Holiday (Madonna song)
"Holiday" is a song recorded by American singer Madonna for her eponymous debut album Madonna. Sire Records released it as the album's third single in September 7, 1983. "Holiday" appeared remixed on the remix compilation You Can Dance and the greatest hits compilation The Immaculate Collection, in its original form on the greatest hits album Celebration. Written by Curtis Hudson and Lisa Stevens of Pure Energy, the track was offered to Madonna by her producer John "Jellybean" Benitez when she was looking for a potential hit track to include in her debut album. After accepting the song and Benitez worked on it and altered its composition by the addition of a piano solo performed by their friend, Fred Zarr. "Holiday" features instrumentation from guitars, electronic handclaps, a cowbell, a synthesized string arrangement, while its lyrics speak about the universal sentiment of taking a holiday. Universally acclaimed by critics, the song became Madonna's first mainstream hit single in the United States, peaking at number 16 on the Billboard Hot 100.
It became her first top-ten single in several countries, including Australia, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Madonna has performed "Holiday" on most of her tours and it is included as a part of the encore. Different performances of the song are included in the recorded releases of her tours. Cover versions by a number of artists have been released, it has appeared in the soundtrack of sitcoms like Will & Grace. In 1983, Madonna was recording her eponymous debut album with Warner Bros. Records producer Reggie Lucas, after Sire Records green-lit it when her first single "Everybody" became a club hit. However, she did not have enough material for the album. Lucas brought two new songs to the project and John "Jellybean" Benitez, a DJ at Funhouse disco was called to remix the available tracks. In the meantime due to a conflict of interest, Madonna's collaborator on "Everybody", Stephen Bray had sold a song "Ain't No Big Deal" to an act called Barracuda on another label, rendering it unavailable for Madonna's album.
It was Benitez who discovered a new song written by Curtis Hudson and Lisa Stevens of the pop group Pure Energy. The song, titled "Holiday", had been turned down by singers Phyllis Hyman and Mary Wilson of The Supremes. Hudson and Stevens was asked by Benitez if they had any song for then-unknown Madonna and since their record label Prism did not want to release "Holiday", they gave it to Benitez. Pure Energy recalled in an interview with Blogcritics: We knew that the song had that magic to it. Since we weren't going to be able to record ourselves, we were hoping it would fall into the hands of someone, going to do it justice. Jellybean was shopping it, I think he pitched it to Phyllis Hyman and a couple of other artists. We didn’t pitch the songs that much. I was still hoping. Stevens remembered that she had started playing the beginning chords of "Holiday" on a keyboard but could not progress further. Hudson, who felt that the music could lead to something constructive, urged Stevens to experiment with it for a week and came up with the hook "Holiday, Celebrate!", while going back-and-forth between them.
Inspired by the opening chords and hearing depressing news on the radio, Hudson started penning down the song and within 30 minutes was able to complete it, with the whole composition and arrangement in his mind. Most of the song was written by him with Stevens suggesting few alterations like the line "It would be so nice". Benitez and Madonna sent the demo to their friend, Fred Zarr so he could change the arrangement and program it differently. After the vocals were added by Madonna, Benitez spent four days and tried to enhance the commercial appeal of the track before the April 1983 deadline set by Madonna's record label. Benitez had not produced any song at that time but was aware of how to reconstruct the different musical pieces in a studio, he assembled the musicians and hummed the tune to them for recording. He asked Madonna to sing in a "soulful" manner on the track. Just before it was completed and Benitez met Zarr at Sigma Sound Studios in Manhattan where the track was recorded; the singer suggested Zarr to add a piano solo towards the end of the track, as well as asked Hudson to change a part of the funk in the guitar rhythm.
Pure Energy, who were present at the recording studio during February 1983, recalled that the rhythm track was finished in a single day because they did not want to venture further from the demo track. Minor changes were included, like substituting Hudson's LinnDrum with Zarr's Oberheim DMX. Other changes were in the vocal delivery from the soul, gospel like singing on the demo to Madonna's "poppier" belting; the group was not given a production credit on "Holiday" since Benitez had presented the track to Sire Records, he had an existing relationship with Madonna. Although Hudson pressed for a credit, they let it go since they felt that the song would be their chance to get recognized as efficient songwriters. Musically, "Holiday" is a dance-pop song devoid of any particular structure, it begins with a chord sequence reminiscent of Cyndi Lauper's "Time After Time". Set in the time signature of common time with a medium tempo of 116 beats per minute, the song is composed in the key of D major and is six minutes seven seconds in length.
