The Grapes of Wrath is an American realist novel written by John Steinbeck and published in 1939. The book won the National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize for fiction, it was cited prominently when Steinbeck was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1962. Set during the Great Depression, the novel focuses on the Joads, a poor family of tenant farmers driven from their Oklahoma home by drought, economic hardship, agricultural industry changes, bank foreclosures forcing tenant farmers out of work. Due to their nearly hopeless situation, in part because they are trapped in the Dust Bowl, the Joads set out for California along with thousands of other "Okies" seeking jobs, dignity, a future; the Grapes of Wrath is read in American high school and college literature classes due to its historical context and enduring legacy. A celebrated Hollywood film version, starring Henry Fonda and directed by John Ford, was released in 1940; the narrative begins just after Tom Joad is paroled from McAlester prison, where he had been incarcerated after being convicted of homicide.
While hitchhiking to his home near Sallisaw, Tom meets former preacher Jim Casy, whom he remembers from his childhood, the two travel together. When they arrive at Tom's childhood farm home, they find it deserted. Disconcerted and confused and Casy meet their old neighbor, Muley Graves, who tells them the family has gone to stay at Uncle John Joad's home nearby. Graves tells them that the banks have evicted all the farmers; the next morning and Casy go to Uncle John's. Tom finds his family loading their remaining possessions into a Hudson sedan converted into a truck; the family sees no option but to seek work in California, described in handbills as fruitful and offering high pay. The Joads put everything. Although leaving Oklahoma would violate his parole, Tom decides it is worth the risk, invites Casy to join him and his family. Traveling west on Route 66, the Joad family finds the road crowded with other migrants. In makeshift camps, they hear many stories from others, some returning from California, the group worries that California may not be as promising as it seems.
The family dwindles as well: Grandpa dies along the road, they bury him in a field. Led by Ma, the remaining members realize they can only continue, as nothing is left for them in Oklahoma. Reaching California, they find the state oversupplied with labor; the big corporate farmers are in collusion and smaller farmers suffer from collapsing prices. Weedpatch Camp, one of the clean, utility-supplied camps operated by the Resettlement Administration, a New Deal agency, offers better conditions but does not have enough resources to care for all the needy families. Nonetheless, as a Federal facility, the camp protects the migrants from harassment by local deputies. In response to the exploitation, Casy becomes a labor organizer and tries to recruit for a labor union; the remaining Joads find work as strikebreakers in a peach orchard, where Casy is involved in a strike that turns violent. When Tom witnesses Casy's fatal beating, he kills the attacker and flees as a fugitive; the Joads leave the orchard to work at a cotton farm, where Tom remains at risk of being arrested for the homicide.
Knowing he must leave the area or risk being caught and his family blacklisted from working, Tom bids his mother farewell and vows to work for the oppressed. The rest of the family pool their daily wages so they can buy food. Rose of Sharon's baby is stillborn. Ma Joad forces the family through the bereavement. With the winter rains, the Joads' dwelling is flooded and the car disabled, they move to higher ground. In the final chapter of the book, the family takes shelter from the flood in an old barn. Inside they find a young boy and his father, dying of starvation. Rose of Sharon offers him her breast milk to save him from starvation. Tom Joad: The protagonist of the story. Tom takes leadership of the family though he is young. Ma Joad: The Joad family matriarch. Practical and warm-spirited, she tries to hold the family together, her given name is never learned. Pa Joad: The Joad family patriarch named Tom, age 50. Hardworking sharecropper and family man. Pa becomes a broken man upon losing his livelihood and means of supporting his family, forcing Ma to assume leadership.
Uncle John: Pa Joad's older brother. He feels guilty about the death of his young wife years before, is prone to binges involving alcohol and prostitutes, but is generous with his goods. Jim Casy: A former preacher who lost his faith, he is a Christ-like figure, based on Steinbeck's friend Ed Ricketts. Al Joad: The third youngest Joad son, a "smart-aleck sixteen-year-older" who cares for cars and girls. Rose of Sharon Joad Rivers: The eldest Joad daughter, a childish and dreamy teenage girl, age 18, who develops into a mature woman. Pregnant at the beginning of the novel, she delivers a stillborn baby due to malnutrition. Connie Rivers: Rose of Sharon's husband. Nineteen years old and naïve, he is overwhelmed
Air Show Buzz was a media company dedicated to the “Aerotainment” or entertainment and news in the aviation and air show industry. It was founded in 2006 by Ed Shipley, Jim Beasley, retired USAF General Hal Hornburg, Stephanie Ross-Simon and Deb Mitchell; the group started with www.airshowbuzz.com and evolved into ASB. TV, as the company focused on video production and film production; the company plays an active role in many of the World's top air shows including Jones Beach New York Air Show, Flying Legends, Duxford England, Aviation Nation, Nellis AFB, Rhode Island Air National Guard, Wings Over Houston Air Show, Thunder Over the Boardwalk, Atlantic City, New Jersey by flying as The Horsemen Aerobatic Team and recording event footage. It exists today as one of the only dedicated aviation production company that owns World War II combat planes used for filming; the Air Show Buzz website and community was closed in mid-2012. Air Show Buzz distributes aviation related content in full 1080p. Discovery Channel and other mainstream media networks have utilized its content across their productions around aviation and the warbirds of World War II.
