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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of The Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of The Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the editor in chief Katharine Viner succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November 2019, its print edition had a daily circulation of 129,053.

The newspaper has an online edition,, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors during the age of manual typesetting led Private Eye magazine to dub the paper the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.

It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.

It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.

The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called The Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.

They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott made the newspaper nationally recognised, he was editor for 57

Mister Pip

Mister Pip is a novel by Lloyd Jones, a New Zealand author. It is named after the chief character in, shaped by the plot of, Charles Dickens' novel Great Expectations. Jones wrote 11 versions of the novel setting it on an unnamed Pacific island; the novel was set against the backdrop of the civil war on Bougainville Island during the early 1990s. The novel is the story of a girl caught in the throes of war on the island of Bougainville, it is through the guidance of her devoted but strict Christian mother and teacher that Matilda survives but, more through her connection with Pip, a fictional creation in Charles Dickens' Great Expectations. Pip helps Matilda maintain a desire to live after her father, the wise Mr Watts and her island home cease to exist; the novel opens with a colourful description of Watts, whom the children call Pop-Eye due to his eyes that "stuck out further than anyone else's". We learn of his marriage to Grace, a native of Bougainville, which explains why he remained long after most white men had abandoned the island.

With military tension rising and the schoolroom growing over with creepers, Watts decides to take on the task of educating the children. Despite his claim to be limited in intelligence, he introduces the students to one of the greatest English authors, Charles Dickens. Dolores, Matilda's overzealous Christian mother, expresses an extreme distrust of the teacher and his curriculum, she does everything in her power to ensure that her daughter's mind is not polluted by the strange white man, including making weekly visits to the classroom. She goes as far as stealing and hiding Watts's Great Expectations book, an action that causes immense trouble when "red skin" soldiers enter the village and find Pip's name carved into the sand, it is Matilda who wrote his name, it is her guilt that makes her empathise with her mother, who refuses to give up the book as evidence that Pip is not a rebel but a fictional character. Convinced that Pip must be a spy, hidden from them, the soldiers destroy the houses.

All they leave behind are smoking fragments of the village's former life. As the tension escalates, a group of rebel soldiers returns to the village to question Watts, he agrees to explain himself over the course of seven nights, proceeds to tell a story that entwines Pip's life with his own. Matilda develops an idea about why he returned to the island with his wife and stayed after all the other whites left, his wife has died, Watts considers moving on and offers Matilda a chance to escape from the island. However, she would have to choose between Watts and her mother but before this can happen the rebels flee and the soldiers return; the soldiers kill Watts, when Matilda's mother speaks up she is taken away and raped. Matilda is raped, but her mother gives up her life to spare her. In the wake of surviving the slaughter of her village, her mother, Watts, Matilda loses her will to live, she nearly drowns but is revived by the memory of Pip, who narrowly escaped death. After clinging to a log, Matilda is picked up by the fisherman who had arranged to escape with Watts, reaches Australia.

There she begins to pick up the pieces of her disrupted life. She comes to terms with the reality of Watts, who altered both the facts of his life and abridged the contents in Great Expectations in an effort to provide escape from the world, both for himself and for the children, she reveals her success in becoming a scholar and a Dickens expert and concludes her narrative by emphasizing the power of literature to offer escape and solace in the worst of times. Matilda becomes a teacher in Australia in order to fulfill her dream and educate people, but to keep the memory of Watts alive. Matilda Laimo is the main character in the novel, she was in her early teens and attending school, taught by Watts after the teachers fled the island once the blockade began. Matilda has lived on the island her whole life: she lives with only her mother Dolores, as her father has left to work abroad. Matilda goes to live with her father in Australia after her mother and Watts are killed Mr. Watts is the only white man left on the island.

He has a mysterious history, which many of the islanders long to know about, one being his marriage to Grace. He taught the children of the island and read to them, each day reading a chapter of Great Expectations. Dolores Laimo is the mother of a strong Christian believer, she has many different viewpoints from Watts. Grace is the second wife of Watts, she was born on Bougainville, but moved to Wellington, New Zealand to study dentistry, where she fell in love with Watts. Grace returned to Bougainville with Watts. Daniel is the character who unintentionally causes Watts' death, his own by witnessing it, he claims that Watts is Dickens, when the soldiers come looking for Pip, Watts takes the role of Dickens. This leads to his downfall. Daniel is a little bit slow, when the officer asks'who saw the white man die?' Daniel puts his hand up and is delighted to know the answer. The novel was shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize in 2007. Andrew Adamson wrote a film adaption of the novel, called Mr. Pip, which he directed.