Madonna's vocal range spans from B3 to C♯5. The track follows in the chord progression of G–A–A–Bm in the first line, when Madonna sings "Holiday!" and changes to G–A–F♯m–G in the second line, when Madonna sings "Celebrate!". The four bar sequence of th
Castlefield is an inner city conservation area of Manchester in North West England. The conservation area which bears its name is bounded by the River Irwell, Quay Street and Chester Road, it was the site of the Roman era fort of Mancunium which gave its name to Manchester. It was the terminus of the Bridgewater Canal, the world's first industrial canal, built in 1764; the world's first passenger railway terminated here in 1830, at Liverpool Road railway station and the first railway warehouse opened here in 1831. The Rochdale Canal met the Bridgewater Canal at Castlefield in 1805 and in the 1830s they were linked with the Mersey and Irwell Navigation by two short cuts. In 1848 the two viaducts of the Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway crossed the area and joined each other, two further viaducts and one mainline station Manchester Central railway station followed, it has a tram station, Deansgate-Castlefield tram stop providing frequent Manchester Metrolink services to Eccles, Altrincham, Manchester Piccadilly, East Didsbury and Rochdale.
Castlefield was designated a conservation area in 1980 and the United Kingdom's first designated Urban Heritage Park in 1982. The name Castlefield refers to the settlement's position below the former Roman fort, it is a contracted version of the earlier name Castle-in-the-field. Another name for the area was Campfield, it is preserved in the name of St Matthew's Church and Campfield Market. An older name for the settlement was the Old English Aldport, meaning old or long used port, distinguishing it from the new port at medieval Manchester nearer the confluence of the Rivers Irk and Irwell. Port in Old English could refer to a market so the names could be old and new market. A Roman fort, Mamucium or Mancunium was established in what is now Castlefield around AD 79 near a crossing place on the River Medlock; the fort was sited on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the River Medlock and Irwell in a defensible position. It was erected as a series of fortifications established by Gnaeus Julius Agricola during his campaign against the Brigantes, who were the Celtic tribe in control of most of northern England.
It guarded a central stage of the Roman road, between Deva Eboracum. Another road branched off to the north to Bremetennacum; the neighbouring forts were Northwich. Built first from turf and timber, the fort was demolished around 140; when it was rebuilt around 160, it was again of timber construction. Around the year 200, the fort underwent another rebuild enhancing its defences by replacing the gatehouse in stone and facing the walls with stone; the fort would have been garrisoned by an infantry cohort of around 500 auxiliary troops. Evidence of pagan and Christian worship has been discovered. Two altars have been found and there may be a temple of Mithras at the site. A word square was discovered in the 1970s that may be one of the earliest examples of Christianity in Britain. A civilian settlement grew in association with the fort, made up of traders and the soldiers' families. An area which has a concentration of furnaces and industrial activity has been described as an industrial estate; the civilian settlement was abandoned by the mid-3rd century, although a small garrison may have remained at Mamucium into the late 3rd and early 4th centuries.
A reconstructed part of the fort is open to the public. The village of Manchester became established a kilometre to the north and the area around the vicus became known as "Aldport" or "The Old Town". A house and park here became the home of the Mosley family in 1601 but, in 1642, after being used by Lord Strange as a royalist headquarters during the Siege of Manchester, it was burned down by parliamentarians; the River Irwell was made navigable in 1720s, leading to the construction of a quay in the area for loading and unloading of goods. The Bridgewater Canal arrived in Castlefield in July 1761, around the time the Industrial Revolution is considered to have started; the Rochdale Canal, a network of private branch canals joined the Bridgewater at Lock 92 in Castlefield. The Bridgewater Canal company hesitated in connecting their canal the adjacent Mersey and Irwell Navigation until the Rochdale Canal Company had constructed its Manchester and Salford Junction Canal, the railways had arrived in the 1830s.
As the century progressed the canals gave way to the railways and the area became dissected by a network of railway lines carried on a series of multi-arch viaducts. Though Castlefield did have cotton mills, it was the engineering works and warehousing, more noticeable; the first canal warehouse, built in 1771 on Coal Wharf, was used to raise coal from the barges to street level, store other goods. In the nineteenth century the warehouses assumed other functions such as trans-shipment which involved receiving trains or barges, reassembling their loads to be shipped to other destinations. Other warehouses received raw materials such as yarn, collected by outworkers who returned woven cloth; the warehouses acted as showrooms on the ground floors, with offices and storage above and behind. During the 20th century both canal and railway transport declined and the area became somewhat derelict; the railway complex in Liverpool Road was sold to a conservation group for a nominal £1 and became the Greater Manchester Museum of Science and Industry.
