Gujranwala is a city in Punjab, located north of the nearby provincial capital of Lahore. The city is Pakistan's 7th most-populous metropolitan area, its 5th most populous city proper. Founded in the 18th century, Gujranwala is a modern town compared to the many nearby millennia-old cities of northern Punjab; the city served as the capital of the Sukerchakia Misl state between 1763 and 1799, is the birthplace of the founder of the Sikh Empire, Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Gujranwala is now Pakistan's third largest industrial centre after Karachi and Faisalabad, contributes 5% of Pakistan's national GDP; the city is part of a network of large urban centres in north-east Punjab province that forms one of Pakistan's highly industrialized regions. Along with the nearby cities of Sialkot and Gujrat, Gujranwala forms part of the so-called Golden Triangle of industrial cities with export-oriented economies. Gujranwala's name means "Abode of the Gujjars" in Punjabi, was named in reference to the Gujjar tribe of nomads and grazers that live in northern Punjab.
One local narrative suggests that town was named in reference to a specific Gujjar, Choudhry Gujjar, owner of the town's Persian wheel that supplied water to the town. Evidence suggests, that the city derives its name from Serai Gujran - a village once located near what is now Gujranwala's Khiyali Gate; the exact origins of Gujranwala are unclear. Unlike the ancient nearby cities of Lahore and Eminabad, Gujranwala is a modern city, it may have been established as a village in the middle of the 16th century. Locals traditionally believe that Gujranwala's original name was Khanpur Shansi, though recent scholarship suggests that the village was Serai Gujran instead - a village once located near what is now Gujranwala's Khiyali Gate, mentioned by several sources during the 18th century invasion of Ahmad Shah Durrani. Following the 1707 death of the last of the great Mughal emperors and the subsequent decline of Mughal power, various Sikh states came to control the region around what is now modern Gujranwala.
Charat Singh, ruler of the Sukerchakia Misl Sikh estate and the local Muslim chief Muhammad Yar joined forces to defeat Nader Shah's 1738 invasion of the region, which would culminate in the sacking of Delhi. Charat Singh had a fort built in the area between 1756 and 1758, laid siege to in September 1761 by Khwaja Ubaid, Governor of Lahore, he elevated the city to status of capital of his Misl in 1763. Charat Singh's grandson Ranjit Singh was born in Gujranwala in 1780 in the city's Purani Mandi market, would established the Sikh Empire that would control Punjab until the arrival of the British. Maharaja Ranjit Singh maintained Gujranwala as his capital after rising to power in 1792, his military commander, Hari Singh Nalwa, built a high mud wall around Gujranwala during this era, established the city's new grid street-plan that exists until present day. Gujranwala remained Ranjit Singh's capital until he captured the nearby old Mughal capital of Lahore from the Durranis in 1799, at which point the capital was moved there, leading to the relative decline of Gujranwala in favour of Lahore.
Maharani Jind Kaur, the last queen of Ranjit Singh and mother of Maharaja Duleep Singh, was born in Gujranwala in 1817. By 1839, the city's bazaars were home to an estimated 500 shops, while the city had been surrounded by a number of pleasure gardens, including one established by Hari Nalwa Singh, famous for its vast array of exotic plants; the area was captured by the British Empire in 1848, developed thereafter. Gujranwala was incorporated as a municipality in 1867, the city's Brandreth and Lahori Gates built atop the site of a Sikh-era gates were completed in 1869. A new clocktower was built in central Gujranwala to mark the city's centre in 1906. Christian missionaries were brought to the region during British colonial rule, Gujranwala became home to numerous churches and schools; the city's first Presbyterian Church was established in 1875 in the Civil Lines area - a settlement built one mile north of the old city to house Gujranwala's European population. A theological seminary was established in 1877, a Christian technical school in 1900.
