their own counters. Leaders can exert a favorable influence on the firing of support weapons, or the morale rolls of squads with whom they are stacked, although if a leader fails a morale check the squads stacked with it must check for morale a second time. Most scenarios give each player speaking, enough simulated men to make up a company, though order of battle is not precise and most scenarios only give a flavor of what the real life battles were like rather than a direct simulation.
One aspect of the game that adds to its popularity are the generic "geomorphic" mapboards, each of which can be aligned to any edge of the same length to any other mapboard. This allows for an unlimited number of combinations to create any terrain situation, including player designed scenarios. Printed overlays, first introduced in the gamette GI: Anvil of Victory provide additional terrain types to mapboards. Line of sight is determined by sighting between the dots in the center of each hex. String can be used to check LOS, the printed terrain depictions on the photo-realistic maps are used to determine blockages; these LOS rules were innovative for board games. The original game contains mapboards mounted on heavy durable cardboard, expensive but a design feature long associated with Avalon Hill games; each mapboard measures 10 columns of hexes high by 32 hexes wide, numbered from hex A1 in the top left corner to hex GG10 in the lower right. The design philosophy that John Hill
Operations was Multi-Man Publishing's house organ for articles and discussion about its wargaming products, published from 1991 to 2010. The stated aim of Multi-Man Publishing was to have Operations be to their line of games what The General was to Avalon Hill's line of products, it was published from 1991 to 2010. The first issue of Operations was published in the summer of 1991 by The Gamers and was printed until The Gamers were taken over by MMP; the magazine was produced quarterly, until Issue 42. Bruce Monnin of Boardgamer magazine, became editor of Operations beginning with the Fall 2004 edition; the last issue was #53 in the Fall of 2008, but there were three Special Operations issues published yearly in 2008-2010 that had additional content such as full games and counters. In Summer 2011 MMP published the first issue of its new "house organ" called Special Ops; the magazine published quarterly beginning in 1991. By 2001, the printing schedule became irregular, output fell from four issues a year, to as little as one.
The final issue, number 53, was published in 2010. Three "special editions" were published as summer issues in consecutive years in 2008, 2009, 2010. Operations was nominated in the "Best Professional Wargame Magazine" category of the Charles S. Roberts Award nine years in a row from 1992 to 2000, again in 2005, but never won, it did win other CSR awards for games. The game "Iwo Jima: Rage Against the Marines", published in Special Operations, won the Charles S. Roberts Award in 2008
Avalon Hill Games Inc. is a game company that specializes in wargames and strategic board games. Its logo contains its initials "AH", the company is now referred to by this abbreviation. Before its takeover by Hasbro, it was known as The Avalon Hill Game Company and the initials TAHGC, it has published miniature wargaming rules, role-playing games and sports simulations. It is now a subsidiary of the game company Wizards of the Coast, itself a subsidiary of Hasbro. Avalon Hill pioneered many of the concepts of modern recreational wargaming; these include elements such as the use of a hexagonal grid overlaid on a flat folding board, zones of control, stacking of multiple units at a location, an odds-based combat results table, terrain effects on movement, troop strength and board games based upon historical events. Complex games could and did take days or weeks, AH set up a system for people to play games by mail. Avalon Hill was started in 1952 in Baltimore, Maryland by Charles S. Roberts under the name of "The Avalon Game Company" for the publication of his game Tactics, considered the first of a new type of board game, the wargame.
Roberts sold Tactics on a mail order basis from his home in the Avalon neighborhood of Baltimore. Following the success of Tactics, Roberts changed the name upon incorporation from "The Avalon Game Company" to "Avalon Hill" in 1958 because of an argument with another company; the number of games released per year was erratic until 1964 as the company released anywhere from 1 to 7 games.5-8The first game published by the company under the name of "Avalon Hill" was the second edition of Tactics, titled Tactics II, published in 1958. AH published two other games that year and the railroad game Dispatcher. In 1959, Roberts moved Avalon into an office space on Gay Street in Baltimore and took on its first outside designed game, Verdict, by two corporate lawyers. After another office move, in August 1960 Thomas N. Shaw, a high school friend of Roberts, was hired to design games.6In 1960, Avalon published the first dice-less sports game in Football Strategy designed by Thomas N. Shaw, followed by two sister games, Baseball Strategy and Basketball Strategy.