Hugh Laurie plays Watts. It was filmed in Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. On July 29 and 30 2011 filming was at Glendo

Roger Springer

Roger Springer is an American country music artist. Springer's only single as a solo artist, "The Right One Left," was released in 1992 on MCA Nashville and peaked at No. 69 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart. In 1998, Springer formed the country music trio Springer! with Shara Johnson and Joe Manuel. Their first single, "Don't Try to Find Me," peaked at No. 64 on the Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart. A second single, "Ain't Nothing but a Cloud," was failed to chart. Renamed The Roger Springer Band, Giant released the trio's eponymous debut album in July 1999 shortly before they disbanded; as a songwriter, Springer has co-written single releases by Mark Chesnutt, Sammy Kershaw and Love and Theft. Allmusic

Administrative divisions of Greece

Following the implementation on 1 January 2011 of the Kallikratis Plan, the administrative divisions of Greece consist of two main levels: the regions and the municipalities. In addition, a number of decentralized administrations overseeing the regions exist as part of the Ministry of the Interior, but are not entities of local government; the old prefectures were either abolished and split up or transformed into regional units in 2011. The administrative regions are divided into regional units which are further subdivided into municipalities; the Eastern Orthodox monastic community on Mount Athos is an autonomous self-governing entity. The first level of government is constituted by the municipalities, which have resulted from merging several former municipalities and communities, they are run by a municipal council, elected every 5 years. The municipalities are further subdivided into municipal units and into communities. Although communities have their own councils, their role is purely advisory to the municipal-level government.

The second level is composed of the regions, run by a regional governor and a regional council, popularly elected every 5 years. The regions are divided into 74 regional units but not always coterminous with the former prefectures; each regional unit is headed by a vice-regional governor, drawn from the same political block as the regional governor. The third level is composed of the new decentralized administrations, comprising one to three regions, run by a government-appointed general secretary, assisted by an advisory council drawn from the regional governors and the representatives of the municipalities. Decentralized Administration of Attica, with the capital of Athens Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace, with the capital of Thessaloniki Decentralized Administration of Epirus and Western Macedonia, with the capital of Ioannina Decentralized Administration of Thessaly and Central Greece, with the capital of Larissa Decentralized Administration of Peloponnese, Western Greece and the Ionian, with the capital of Patras Decentralized Administration of the Aegean, with the capital of Piraeus Decentralized Administration of Crete, with the capital of Heraklion Mount Athos From 1 January 2011, in accordance with the Kallikratis programme, the administrative system of Greece was drastically overhauled.

The former system of 13 regions, 54 prefectures and 1033 municipalities and communities was replaced by 7 decentralized administrations, 13 regions and 325 municipalities. The first elections to the restructured Greek local government areas were held between 7 November and 14 November 2010. Politics of Greece

Venus Felix (sculpture)

The Venus Felix is a sculpture of Venus and her son Cupid which dates back to the 2nd-century AD. It was dedicated by Helpidus to Venus Felix, its head resembles Faustina the Younger. It is now held at the Pius-Clementine museum of the Vatican Museums, is displayed in the Octagon of the Hermes Hall; the Venus Felix statue is not a copy but is reminiscent of the great masterpiece, Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praxiteles made in the 4th-century BCE. The statue has a distinctive description on its base; the description is thought to attest the statue is dedicated to Venus Felix by Sallustia a matron whose portrait can be traced back to the 2nd-century AD and by Helpidus in all likelihood, who stands next to her guise of Eros as he hands her an object which could be mirror

West Sulawesi

West Sulawesi is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the western of the Sulawesi island, its capital is Mamuju. The 2010 Census recorded a population of 1,158,651, while that in 2015 recorded 1,279,994; the province was established in 2004. It is on the Sulawesi and includes the regencies of Polewali Mandar, Majene, Central Mamuju, Pasangkayu, which used to be part of South Sulawesi; the area of the province is 16,796.19 km2. Its economy consists of mining and fishing, its capital is Mamuju. West Sulawesi Province is divided into five regencies, listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census. A sixth regency - Central Mamuju Regency - has subsequently been cut out of the existing Mamuju Regency on 14 December 2012; the area and population are included in the figures for Mamuju Residency given above. Its population at the 2010 census was 1,158,651 increasing at 2.67% annually. Of those 171,356 are classified as below the poverty line of Indonesia. Polewali-Mamasa