The North-Western Railway connected Gujranwala with other cities in British India by rail in 1881. The major Sikh higher learning institution, Gujranwala Guru Nanak Khalsa College, was founded in Gujranwala in 1889, though it shifted to Ludhiana; the nearby Khanki Headworks were completed in 1892 under British rule, helped irrigate 3 million acres in the province. Gujranwala's population, according to the 1901 census of British India, was 29,224; the city continued to grow for the remainder of British rule. Riots erupted in Gujranwala following the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in Amritsar in April 1919, were the most violent reaction to the British massacre in all of the Indian Subcontinent. Riots lead to the damage of the city's railway station, burning of the city's Tehsil Office, Clock Tower, Dak Bangla, city courts. Much of the city's historical record was burnt in the attacked offices. Protestors in the city, nearby villages, a procession from Dhullay were fired upon with machine-guns mounted to low-flying planes, subjected to aerial bombardment from the Royal Air Force under the control of Reginald Edward Harry Dyer.
According to the 1941 census, 269,528 out of the Gujranwala District's 912,234 residents were non-Muslim. 70% of Gujranwala city residents were Muslims prior to Partition, though non-Muslims controlled much of the city's economy. Hindus and Sikhs together owned two thirds of Gujranwala's properties. Sikhs were concentrated in the localities of Guru
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301. Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title granted to the heir apparent to the English or British monarch, but the failure to be granted the title does not affect the rights to royal succession; the title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne. The title Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales; the Prince of Wales has other titles and honours. The current and longest-serving Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other independent Commonwealth realms as well as Head of the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations; the wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales.
Prince Charles's first wife, used that title but his second wife, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana. The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales; the current Prince now assists the Queen in the performance of her duties, for example, representing the Queen when welcoming dignitaries to London and attending State dinners during State visits. He has represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals; the Queen has given the Prince of Wales the authority to issue royal warrants. For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller states. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was known as King of the Britons.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales. In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru; the literal translation of Tywysog is "leader". Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown; the first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae. His grandson Llywelyn the Great is not known to have used the title "Prince of Wales" as such, although his use, from around 1230, of the style "Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon" was tantamount to a proclamation of authority over most of Wales, he did use the title "Prince of North Wales" as did his predecessor Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd. In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself as "Prince of Wales" around 1244. In 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, used the style as early as 1258.
In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, he was recognised by both King Henry III of England and the representative of the Papacy as Prince of Wales. In 1282, Llywelyn was killed during Edward I of England's invasion of Wales and although his brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeded to the Welsh princeship, issuing documents as prince, his principality was not recognised by the English Crown. Three Welshmen, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283; the first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the House of Gwynedd, who led a nationwide revolt in 1294-5, defeating English forces in battle near Denbigh and seizing Caernarfon Castle. His revolt was suppressed, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, the prince was imprisoned in London. In the 1370s, Owain Lawgoch, an English-born descendant of one of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's brothers, claimed the title of Prince of Wales, but was assassinated in France in 1378 before he could return to Wales to claim his inheritance, it is Owain Glyndŵr, whom many Welsh people regard as having been the last native Prince.
On 16 September 1400, he was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters, held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales. It was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV; the tradition of conferring the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir apparent of the monarch is considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a prince born in Wales, who did not speak a word of English" and produced his infant son, born at Caernarfon, to their surprise. However, the story may well be apocryphal, as it can only be traced to the 16th century, and, in the time of Edward I, the English aristocracy spoke Norman French, not English. William Camden wrote in his 1607 work Britannia that the title "Prince of Wales" was not conferred automatically upon the eldest living son o
Jodhpur is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the second metropolitan city of the state. It was the seat of a princely state of the same name. Jodhpur has been the capital of the kingdom known as Marwar, now part of Rajasthan. Jodhpur is a popular tourist destination, featuring many palaces and temples, set in the stark landscape of the Thar Desert, it is popularly known as Sun city among people of Rajasthan and all over India. The old city is bounded by a wall with several gates. However, the city has expanded outside the wall over the past several decades. Jodhpur lies near the geographic centre of the Rajasthan state, which makes it a convenient base for travel in a region much frequented by tourists. According to the Hindu epic Mahabharat, Ahirs were the inhabitants of Marwar and on the Rathore clan established the Marwar Kingdom. There may have been small settlements before Rathore rule; the Jodhpur city was founded in 1459 by a Rajput chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory and thus founded a kingdom which came to be known as Marwar.
As Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore, that town served as the capital of this state. The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat; this enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, silk, sandalwood and other tradeable goods. After the death of Rao Chandrasen Rathore in 1581, the kingdom was annexed by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, Marwar thus became a Mughal vassal owing fealty to them while enjoying internal autonomy; the mother of Emperor Shah Jahan was a Princess of Jodhpur. During this period, the state furnished the Mughals with several notable generals such as Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Jodhpur and its people benefited from this exposure to the wider world as new styles of art and architecture made their appearance and opportunities opened up for local tradesmen to make their mark across northern India. Aurangzeb sequestrated the state after the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh, but the prior ruler Maharaja Ajit Singh was restored to the throne by Veer Durgadas Rathore after Aurangzeb died in 1707 and a great struggle of 30 years.
The Mughal empire declined after 1707, but the Jodhpur court was beset by intrigue. This did not make for stability or peace, however- 50 years of wars and treaties dissipated the wealth of the state, which sought the help of the British and entered into a subsidiary alliance with them in 1818 and were British allies against rest of India in the Revolt of 1857. During the British Raj, the state of Jodhpur had the largest land area of any in the Rajputana. Jodhpur prospered under the peace and stability, a hallmark of this era; the land area of the state was 90,554 km2 its population in 1901 was 44,73,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £3,529,000, its merchants, the Marwaris and came to occupy a position of dominance in trade across India. In 1947, when India became independent, the state merged into the union of India and Jodhpur became the second largest city of Rajasthan. At the time of division, the ruler of Jodhpur, Hanwant Singh, did not want to join India, but due to the effective persuasion of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the Home Minister at the time, the state of Jodhpur was included in Indian Republic.
After the State Reorganisation Act, 1956 it was included within the state of Rajasthan. As per provisional reports of Census India, the population of Jodhpur is 1,033,918 in 2011, where males constitute 52.62 percent of the population and females constitute 47.38 percent. The average literacy rate of Jodhpur is 80.56 percent, with a male literacy rate of 88.42 percent and a female literacy rate of 73.93 percent. 12.24 percent of the population are under six years of age. Jodhpur city is governed by Municipal Corporation; the Jodhpur Urban/Metropolitan area include Jodhpur, Kuri Bhagtasani, Mandore Industrial Area, Pal Village and Sangariya. Its Urban/Metropolitan population is 1,137,815 of which 599,332 are males and 538,483 are females. According to www.citypopulation.de population of Jodhpur city on 01/01/2019 is 1,440,000. The climate of Jodhpur is hot and semi-arid during its nearly yearlong dry season, but contains a brief rainy season from late June to September. Although the average rainfall is around 362 millimetres, it fluctuates greatly.
In the famine year of 1899, Jodhpur received only 24 millimetres, but in the flood year of 1917 it received as much as 1,178 millimetres. Temperatures are extreme from March to October, except when the monsoonal rain produces thick clouds to lower it slightly. In the months of April and June, high temperatures exceed 40 degrees Celsius. During the monsoon season, average temperatures decrease slightly. However, the city's low humidity rises, which adds to the perception of the heat; the highest temperature recorded in Jodhpur was on 18 May 2016 when it rose up to 53.2 degrees Celsius. The handicrafts industry has, in recent years, eclipsed all the other industries in the city; the items manufactured include textiles, metal utensils, bicycles and sporting goods. A flourishing cottage industry exists for the manu
Georg Karl Julius Hackenschmidt was an early 20th-century Baltic German strongman and professional wrestler, recognized as professional wrestling's first world heavyweight champion. Hackenschmidt launched his professional career in Reval in the Governorate of Estonia and lived most of his life in London, where he gained the nickname of "The Russian Lion", he is believed to be the creator of the professional wrestling version of the bear hug as well as the person who popularised the hack squat, a deadlift with arms behind the body. He was known for his impressive strength and flexibility and in life, wrote many books on physical culture and philosophy. Georg Hackenschmidt was born in Dorpat, Governorate of Livonia, on 1 August 1877, where he lived with his parents, Baltic German Georg Friedrich Heinrich Hackenschmidt and Estonian Swede Ida Louise Johansson, a younger brother and sister, he said that neither of his parents was robust in stature or had any unusual physical characteristics, though his maternal grandfather was said to have been a huge and powerful man.
