The Great Ziegfeld

The Great Ziegfeld is a 1936 American musical and drama film directed by Robert Z. Leonard and produced by Hunt Stromberg, it stars William Powell as the theatrical impresario Florenz "Flo" Ziegfeld Jr. Luise Rainer as Anna Held, Myrna Loy as Billie Burke; the film, shot at MGM Studios in Culver City, California in the fall of 1935, is a fictionalized tribute to Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. and a cinematic adaptation of Broadway's Ziegfeld Follies, with elaborate costumes and sets. Many of the performers of the theatrical Ziegfeld Follies were cast in the film as themselves, including Fanny Brice and Harriet Hoctor, the real Billie Burke acted as a supervisor for the film; the "A Pretty Girl Is Like a Melody" set alone was reported to have cost US$220,000, featuring a towering rotating volute of 70 ft diameter with 175 spiral steps, weighing 100 tons. The music to the film was provided by Walter Donaldson, Irving Berlin, lyricist Harold Adamson, with choreographed scenes; the extravagant costumes were designed by Adrian, taking some 250 tailors and seamstresses six months to prepare them using 50 pounds of silver sequins and 12 yards of white ostrich plumes.

Over a thousand people were employed in the production of the film, which required 16 reels of film after the cutting. One of the biggest successes in film in the 1930s and the pride of MGM at the time, it was acclaimed as the greatest musical biography to be made in Hollywood and still remains a standard in musical film making, it won three Academy Awards, including Best Picture for producer Hunt Stromberg, Best Actress for Luise Rainer, Best Dance Direction for Seymour Felix, was nominated for four others. Although the film still is praised for its lavish production and as a symbol of glamour and excess during the Golden Age of Hollywood, today The Great Ziegfeld is seen less favorably and is considered by many critics to be excessively showy and too lengthy at over three hours. MGM made two more Ziegfeld films – one titled Ziegfeld Girl, starring James Stewart, Judy Garland, Hedy Lamarr and Lana Turner, which recycled some footage from The Great Ziegfeld, in 1946, Ziegfeld Follies by Vincente Minnelli.

In 1951, the studio produced a Technicolor remake of Show Boat, which Ziegfeld had presented as a stage musical. The son of a respected music professor, Florenz "Flo" Ziegfeld Jr. yearns to make his mark in show business. He begins by promoting Eugen Sandow, the "world's strongest man", at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, overcoming the competition of rival Billings and his popular attraction, belly dancer Little Egypt, with savvy marketing. Ziegfeld returns to his father and young Mary Lou at the Chicago Musical College, departs to San Francisco, where he and Sandow are deemed frauds for putting on a show in which Sandow faces a lion who falls asleep as soon as it is let out of the cage. Flo travels to England on an ocean liner, where he runs into Billings again, laughing at a newspaper article denouncing him as a fraud. Flo discovers. Despite losing all his money gambling at Monte Carlo, Flo charms Anna into signing with him instead, pretending that he doesn't know Billings. Anna twice sends him away for his rudeness and for being broke, before revealing that she appreciates his honesty.

Ziegfeld promises to give her "more publicity than she dreams of" and to feature her alongside America's most prominent theatrical performers. At first, Anna's performance at the Herald Square Theatre is not a success. However, Flo manages to generate publicity by sending 20 gallons of milk to Anna every day for a fictitious milk bath beauty treatment refusing to pay the bill; the newspaper stories soon bring the curious to pack his theater, Ziegfeld introduces eight new performers to back her. Audience members comment on how the milk must make her skin beautiful and the show is a major success. Flo sends Anna flowers and jewelry and a note saying "you were magnificent my wife", she agrees to marry him, flaunting her new diamonds to her fellow performers. However, one success is not enough for the showman, he has an idea for an new kind of show featuring a bevy of blondes and brunettes, one that will "glorify" the American girl. The new show, the Ziegfeld Follies, an opulent production filled with beautiful women and extravagant costumes and sets, is a smash hit, is followed by more versions of the Follies.

Ziegfeld tries to make a star out of Audrey Dane, plagued with alcoholism, he lures Fanny Brice from vaudeville, showering both with lavish gifts. He gives stagehand Ray Bolger his break as well. Mary Lou, now a young woman, visits Ziegfeld, who doesn't recognize her and hires her as a dancer; the new production upsets Anna, who realizes that Flo's world does not revolve around just her, she becomes envious of the attention he pays to Audrey. She divorces him after walking in on a drunk Audrey at the wrong moment. Audrey walks out on the show after an angry confrontation. Broke, Flo borrows money from Billings for a third time for the new show. Flo soon marries her; when she hears the news, a heartbroken Anna telephones pretends to be glad for him. Flo and Billie have a daughter named Patricia. Flo's new shows are a success, but after a while, the public's taste changes, people begin to wonder if the times have not passed him by. After a string of negative reviews in the press, Flo overhears three men in a barber's shop saying that he'll "never produce another hit".

