The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or simply multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production. Several cameras—either film or professional video cameras—are employed on the set and it is often contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera. In this way, multiple shots are obtained in a single take without having to start and this is more efficient for programs that are to be shown a short time after being shot as it reduces the time spent film editing or video editing the footage. It is a necessity for regular, high-output shows like daily soap operas. It reduces the complexity of tracking continuity issues that crop up when the scene is reshot from the different angles and it is an essential part of live television. These can be hidden from just one camera but can be more complicated to set up. Another drawback is in film usage—a four-camera setup will use up to four times as much film per take, while shooting, the director and assistant director create a line cut by instructing the technical director to switch between the feed from the individual cameras.
In the case of sitcoms with studio audiences, this cut is typically displayed to them on studio monitors. The line cut might be refined in editing, as often the output from all cameras is recorded, both separately and as a combined reference display called the q split. The camera currently being recorded to the cut is indicated by a tally light controlled by a camera control unit on the camera as a reference both for the actors and the camera operators. When sound came into the picture multiple cameras were used to film sets at a single time. Early sound was recorded onto wax discs that could not be edited, the BBC routinely used multiple cameras for their live television shows from 1936 onward. Desilus innovation was to use 35mm film instead of 16mm and to film with a multiple-camera setup before a studio audience. In the late 1970s, Garry Marshall was credited with adding the fourth camera to the multi-camera set-up for his series Mork & Mindy, soon after, many productions followed suit and now having four cameras is the norm for multi-camera situation comedies.
The multiple-camera method gives the director less control over each shot but is faster, in television, multiple-camera is commonly used for sports programs, news programs, soap operas, talk shows, game shows, and some sitcoms. Before the pre-filmed continuing series became the dominant dramatic form on American television, multiple cameras can take different shots of a live situation as the action unfolds chronologically and is suitable for shows which require a live audience. For this reason, multiple camera productions can be filmed or taped much faster than single camera, multiple-camera sitcoms were more simplified but have been compared to theatre work due to its similar set-up and use of theatre-experienced actors and crew members. The majority of British sitcoms and dramas from the 1950s to the early 1990s were made using four cameras, unlike the United States, the development of completed filmed programming, using the single camera method, was limited for several decades
The saxophone is a family of woodwind instruments. Saxophones are usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet, the saxophone family was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in 1840. He patented the saxophone on June 28,1846, in two groups of seven instruments each, each series consisted of instruments of various sizes in alternating transposition. The series pitched in B♭ and E♭, designed for bands, have proved extremely popular. The saxophone is used in music, military bands, marching bands. The saxophone was developed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian instrument maker, born in Dinant and originally based in Brussels, he moved to Paris in 1842 to establish his musical instrument business. Prior to his work on the saxophone, he had several improvements to the bass clarinet by improving its keywork and acoustics. Sax was a maker of the ophicleide, a large conical brass instrument in the bass register with keys similar to a woodwind instrument.
His experience with two instruments allowed him to develop the skills and technologies needed to make the first saxophones. As an outgrowth of his work improving the bass clarinet, Sax began developing an instrument with the projection of a brass instrument and he wanted it to overblow at the octave, unlike the clarinet, which rises in pitch by a twelfth when overblown. An instrument that overblows at the octave has identical fingering for both registers, Sax created an instrument with a single-reed mouthpiece like a clarinet, conical brass body like an ophicleide, and some acoustic properties of both the horn and the clarinet. Having constructed saxophones in several sizes in the early 1840s, Sax applied for, and received, the patent encompassed 14 versions of the fundamental design, split into two categories of seven instruments each, and ranging from sopranino to contrabass. Although the instruments transposed at either F or C have been considered orchestral, the C soprano saxophone was the only instrument to sound at concert pitch.
