The Godfather

The Godfather is a 1972 American crime film directed by Francis Ford Coppola and produced by Albert S. Ruddy, based on Mario Puzo's best-selling novel of the same name, it is the first installment in The Godfather trilogy. It stars Marlon Al Pacino as the father and son of a fictional New York crime family; the story, spanning 1945 to 1955, chronicles the family under the patriarch Vito Corleone, focusing on the transformation of the son Michael Corleone, raised to have a life outside of crime, from reluctant family outsider to ruthless mafia boss. Paramount Pictures obtained the rights to the novel for the price of $80,000, before it gained popularity. Studio executives had trouble finding a director, they and Coppola disagreed over the casting for several characters, in particular and Michael. Filming took place on location around New York and in Sicily, was completed ahead of schedule; the musical score was composed principally with additional pieces by Carmine Coppola. The Godfather premiered at the Loew's State Theatre on March 15, 1972, was released in the United States on March 24, 1972.

It was the highest-grossing film of 1972, was for a time the highest-grossing film made, with a gross between $246–287 million at the box office. The film received universal acclaim from critics and audiences, with praise going toward the performances of its cast by Brando and Pacino, the directing, cinematography, editing and portrayal of the mafia; the film revitalized Brando's career, in decline during the 1960s. In addition to starring in future hits such as Last Tango in Paris and Apocalypse Now, Brando was a catalyst in this film for the successful careers of Coppola and other relative newcomers in the cast. At the 45th Academy Awards, the film won the Oscars for Best Picture, Best Actor, Best Adapted Screenplay. In addition, the seven other Oscar nominations included Pacino, James Caan, Robert Duvall, Coppola for Best Director. Since its release, The Godfather has been regarded as one of the greatest and most influential films made in the gangster genre, it was selected for preservation in the U.

S. National Film Registry of the Library of Congress in 1990, being deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" and is ranked the second-greatest film in American cinema by the American Film Institute, it was followed by sequels The Godfather Part II and The Godfather Part III. In 1945, at his daughter Connie's wedding to Carlo Rizzi, Don Vito Corleone hears requests in his role as head of a New York crime family, his youngest son, a Marine during World War II, introduces his girlfriend, Kay Adams, to his family at the reception. Johnny Fontane, a famous singer and Vito's godson, seeks Vito's help in securing a movie role. Woltz refuses. Shortly before Christmas, drug baron Virgil "The Turk" Sollozzo, backed by the Tattaglia crime family, asks Vito for investment in his narcotics business and protection through his political connections. Wary of involvement in a dangerous new trade that risks alienating political insiders, Vito declines. Suspicious, Vito sends Luca Brasi, to spy on them. Brasi is garroted during his first meeting with Bruno Sollozzo.

Sollozzo has Vito gunned down in the street kidnaps Hagen. With Corleone first-born Sonny in command, Sollozzo pressures Hagen to persuade Sonny to accept Sollozzo's deal releases him; the family receives fish wrapped in Brasi's bullet-proof vest, indicating that Luca "sleeps with the fishes". Vito survives, at the hospital, Michael thwarts another attempt on his father. Michael's jaw is broken by Sollozzo's unofficial bodyguard. Sonny retaliates with a hit on Bruno Tattaglia. Michael plots to murder McCluskey. Despite a clampdown by the authorities, the Five Families erupt in open warfare, Vito fears for his sons' safety. Michael takes refuge in Fredo is sheltered by Moe Greene in Las Vegas. Sonny threatens to kill him if it happens again; when it does, Sonny speeds to their home but is ambushed at a highway toll booth and riddled with submachine gunfire. While in Sicily, Michael meets and marries Apollonia Vitelli, but a car bomb intended for him takes her life. Devastated by Sonny's death and realizing that the Tattaglias are controlled by the now-dominant Don Emilio Barzini, Vito attempts to end the feud.

He assures the Five Families that he will withdraw his opposition to their heroin business and forgo avenging Sonny's murder. His safety guaranteed, Michael returns home to enter the family business and marry Kay, promising her that the business will be legitimate within five years. Kay gives birth to two children by the early 1950s. With his father nearing the end of his life and Fredo too weak, Michael takes the family reins, he insists Hagen relocate to Las Vegas and relinquish his role to Vito because Tom is not a "wartime consigliere". When Michael travels to Las Vegas to buy out Greene's stake in the family's casinos, he is dismayed to see tha

Hurricane Donna

Hurricane Donna, known in Puerto Rico as Hurricane San Lorenzo, was the strongest hurricane of the 1960 Atlantic hurricane season, caused severe damage to the Lesser Antilles, the Greater Antilles, the East Coast of the United States Florida, in August–September. The fifth tropical cyclone, third hurricane, first major hurricane of the season, Donna developed south of Cape Verde on August 29, spawned by a tropical wave to which 63 deaths from a plane crash in Senegal were attributed; the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Donna by the following day. Donna moved west-northwestward at 20 mph and by September 1, it reached hurricane status. Over the next three days, Donna deepened and reached maximum sustained winds of 130 mph on September 4. Thereafter, it maintained intensity as it struck the Lesser Antilles that day. On Sint Maarten, the storm left a quarter of the island's population homeless and killed seven people. An additional five deaths were reported in Anguilla, there were seven other fatalities throughout the Virgin Islands.