In 1982 the area was designated as an Urban Heritage Par
The Situationist International was an international organization of social revolutionaries made up of avant-garde artists and political theorists, prominent in Europe from its formation in 1957 to its dissolution in 1972. The intellectual foundations of the Situationist International were derived from anti-authoritarian Marxism and the avant-garde art movements of the early 20th century Dada and Surrealism. Overall, situationist theory represented an attempt to synthesize this diverse field of theoretical disciplines into a modern and comprehensive critique of mid-20th century advanced capitalism; the situationists recognized that capitalism had changed since Marx's formative writings, but maintained that his analysis of the capitalist mode of production remained fundamentally correct. In their expanded interpretation of Marxist theory, the situationists asserted that the misery of social alienation and commodity fetishism were no longer limited to the fundamental components of capitalist society, but had now in advanced capitalism spread themselves to every aspect of life and culture.
They rejected the idea that advanced capitalism's apparent successes—such as technological advancement, increased income, increased leisure—could outweigh the social dysfunction and degradation of everyday life that it inflicted. Essential to situationist theory was the concept of the spectacle, a unified critique of advanced capitalism of which a primary concern was the progressively increasing tendency towards the expression and mediation of social relations through objects; the situationists believed that the shift from individual expression through directly lived experiences, or the first-hand fulfillment of authentic desires, to individual expression by proxy through the exchange or consumption of commodities, or passive second-hand alienation, inflicted significant and far-reaching damage to the quality of human life for both individuals and society. Another important concept of situationist theory was the primary means of counteracting the spectacle; when the Situationist International was first formed, it had a predominantly artistic focus.
However, that focus shifted more towards revolutionary and political theory. The Situationist International reached the apex of its creative output and influence in 1967 and 1968, with the former marking the publication of the two most significant texts of the situationist movement, The Society of the Spectacle by Guy Debord and The Revolution of Everyday Life by Raoul Vaneigem; the expressed writing and political theory of the two aforementioned texts, along with other situationist publications, proved influential in shaping the ideas behind the May 1968 insurrections in France. The term "situationist" refers to the construction of situations, one of the early central concepts of the Situationist International. Situationist theory sees the situation as a tool for the liberation of everyday life, a method of negating the pervasive alienation that accompanied the spectacle; the founding manifesto of the Situationist International, Report on the Construction of Situations, defined the construction of situations as "the concrete construction of momentary ambiances of life and their transformation into a superior passional quality."
Internationale Situationniste No. 1 defined the constructed situation as "a moment of life concretely and deliberately constructed by the collective organization of a unitary ambiance and a game of events". The situationists argued; the experimental direction of situationist activity consisted of setting up temporary environments favorable to the fulfillment of true and authentic human desires in response. The Situationist International resisted use of the term "situationism", which Debord called a "meaningless term", adding "here is no such thing as situationism, which would mean a doctrine for interpreting existing conditions"; the situationists maintained a philosophical opposition to all ideologies, conceiving of them as abstract superstructures serving only to justify the economic base of a given society. In The Society of the Spectacle, Debord asserted ideology was "the abstract will to universality and the illusion thereof", "legitimated in modern society by universal abstraction and by the effective dictatorship of illusion".
The situationist movement had its origins as a left wing tendency within Lettrism, an artistic and literary movement led by the Romanian-born French poet and visual artist Isidore Isou, originating in 1940s Paris. The group was influenced by the preceding avant-garde movements of Dadaism and Surrealism, seeking to apply critical theories based on these concepts to all areas of art and culture, most notably in poetry, painting
Norman Quentin Cook, known by his stage name Fatboy Slim, is an English DJ, record producer who helped to popularise the big beat genre in the 1990s. In the 1980s, Cook was the bassist for the Hull-based indie rock band the Housemartins, who achieved a UK number-one single with their a cappella cover of "Caravan of Love". After the Housemartins split, Norman Cook formed the electronic band Beats International in Brighton, who produced the number-one single "Dub Be Good to Me". Cook joined acts including Freak Power and the Mighty Dub Katz to moderate success. In 1996, Cook adopted the name Fatboy Slim and released Better Living Through Chemistry to critical acclaim. Follow-up albums You've Come a Long Way, Halfway Between the Gutter and the Stars, Palookaville, as well as singles such as "The Rockafeller Skank", "Praise You", "Right Here, Right Now", "Weapon of Choice", "Wonderful Night", achieved commercial and critical success. In 2008, Cook formed the Brighton Port Authority with David Byrne.