Air Show Buzz retains one of the largest aviation repositories of consumer-generated images and videos online. As of July 22, 2009 there were a total of 3,600 aviation videos. With an active user base of more than 17,000 contributing members, the user base is among the largest in the industry. On June 22, 2007 www.asb.tv was part of the team documenting the attempted completion of a 1942 mission by a P-38 from the “Lost Squadron.” The P-38 was “Glacier Girl” recovered from the Greenland icecap ten years earlier. A mechanical problem with the P-38 forced the team to abandon its mission similar to the original team who in 1942 made an emergency landing on the ice because of foul weather. Ed Shipley, flying P-51 Mustang, “Miss Velma” continued the journey making the transatlantic crossing alone, in a single engine airplane. People could track the progress of the flight live on www.airshowbuzz.com and watched video clips and photos throughout the journey. Air Show Buzz's website and online community was discontinued in mid-2012.
A statement from their website said: "AIRSHOWBUZZ HAS FLOWN WEST When we launched ASB 5 years ago it became the premier online community for the air show industry. During that time, we have met countless friends from around the world who share our passion for aviation. While it has been an amazing experience, we realize our true passion lies in our involvement with the live air show community and doing what we love most, flying; because of this, we will be closing ASB effective immediately. Moving forward, we will put all our energy towards being part of the wonderful group of family and friends at the live events across the country. We want to thank all of you for being a part of this great experience and we look forward to seeing you at an air show soon." WWII warbird to finish aborted 1942 mission Plane Freed From a Glacier Sets Out for Britain Again Glacier Girl Will Fly Again Glacier Girl
Lieutenant James Alfred Keating was an American World War I flying ace credited with six aerial victories, including four triumphs during a running battle on 9 August 1918. James Alfred Keating was born in Chicago, Illinois, on 4 December 1897, he lived in Florida. He married before joining the military. Keating joined the Air Service, United States Army, receiving his commission on 26 December 1917, he was attached to the Royal Air Force in February 1918, being assigned to No. 49 Squadron RAF flying Airco DH.9 bombers in June. Along with his observer, 26-year-old Lieutenant Edward A. Simpson Keating was designated as an American air ace, as they scored six aerial victories, their first victory came over Sergy on 22 July 1918, when they drove down a Fokker D. VII out of control, their second was scored during a raid on Bethencourt when their formation was attacked by seven enemy Pfalz D. III fighter aircraft over the target; the next day they scored four victories after a bombing raid on the bridge at Falvy.
During their return flight, they waged a 20 minute combat with Fokker D. VIIs, setting two others aflame. Keating returned to the American military during World War II, he died on 2 October 1976. American Distinguished Service Cross "The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to James Alfred Keating, First Lieutenant, U. S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action in the skies over France during the months of July and August, 1918. On August 9, 1918, Lieutenant Keating bombed Falvy Bridge over 1,000 feet. On returning, his formation was attacked by enemy planes and a running fight ensued. By skillfully flying with exceptional coolness he enabled his observer to shoot two planes down in flames. On August 8, 1918, after bombing Bethincourt Bridge over 800 feet, obtaining a direct hit, he found 7 enemy planes attacking his formation from the rear. By maneuvering for position he enabled his observer to shoot one down in flames over Bethincourt. On July 17, 1918, he bombed Passy Bridge over 500 feet, destroying it just as a column of transport was passing.
He opened machine-gun fire on the troops in the vicinity, causing many casualties and great disorder. His exceptional courage and splendid bravery were a constant inspiration to the members of his command." General Orders No. 9, W. D. 1923British Distinguished Flying Cross "For skill. On 9 August 1918, he bombed Falvy Bridge from 1,000 feet obtaining a direct hit; the formation was attacked on its way home by 25-30 EA and a running fight ensued to our lines. Lt. Keating showed exceptional coolness and judgement, by skilful flying, enabled his observer to shoot down two EA in flames over Marchélepot and Ablaincourt. Two more EA were seen to crash in the vicinity of Soyecourt, his machine was so badly shot about. On 8 August, after bombing Bethencourt Bridge from 800 feet, obtaining a direct hit, he found seven Pfalz scouts attacking his formation from the rear, he maneuvered for position. On 17 July, he bombed Passy Bridge from 500 feet, destroying it just as a column of transport was passing, he opened machine gun fire on the troops in the vicinity, causing many casualties and great disorder.
He has taken part in many successful bomb raids and his excellent example of coolness and courage in action is of the greatest service to his squadron." Supplement to the London GazetteSilver Star List of World War I flying aces from the United States Above the Trenches: a Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915-1920. Christopher F. Shores, Norman L. R. Franks, Russell Guest. Grub Street, 1990. ISBN 0-948817-19-4, ISBN 978-0-948817-19-9. Over The Front: The Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the United States and French Air Services, 1914-1918. Norman Franks, Frank Bailey. Grub Street Publishing, 2008. ISBN 0948817542 ISBN 978-0948817540