In Puerto Rico, severe flash flooding led to 85 of them in Humacao alone. Donna further intensified to a Category 4 hurricane early on September 6, attained peak winds of 145 mph twenty-four hours later; the storm weakened over the next few days, making multiple landfalls in The Bahamas as a Category 3 hurricane. Donna generated severe wind gusts of up to 173 mph over southern portions of the archipelago nation, prolific rains affected the country and the nearby Turks and Caicos Islands. Several small island communities in the southern regions of The Bahamas were leveled, but no damage total or fatalities were reported; as it neared the United States, Donna encountered weaker steering currents, turned northwestward, re-intensified. Early on September 10, Donna made landfall on the Florida Keys with winds of 145 mph, the most severe observed there since 1935. Donna weakened as it paralleled the southwestern Florida peninsula, making landfall south of Naples with winds of 120 mph. In the Florida Keys, coastal flooding damaged 75% of buildings, destroyed several subdivisions in Marathon.

On the mainland, 5,200 houses were damaged, which does not include the 75% of homes damaged at Fort Myers Beach. Crop losses were extensive. A total of 50% of the grapefruit crop was lost, 10% of the orange and tangerine crop was lost, the avocado crop was destroyed. In the state of Florida alone, there were $300 million in losses. Donna weakened over Florida and was a Category 1 hurricane when it re-emerged into the Atlantic from North Florida. By early on September 12, the storm made landfall near Topsail Beach, North Carolina, as a Category 2 hurricane. Donna brought tornadoes and wind gusts up to 100 mph, damaging or destroying several buildings in Eastern North Carolina, while crops were damaged as far as 50 miles inland. Additionally, storm surge caused significant beach erosion and structural damage at Wilmington and Nags Head. Eight people were killed and there were over 100 injuries. On September 12, Donna reemerged into the Atlantic Ocean and continued to move northeastward; the storm struck Long Island, New York, late on September 12 and weakened inland.

On the following day, Donna became extratropical over Maine. On August 29, a tropical wave exited the west coast of Africa near Dakar; that day, it is estimated a tropical depression developed along the wave southeast of Cape Verde. There was a lack of data for several days, but it is estimated that the system intensified. On September 2, ships in the region suggested there was a tropical storm after reporting winds of over 50 mph; that day, the Hurricane Hunters flew into the system and observed a well-defined eye, along with winds of 140 mph. Based on the data, the United States Weather Bureau office in San Juan, Puerto Rico, initiated advisories on Hurricane Donna at 22:00 UTC on September 2, about 700 miles east of the Lesser Antilles, it is estimated. The Azores High to the north was unusually powerful, which caused Donna to move to the west-northwest; when advisories began, Donna was intensifying into a major hurricane, the equivalent of a Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale.

Continuing to the west-northwest, Donna strengthened further, attaining maximum sustained winds of 125 mph at 00:00 UTC on September 4—an intensity it maintained for two more days. Operationally, winds were estimated to be 145 mph. Late on September 4, the eye of Donna moved over Barbuda, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Anguilla, passed just south of Anegada. Donna was well-organized, described in the Monthly Weather Review as akin to "an intense, idealized hurricane." A weakening trough to the north turned the hurricane more northwesterly, bringing it within 85 miles of the north coast of Puerto Rico. The storm underwent further intensification to Category 4 status on September 6, reached its first peak of 145 mph by 00:00 UTC on September 7. At that time, Donna began turning more to the west as a ridge built to its north, it soon weakened back to Category 3 status. Over the next few days, the intense hurricane moved through the southern Bahamas without defined steering currents, the eye passed near or over Mayaguana, Fortune Island, Ragged Island.

While passing through the Straits of Florida, Donna brushed the northern coast of Cuba on September 9 with gale-f

Horng-Tzer Yau

Horng-Tzer Yau is a Taiwanese-American mathematician. He received his B. Sc. in 1981 from National Taiwan University and his Ph. D. in 1987 from Princeton University. Yau joined the faculty of NYU in 1988, became a full professor at its Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in 1994, he moved to Stanford in 2003, to Harvard University in 2005. He was a member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1987-88, 1991–92, 2003, was a Distinguished Visiting Professor in 2013-14. According to William C. Kirby, dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard, "Professor Yau is a leader in the fields of mathematical physics... who has introduced important tools and concepts to study probability, stochastic processes, nonequilibrium statistical physics, quantum dynamics."Yau is a 2000 MacArthur Fellow. Simons Investigator Award Sloan Foundation Fellowship Packard Foundation Fellowship, 1991 International Congress of Mathematicians, 1998 Henri Poincaré Prize, 2000 MacArthur Fellowship, 2000 Morningside Gold Medal of Mathematics, 2001 Academician of the Academia Sinica Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Member of the National Academy of Sciences Fellow of the American Mathematical Society, 2012 Simons Investigator, 2012 Editor-in-Chief of Communications in Mathematical Physics the 2017 Eisenbud Prize for Mathematics & Physics "Yau Travels Down The Road Less Taken," from the Harvard Gazette — archived at the Wayback Machine Seminar at Isaac Newton Institute