Cook has been responsible for successful remixes for Cornershop, Beastie Boys, A Tribe Called Quest, Groove Armada, Wildchild. In 2010, in partnership with Byrne, he released. Cook holds the Guinness World Record for the most top 40 hits under different names; as a solo act, he has won ten MTV Video Music Awards and two Brit Awards. Quentin Leo Cook was born in Bromley, raised in Reigate, Surrey and educated at Reigate Grammar School, he played drums in a British new wave-influenced rock band. When frontman Charlie Alcock was told by his parents that he had to give up the band to concentrate on his O levels, Cook took over as lead vocalist. At The Railway Tavern in Reigate, Cook met Paul Heaton. At 18, Cook went to Brighton Polytechnic to read a B. A. in English and sociology, where he achieved a 2:1 in the British Studies honours course. Although he had begun DJing some years before, it was at this time that he began to develop his skills on the thriving Brighton club scene appearing at the Brighton Belle and the students' favourite The Basement, where known as DJ Quentox he began laying the base for Brighton's hip hop scene.
In 1985, Cook's friend Paul Heaton had formed a guitar band called The Housemartins. Their bassist left on the eve of their first national tour, so Cook agreed to move to Hull to join them; the band soon had a hit single with "Happy Hour", their two albums, London 0 Hull 4 and The People Who Grinned Themselves to Death, peaked in the Top 10 of the UK Albums Chart. They reached number one just before Christmas 1986 with a version of "Caravan of Love" a hit the year before for Isley-Jasper-Isley. However, by 1988 they had split up. Heaton and the band's drummer Dave Hemingway went on to form The Beautiful South, while Cook moved back to Brighton to pursue his interest in the style of music he preferred, it was at this time that he first started working with young studio engineer Simon Thornton, with whom he continues to make records. All of Cook's records released from that point onwards have involved both of them to varying degrees. Cook achieved his first solo hit in 1989, featuring his future Beats International member MC Wildski, called "Blame It on the Bassline".
Credited to "Norman Cook feat. MC Wildski", the song followed the basic template of what was to come in the style of the music of Beats International, it became a modest hit in the UK Singles Chart, reaching number 29. Cook formed Beats International, a loose confederation of studio musicians including vocalists Lindy Layton and Lester Noel, rappers D. J. Baptiste and MC Wildski, keyboardist Andy Boucher, their first album, Let Them Eat Bingo, included the number one single "Dub Be Good to Me", which caused a legal dispute revolving around allegations of infringement of copyright through the liberal use of unauthorised samples: the bassline was a note-for-note lift from "The Guns of Brixton" by The Clash and the lyrics borrowed from "Just Be Good to Me" by The S. O. S. Band; this bankrupted Cook as he lost the case and was ordered to pay back twice the royalties made on the record. The 1991 follow-up album Excursion on the Version, an exploration of dub and reggae music, failed to repeat the success of its predecessor, as it did not chart.
Cook formed Freak Power with horn player Ashley Slater and singer Jesse Graham. They released their debut album Drive-Thru Booty in 1994, which contained the single "Turn On, Tune In, Cop Out"; the cut was picked up by the Levi's company for use in a multimillion-dollar advertising campaign. In 1996, Cook re-joined Freak Power for More of Everything for Everybody. Cook enlisted help from producer friends Tim Jeffery and JC Reid to create a house music album as Pizzaman; the 1995 Pizzamania album spawned three UK Top 40 hits: "Trippin' on Sunshine", "Sex on the Streets", "Happiness". "Happiness" was picked up by the Del Monte Foods corporation for use in a UK fruit juice ad. The music videos for the three singles were all directed by Michael Dominic. Cook formed the group The Mighty Dub Katz along with Gareth Hansome, Cook's former flatmate. Together they started the Boutique Nightclub in Brighton known as the Big Beat Boutique, their biggest song together was "Magic Carpet Ride". Cook adopted the pseudonym Fatboy Slim in 1996.