Of this sports strategy line, the football and baseball versions were privately published by Shaw in 1959.7 With a recession occurring, debt began to pile up starting in 1961. Avalon launched a pre-school children's line in 1963 with four games, What Time Is It?, Doll House and Trucks, Boats & Planes, which flopped. Roberts gave up and planned to file bankruptcy on December 13, 1963.p7 Instead his creditors, Monarch Office Services and J. E. Smith & Co. took over. Monarch had printed all but the boxes, which were done by J. E. Smith; the company was reorganized by retaining only one staff member, moved, cut costs and appointed J. E. Sparling as president.p7,8 In 1964, AH set a two-game per year release schedule.5-8Avalon Hill published Blitzkrieg in 1965. This game was an abstract combat game, featuring some neutral countries. Many rules variants were created for Blitzkrieg; the company published simulations of actual battles and campaigns, such as Midway, Afrika Korps, The Battle of the Bulge. Avalon Hill published PanzerBlitz in 1970, designed for the company by Jim Dunnigan's Simulations Publications, Inc. on a royalty basis from SPI's Tac Force 3 game.p9 Monarch bought out J.
E. Smith & Co. Avalon Hill's co-owner, on November 30, 1971, thus the company became a division of a renamed Monarch Office Services, Monarch Avalon.p10The company acquired several successful games including Acquire, TwixT and Feudal from the purchase of 3M Games in February 1976.p5,12 Sports Illustrated line of sports games were purchased in December 1976. Both lines increased the retail outlets; the Aladdin Industries game line was another acquisition in March 1977. With the SI line, the company started a sports game division in May 1977 with Bruce Milligan hired to head the division and launch All Star Replay sport games magazine. While from the 3M line, Facts in Five became its top selling game.p5,12During the 1970s, the company's golden years, Avalon Hill published a number of popular games such as Outdoor Survival, Panzer Blitz, Squad Leader, the Statis Pro sports line. Avalon Hill purchased many games from smaller companies and republished them. Heritage Models sold AH its Battleline Publications in October 1979.p5,15 Much of the Battleline line, including Wooden Ships and Iron Men and Machiavelli, was republished by Avalon Hill, along with the popular Diplomacy.
AH acquired Jedko Games' The Russian Campaign and War at Sea, Hartland Trefoil's Civilization. 1830 was developed by Avalon Hill, but based on Francis Tresham's 1829. The company entered the role-playing game market by publishing Powers and Perils in 1983 and Lords of Creation in 1984; the licenses to RuneQuest and the board games White Bear & Red Moon and Elric, were acquired in a complex agreement in 1983 with Chaosium, Avalon Hill published the 3rd Edition in 1984. None of these role-playing games achieved the popularity of the long-established competitor, Dungeons & Dragons. Avalon Hill became an early publisher of computer games in 1980 with its video game division Microcomputer Games, adapting some of its boardgame titles to various computer platforms on several data formats. Sales of these products were decent, but the only outstanding success was Achtung Spitfire!, published relat
Air Assault on Crete
Air Assault on Crete is a wargame, first published by the Avalon Hill game company in 1977. The principal game is based on the Battle of Crete during World War II, which began on 20 May 1941 with the first airborne invasion in history, Germany's assault on the Allied Forces-occupied island of Crete, it includes a bonus game entitled Invasion of Malta-1942 - based on Operation Hercules, an invasion which never took place in reality. Each game shares a minimum of equipment between them. Air Assault on Crete at BoardGameGeek