From his earliest years, Hackenschmidt devoted himself to physical development at the Secondary Science School, where he took advantage of the gymnasium. He excelled in cycling, swimming, running and weightlifting, his feats of strength astounded his teachers, as he could lift a small horse off the ground and lift 276 pounds overhead one handed. In a wrestler's bridge, he could pull a 335-pound barbell from the floor to his chest and press it overhead, bridging on his neck. In 1902, he jumped 100 times over a table with his feet tied together, he set several records in weight lifting and was considered both the strongest and the best-developed man in the world. Graduating from school in 1895, he entered the Lausmann factory, a large engineering firm in the city of Tallinn, as a blacksmith's apprentice, he joined the city's Athletic and Cycling Club, becoming an ardent cyclist and winning prizes, but developed a keen interest in wrestling and weight lifting. The turning point in his life came in 1896 when Georg Lurich, Hackenschmidt's compatriot Greco-Roman wrestler and strongman, toured through the area with a small company, challenging any and all comers.
Hackenschmidt was beaten. German wrestler Fritz Konietzko came to Tallinn in 1897, Hackenschmidt fared better. Hackenschmidt left Tallinn in 1898 for the St. Petersburg Athletic and Cycling Club under the training of Dr. Vladislav von Krajewski, who convinced young Hackenschmidt that he had the potential to become the strongest man in the world. Beginning his professional wrestling career, he defeated the famous French wrestler Paul Pons in April 1898. Released after five months, Hackenschmidt defeated Mr. von Schmelling for the Russian championship of 1899 on 19 May that year. In June 1900, Hackenschmidt entered a forty-day wrestling tournament in Moscow and captured the championships of both Moscow and St. Petersburg, his career as a professional wrestler was on the rise, as he won many tournaments and matches, in 1901 he won the championship of the world tournament in Vienna as well as a championship of the world tournament at the Casino de Paris. He won tournaments everywhere he wrestled, toured England in 1903 managed by the flamboyant C. B.
Cochran to confront the country's best wrestlers in the new catch-as-catch-can style, becoming popular. They created a music hall boom in professional wrestling, Hackenschmidt became a major superstar and drawing card, he wrestled in music halls and theaters. As the wrestling boom took hold in England and wrestlers came in from all around the world for the grand tournaments that had become the rage, he remained the dominant grappler, rather defeating every man he met. Cochran polished his act, he might take on five wrestlers in the same evening. Handsome as well as beautifully built, Hackenschmidt was adored by women and admired by men, became the darling of society. A soft-spoken and intellectual young man, he could speak seven languages fluently and became a noted author and philosopher. Hackenschmidt was a credit to the sport. United States President Theodore Roosevelt, himself a proponent of physical culture and exercise, proclaimed, "If I wasn't president of the United States, I would like to be George Hackenschmidt".
Hackenschmidt continued touring England and defeated the local favorites Tom Cannon, Tom Connors, Tom MacInerney and Tom Clayton- However, when he defeated the Italian Antonio Pieri twice, Pieri sought revenge by trying to find a wrestler who could beat him. He thought he had found such a man in Ahmed Madrali, called the "Terrible Turk", who tangled with Hackenschmidt at the Olympia in London on 30 January 1904; because of all the ballyhoo, traffic was jammed from the Olympia back to Piccadilly, the Olympia was packed. Hackenschmidt threw him down onto his arm, dislocating his shoulder; the contest had lasted about two minutes. Madrali recovered, the two would face each other again, with Hackenschmidt winning just as easily. On 2 July at the Royal Albert Hall, Hackenschmidt faced the American heavyweight champion Tom Jenkins, a vastly underrated wrestler who would prove to be Hackenschmidt's toughest opponent to date, under Greco-Roman rules, he pinned Jenkins in two straight falls. Hackenschmidt left Cochran's
Jan Stanisław Cyganiewicz, better known by the ring name Stanislaus Zbyszko, was a Polish strongman and professional wrestler — a two-time World Heavyweight Champion at his highest profile in the United States during the 1920s. The surname Zbyszko was only a nickname, given him by friends due to his bravery when he was a child, he was the brother of Wladek Zbyszko. Stanislaus Cyganiewicz was born on April 1879 in Jodłowa near Kraków, Poland. A noted intellectual, he studied music and law while growing up in Vienna, Austria, he possessed gifted strength. In addition, he practiced in the Sokol, a Polish patriotic gymnastic society, which centered on the physical and cultural advancement of the nation’s citizens while instilling discipline and a love of country. Around the turn-of-the-century, Cyganiewicz first encountered the wrestling industry when he used his great power to defeat an experienced grappler at a local circus in Poland. Standing just 5' 8", Cyganiewicz was built like a house; as fellow strongman George Hackenschmidt established himself as Europe’s premier grappling star, Cyganiewicz was thus attracted to a career in wrestling as well.