Cook says of the name: "It doesn't mean anything. I've told so many different lies over the years about it I can't remember the truth. It's just an oxymoron -- a word, it kind of suits me – it's kind of goofy and ironic."The Fatboy Slim album and Cook's second solo album, Be
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The Tube (TV series)
The Tube was a United Kingdom music television programme, which ran for five series, from 5 November 1982 to 26 April 1987. It was produced by Tyne Tees Television for Channel 4, which had produced the similar music show Alright Now and the music-oriented youth show Check it Out for ITV; the Tube was presented live by hosts including Jools Holland, Paula Yates, Leslie Ash, Muriel Gray, Gary James, Michel Cremona, Felix Howard, Tony Fletcher, Nick Laird-Clowes and Mike Everitt. The brand name was relaunched by Channel 4 as an online radio station in November 2006; the show was directed by Gavin Taylor. Many other specials were made, including one for the eve of the millennium; the Tube was a showcase for many emerging 1980s bands. The Tube was an important outlet for the performers. For The Proclaimers, performing "Letter from America" on The Tube was instrumental in helping the Scottish duo to their first top ten UK hit. In addition to being the launchpad for new and upcoming performers, The Tube became known for its high-profile music performance'scoops' from established world class bands such as U2 live at Red Rocks, Robert Plant, Bo Diddley and ZZ Top.
The show was fortunate to persuade Ringo Starr to give one of the first post-Beatles interviews in an extended article on his work with Marc Bolan and T. Rex, filmed at his house, Tittenhurst Park, it was during the 50th show in November 1984 that Bob Geldof ran into Midge Ure and suggested the idea of a fund-raising single for the Christmas market to help the Ethiopian famine, the project that would become Band Aid and Live Aid. The Jam performed on the first edition of the show in 1982, it was their last live TV appearance together before they split up at the end of the year; the cornerstone of the shows was four bands each week. In an era where most music TV shows featured non-stop miming, the live sets by the guest artists were innovative; the programme would start with a 45-minute magazine section consisting of interviews, fashion items and comedy appearances by a wide range of alternative artistes such as Frank Sidebottom, Vic Reeves, Foffo Spearjig and French & Saunders. During this section Yates would become known for conducting rather flirtatious interviews: in 1985, for example, she prompted Sting to remove his trousers.
The main presenters were supported, for the first two series, by five newcomers who were picked following a nationally advertised competition: these were Muriel Gray, Gary James, Nick Laird-Clowes, Michel Cremona and Mike Everitt. The supporting presenters took; the show featured four or five band appearances per week, with one main extended session to close. The format of the show was extended following Series 1 with a number of special events - most notably A Midsummer Night's Tube, a 5-hour version broadcast live from the Tyne Tees studios, the pub across the road from the studios and The Hoppings annual fair in Newcastle; this ground breaking broadcast was, at the time, the longest continuous live music show in television history and received much critical and technical acclaim. Studio 5 was used to produce a spin-off show called TX45; this show ran for two series hosted by Chris Cowey and produced by Jeff Brown and featured local bands such as The Kane Gang, Caught in the Act, Secret Sam and President.
The programme's theme music, the instrumental "TX45", was by Sophie and Peter Johnston, based on the song of theirs, "Some Sunny Day". A video clip of them performing it is available. Many stars drank in the neighbouring pub The Egypt Cottage. Jools Holland said "A legendary amount of things happened in the Egypt Cottage, the Rose and Crown when it was on the other side of the road. Everyone – the likes of Miles Davis, Paul McCartney – who came up for The Tube will have sat in that pub." The pub was demolished in 2009. Between 1986 -- 87, the series had a summer replacement named Wired. In January 1987, during the fifth series, Jools Holland used the phrase "be there or be ungroovy fuckers" during a live trailer for the show; the incident caused a national scandal, as the trailer was transmitted at a peak children's viewing time and the show was taken off air for three weeks as a result. Holland was reprimanded by Channel 4, as this was not the first time he had accidentally sworn on the live show.