Stung, he vows to have four hits on Broadway at the same time. He achieves his go

Machine industry

The machine industry or machinery industry is a subsector of the industry, that produces and maintains machines for consumers, the industry, most other companies in the economy. This machine industry traditionally belongs to the heavy industry. Nowadays, many smaller companies in this branch are considered part of the light industry. Most manufacturers in the machinery industry are called machine factories; the machine industry is a subsector of the industry that produces a range of products from power tools, different types of machines, domestic technology to factory equipment etc. On the one hand the machine industry provides: The means of production for businesses in the agriculture, mining and construction; the means of production for public utility, such as equipment for the production and distribution of gas and water. A range of supporting equipment for all sectors of the economy, such as equipment for heating and air conditioning of buildings; these means of production are called capital goods.

Much of those production machines require regular maintenance, which becomes supplied specialized companies in the machine industry. On the other end the machinery industry supplies consumer goods, including kitchen appliances, washers, dryers and a like. Production of radio and television, however, is considered belonging to the electrical equipment industry; the machinery industry itself is a major customer of the steel industry. The production of the machinery industry varies from single-unit production and series production to mass production. Single-unit production is about constructing unique products, which are specified in specific customer requirements. Due to modular design such devices and machines can be manufactured in small series, which reduces the costs. From a certain stage in the production, the specific customer requirements are build in, the unique product is created; the machinery industry came into existence during the Industrial Revolution. Companies in this emerging field grew out of iron foundries, shipyards and repair shops.

Companies were a combination of machine factory and shipyard. Early in the 20th century several motorcycle and automobile manufacturers began their own machine factories. Prior to the industrial revolution a variety of machines existed such as clocks and running gear for mills Production of these machines were on much smaller scale in artisan workshops for the local or regional market. With the advent of the industrial revolution manufacturing began of composite tools with more complex construction, such as steam engines and steam generators for the evolving industry and transport. In addition, the emerging machine factories started making machines for production machines as textile machinery, agricultural machinery, engines for ships. During the first decades of the industrial revolution in England, from 1750, there was a concentration of labor in not yet mechanized factories. There were all kinds of new machines invented, which were made by the inventors themselves. Early in the 18th century, the first steam engines, the Newcomen engine, came into use throughout Britain and Europe, principally to pump water out of mines.

In the 1770s James Watt improved this design. He introduced a steam engine easy employable to supply a large amounts of energy, which set the mechanization of factories underway. In England certain cities concentrated on making specific products, such as specific types of textiles or pottery. Around these cities specialized machinery industry arose in order to enable the mechanization of the plants. Hereby late in the 18th century arose the first machinery industry in the UK and in Germany and Belgium; the Industrial Revolution received a further boost with the upcoming railways. These arose at the beginning of the 19th century in England as innovation in the mining industry; the work in coal mines was hard and dangerous, so there was a great need for tools to ease this work. In 1804, Richard Trevithick placed the first steam engine on rails, was in 1825 the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened, intended to transport coals from the mine to the port. In 1835 the first train drove in continental Europe between Mechelen and Brussels, in the Netherlands in 1839 the first train drove between Amsterdam and Haarlem.

For the machinery industry this brought all sorts of new work with new machinery for metallurgy, machine tool for metalworking, production of steam engines for trains with all its necessities etc. In time the market for the machine industry became wider, specialized products were manufactured for a greater national and international market. For example, it was not uncommon in the second half of the 19th century that American steelmakers ordered their production in England, where new steelmaking techniques were more advanced. In the far east Japan would import these product until the early 1930s, the creation of an own machinery industry got underway.. The term "machinery industry" came into existence in the 19th century. One of the first times this branch of industry was recognized as such, was investigated, was in a production statistics of 1907 created by the British Ministry of Trade and Industry. In this statistic the output of the engineering industry, was divided into forty different categories, including for example, agricultural machinery, machinery for the textile industry and equipment, parts for train and tram.

The inventions of new propulsion techniques based on electric motors, internal combustion engines and gas turbines brought a new generation of machines in the 20th century from cars to household ap

Hardington Moor

Hardington Moor is an 8.7 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest between Hardington Mandeville and West Coker in Somerset, notified in 1994. Hardington Moor National Nature Reserve covers calcareous clay-rich soils on sloping ground and comprises three meadows surrounded by established hedges; the meadows are examples of species-rich unimproved neutral grassland, now nationally rare. The rare French oat-grass is abundant on the site and the fields are home to a wide variety of plant species, most notably adder's tongue, corky-fruited water-dropwort and large numbers of green-winged orchid. Invertebrates found at the site include butterflies such as gatekeeper, small tortoiseshell and common blue. Less seen are large skipper, green-veined white and green hairstreak. English Nature citation sheet for the site English Nature website