Over the next few years, Cyganiewicz established himself among Europe’s fastest-rising Greco-Roman wrestlers while competing in a number of tournaments. He took the ring name Stanislaus Zbyszko, he was next brought to England by Charles "C. B." Cochrane, Hackenschmidt’s manager. However, he was soon embroiled in a major controversy when Suliman was revealed to be Bulgaria's Ivan Offtharoff, employed by Zbyszko and Cochrane in one of the earliest public revelations of wrestling's "theatrical hoaxes"; as Zbyszko started to compete more in England and the United States, he began to make the switch to catch-as-catch-can freestyle wrestling. Billed as Europe’s Greco-Roman champion, he was subsequently recognized among the world’s top catch wrestlers when he fought Frank Gotch to a one-hour draw in November 1909 in Buffalo, NY; the following year, he scored heralded victories over Dr. Ben Roller and “the Terrible Turk” Youssuf Mahmout, thus confirming his reputation among the world’s elite grapplers while setting up a huge second encounter with Gotch at the Chicago Coliseum on June 1, 1910 for the undisputed World Heavyweight Championship.
However, in the rematch, Gotch tricked Zbyszko, jumping him when Zbyszko walked out for what was in Europe the customary handshake, pinning him in just 6.4 seconds. Zbyszko was infuriated and protested the result, but the match went on and Gotch took the second fall in just under 30 minutes; the performance led many fans to believe. Despite the controversial loss, Zbyszko was now regarded among the premier wrestlers in the world, and so, on September 10, 1910, Zbyszko faced the Great Gama in the finals of the John Bull World Championships in London. The match was £ 250 in the John Bull Belt. Within a minute, Zbyszko was taken down and remained in that position for the remaining 2 hours and 35 minutes of the match. There were a few brief moments when Zbyszko would get up, but he just ended back down in his previous position. Crafting a defensive strategy of hugging the mat in order to nullify Great Gama’s greatest strengths, Zbyszko wrestled the Indian legend to a draw after nearly three hours of grappling, though Zbyszko’s lack of tenacity angered many of the fans in attendance.
Zbyszko still became one of the few wrestlers to meet the Great Gama without going down in defeat. On that date, Zbyszko failed to show up and Gama was announced the winner by default, he was awarded the John Bull Belt. Receiving this belt entitled Gama to be called Rustam-e-Zamana or World Champion. Over the next decade, he competed in Europe while his younger brother, Wladek Zbyszko, established himself among the top stars in the United States. In 1927 it was announced that the Great Zbyszko would face each other again; the day came in 1928 when both wrestlers met again in Patiala. The result of the bout was, drawn when Gama threw Zbyszko in only 42 seconds. By this time, the industry had begun a gradual shift towards “worked” programs. S. by the “Gold Dust Trio” of Strangler Lewis, Billy Sandow, Toots Mondt. Though now in his early 40s, Zbyszko was booked to
Akhara or Akhada is an Indian word for a place of practice with facilities for boarding and training, both in the context of Indian martial artists or a sampradaya monastery for religious renunciates in Guru–shishya tradition. For example, in the context of the Dashanami Sampradaya sect, the word denotes both martial arts and religious monastic aspects of the trident wielding martial regiment of renunciate sadhus. In Chota Nagpur plateau region, Akhara or Akhra is village ground where villagers dance during harvest season and various feastvals; the term akhara, is a gender egalitarian term, which means the circle or more the spiritual core, congregation or league, it is similar to the Greek-origin word academy and the English word school, can be used to mean both a physical institution or a group of them which share a common lineage or are under a single leadership, such as the school of monastic thought or the school of martial arts. Unlike the gurukul in which students live and study at the home of a guru, members of an akhara although train under a guru but they do not live a domestic or homely life.