The show's producer, Malcolm Gerrie, Tyne Tees' Director of Programmes, Andrea Wonfor, announced their resignations in March. They cited as reasons for doing so a mixture of internal bickering, political pressure and "stifling bureaucracy and heavy-handed moralism". A further series was never commissioned. In truth, the viewing figures for the series had dropped and the original format had been watered down; some people close to the show had said that Holland's swearing was seen as a convenient way of ending the show. The presenters' live interviews and filmed magazine items were nervously watched by the show's producers and editors as well as Channel 4 executives when certain pop stars and celebrities not known for their shy and retiring nature were being featured, it was this that gave the show the curious feeling of'anything might happen' that made it the success it was. For Holland, Yate
Acid house is a subgenre of house music developed around the mid-1980s by DJs from Chicago. The style was defined by the deep basslines and "squelching" sounds of the Roland TB-303 electronic synthesizer-sequencer. Acid house spread to the United Kingdom and continental Europe, where it was played by DJs in the acid house and rave scenes. By the late 1980s, acid house had moved into the British mainstream, where it had some influence on pop and dance styles. Acid house brought house music to a worldwide audience; the influence of acid house can be heard on styles of dance music including trance, breakbeat hardcore, big beat and trip hop. Acid house's minimalist production aesthetic combined house music's ubiquitous programmed four-on-the-floor 4/4 beat with the electronic squelch sound produced by the Roland TB-303 electronic synthesizer-sequencer by modulating its frequency and resonance controls to create movement in otherwise simple bass patterns. Other elements, such as synthetic strings and stabs, were minimal.
Sometimes tracks were instrumentals such as Phuture's "Acid Tracks", or contained full vocal performances such as Pierre's Pfantasy Club's "Dream Girl", while others were instrumentals complemented by the odd spoken word'drop-in', such as Phuture's "Slam". English acid house and rave fans used the yellow smiley face symbol as an emblem of the music and scene, a "vapid, anonymous smile" that portrayed the "simplest and gentlest of the Eighties’ youth manifestations", non-aggressive, "except in terms of decibels" at the high-volume DJ parties; some acid house fans used a smiley face with a blood streak on it, which Watchmen comics creator Alan Moore asserts was based on Dave Gibbons' artwork for the series. The origin of this usage was the bloodied smiley from Watchmen on the label of "Beat Dis" by Bomb the Bass. There are conflicting accounts about how the term acid came to be used to describe this style of house music. One account ties it to Phuture's "Acid Tracks". Before the song was given a title for commercial release, it was played by DJ Ron Hardy at a nightclub where psychedelic drugs were used.
The club's patrons called the song "Ron Hardy's Acid Track". The song was released with the title "Acid Tracks" on Larry Sherman's label Trax Records in 1987. Sources differ on whether it was Sherman who chose the title. Regardless, after the release of Phuture's song, the term acid house came into common parlance; some accounts say the reference to "acid" may be a celebratory reference to psychedelic drugs in general, such as LSD, as well as the popular club drug Ecstasy. According to Rietveld, it was the house sensibility of Chicago, in a club like Hardy's The Music Box, that afforded it its initial meaning. In her view "acid connotes the fragmentation of experience and dislocation of meaning due to the unstructuring effects on thought patterns which the psycho-active drug LSD or'Acid' can bring about. In the context of the creation of "Acid Tracks" it indicated a concept rather than the use of psycho-active drugs in itself; some accounts disavow psychedelic connotations. One theory, holding that acid was a derogatory reference towards the use of samples in acid house music, was repeated in the press and in the British House of Commons.
In this theory, the term acid came from the slang term "acid burning", which the Oxford Dictionary of New Words calls "a term for stealing." In 1991, UK Libertarian advocate Paul Staines claimed that he had coined this theory to discourage the government from adopting anti-rave party legislation. Several accounts claim that Genesis P-Orridge coined the term on the 1988 Psychic TV release “Tune In.” By other accounts, while shopping in Chicago in 1986, P-Orridge came across a bin of records marked acid, indicating a corrosive liquid, mistook it for a reference to LSD. P-Orridge bought the entire contents of the bin and went on to play them when DJing in Ibiza. P-Orridge's role is disputed by music journalist Simon Reynolds, who calls it a "self-serving myth", by Psychic TV band member Fred Giannelli, who suggested that "Gen has made this claim so many times in interviews that he believes his own bullshit." The earliest recorded examples of acid house are a matter of debate. At least one historian considers the Phuture's "Acid Trax" to be the genre's earliest example.
Another points out Sleezy D's "I've Lost Control" was the first to be released on vinyl, but it is impossible to know which track was created first. The first acid house records were produced in Chicago, Illinois. Phuture, a group founded by Nathan "DJ Pierre" Jones, Earl "Spanky" Smith Jr. and Herbert "Herb J" Jackson, is credited with having been the first to use the TB-303 in the house-music context. The group's 12-minute "Acid Tracks" was recorded to tape and was played by DJ Ron Hardy at the Music Box, where Hardy was resident DJ. Hardy once played it four times over the course of an evening. Chicago's house music scene suffered a crackdown on events by the police. Sales of house records dwindled and, by 1988, the genre was selling less than a tenth as many records as at the height of the style's popularity. However, hou