Some practice Brahmacharya and others may require complete renunciation of worldly life. For example, wrestlers are expected to live a pure life while living at akahara with other fellow wrestlers, refraining from sex and owning few material possessions. In some languages such as Odia the word is transcribed as akhada, by way of rendering the flapped sound as a d; the Haryanvi and Khari Boli dialects shorten this to khada. In its earliest usage, akhara referred to training halls for professional fighters. Govind Sadashiv Ghurye translates the term as "military regiment". Ancient use of the word can be found in the Mahabharata epic which mentions Jarasandha's Akhara at Rajgir. Legendary figures like Parashurama and Agastya are credited as the founders of the early martial akhara in certain regions of India. Svinth traces press squats used by South Asian wrestlers to the pre-classical era. Many of the popular sports mentioned in the Vedas and the epics have their origins in military training, such as boxing, chariot-racing, horse-riding and archery.
When the 8th-century philosopher Adi Shankaracharya founded the Dashanami Sampradaya, he divided the ascetics into two categories: Shastradhari intelligentsia and Astradhari warriors. Shankaracharya established Naga sadhus as an astradhari armed order, he popularised the Char Dhams during the rein of Katyuri dynasty of Garhwal Kingdom. In 904 CE and 1146 CE, Niranjani Akhara and Juna Akhara were founded respectively. In 1398, Islamic fanatic Timur massacred thousands of Sadhus of various Akharas and Hindus at Haridwar mela after sacking Delhi to punish the Tughlaq Dynasty's Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq's perceived lack of brutality towards Hindus. In 1690 CE and 1760 CE, Akharas of Saivites and Vaishnava sects fought each other at Nashik mela and Haridwar mela. In 1780, British company raj establish the sequence of order of procession for royal bathing by the akharas at Kumbh Mela to eliminate disputes. Today, akhara may be used for the teaching of yoga and martial arts; some of the noted Akhara organizations include, Akhil Bharatiya Akhara Parishad, Nirmohi Akhara, Shri Dattatreya Akhara and Guru Hanuman Akhara.
Sampradaya is a particular system of belief and within it a particular guru's lineage is called parampara. There are 3 distinct belief-system Sampradayas, each of which follows one of 3 types of Guru–shishya parampara lineage, each sampradaya-parampara may have several akharas of shastradhari or astradhari, larger akharas may have own one or more permanent mathas. Sampradaya translated as ‘tradition’,'spiritual lineage' or a ‘religious system’, it relates to a succession of masters and disciples, which serves as a spiritual channel, provides a delicate network of relationships that lends stability to a religious identity. Sampradaya is a body of practice and attitudes, which are transmitted and reviewed by each successive generation of followers. A particular guru lineage is called parampara. By receiving diksha into the guru–shishya traditional parampara of a living guru, one belongs to its proper sampradaya. One can not become a member by birth, as is the case with a seminal, or hereditary, dynasty.
In the traditional residential form of education, the shishya remains with his or her guru as a family member and gets the education as a true learner. In some traditions there is never more than one active master at the same time in the same guruparamaparya. Sampradaya: three sampradayas are Vaishnava and Advait Vaishnava sampradaya: has 4 major Guru–shishya traditional paramparas Sri Sampradaya parampara of guru Ramanujacharya, Madhva Sampradaya parampara of guru Madhvacharya, Rudra Sampradaya parampara of guru Viṣṇusvāmī/Vallabhacharya Kumara sampradaya parampara of guru NimbarkaShaivite sampradaya: has 6 major Guru–shishya traditional paramparas Nandinatha Sampradaya parampara of guru Tirumular Meykandar Sampradaya parampara of guru Meykandar Adinath Sampradaya parampara of guru Matsyendranath and Gorakshanath Trika Sam