Saxs patent expired in 1866, numerous saxophonists and instrument manufacturers implemented their own improvements to the design, the first substantial modification was by a French manufacturer who extended the bell slightly and added an extra key to extend the range downwards by one semitone to B♭. It is suspected that Sax himself may have attempted this modification and this extension is now commonplace in almost all modern designs, along with other minor changes such as added keys for alternate fingerings. Using alternate fingerings allows a player to play faster and more easily, a player may use alternate fingerings to bend the pitch. Some of the alternate fingerings are good for trilling, scales, a substantial advancement in saxophone keywork was the development of a method by which the left thumb operates both tone holes with a single octave key, which is now universal on modern saxophones. This enables a chromatic scale to be played two octaves simply by playing the diatonic scale combined with alternately raising and lowering this one digit
A bakery is an establishment that produces and sells flour-based food baked in an oven such as bread, cakes and pies. Some retail bakeries are cafés, serving coffee and tea to customers who wish to consume the baked goods on the premises, baked goods have been around for thousands of years. The art of baking was developed early during the Roman Empire and it was a highly famous art as Roman citizens loved baked goods and demanded for them frequently for important occasions such as feasts and weddings etc. Due to the fame and desire that the art of baking received, around 300 BC, baking was introduced as an occupation, the bakers began to prepare bread at home in an oven, using mills to grind grain into the flour for their breads. The oncoming demand for baked goods vigorously continued and the first bakers guild was established in 168 BC in Rome and this drastic appeal for baked goods promoted baking all throughout Europe and expanded into the eastern parts of Asia. Bakers started baking breads and goods at home and selling out on the streets.
This trend became common and soon, baked products were getting sold in streets of Rome, Germany and this resulted in a system of delivering the goods to households, as the demand for baked breads and goods significantly increased. This provoked the bakers to establish a place people could purchase baked goods for themselves. Therefore, in Paris, the first open-air bakery of baked goods was developed and since then, bakeries became a place to purchase delicious goods. By the colonial era, bakeries were commonly viewed as places to gather, world War II directly affected bread industries in the UK. Baking schools closed during this time so when the war did eventually end there was an absence of skilled bakers and this resulted in new methods being developed to satisfy the world’s desire for bread. Methods like, adding chemicals to dough and specialised machinery, unfortunately these old methods of baking were almost completely eradicated when these new methods were introduced and became industrialised.
The old methods were seen as unnecessary and financially unsound, during this period there were not many traditional bakeries left, some bakeries provide services for special occasions or for people who have allergies or sensitivities to certain foods. Bakeries can provide a range of cakes designs such as sheet cakes, layer cakes, tiered cakes. Grocery stores and supermarkets, in countries, sell prepackaged or pre-sliced bread, cakes. They can offer in-store baking and basic cake decoration
Blaze and the Monster Machines
Blaze and the Monster Machines is an American–Canadian CGI interactive educational animated television series with a focus of learning about STEM. The series premiered on Nickelodeon on October 13,2014, the first season ran for 20 episodes. On June 15,2015, it was renewed for a third season, on June 21,2016, it was renewed for a fourth season. Blaze is a monster truck who is good hearted, loyal. He is Axle Citys number one racer, at the start of Season 2, Blaze becomes the newest member of the Axle City Fire Department. AJ is Blazes best friend and driver, an eight-year-old science, gabby is a knowledgeable mechanic who fixes up the trucks when they are damaged. Darington is a clumsy yet fearless blue monster truck who loves stunts, zeg is a half-triceratops, half-monster truck with brute tendencies. He has a vocabulary and tends to refer to himself in third person. Stripes is a truck with the abilities of a tiger such as a high sense of smell. Starla is a pickup truck, a roping expert and speaks with a thick southern accent.
She runs a farm outside the city, crusher is Blaze and AJs rival. He is childish, full of himself, and cheats in the majority of episodes to get his way, pickle is a green monster truck who is Crushers sidekick despite Crushers indifference towards him. He tends to look on the side of things and is quite goofy. Blaze and the Monster Machines premiered on Nick Jr. in the United Kingdom and Ireland on March 6,2015 and on Nick Jr. in Australia and New Zealand on March 9. The series is airing on Nickelodeon and Treehouse TV in Canada, Nick Jr. in Africa(, TNT in Russia. Official website Blaze and the Monster Machines at the Internet Movie Database Blaze and the Monster Machines at TV. com
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, that has been a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor contracted 22 actors and actresses and these fortunate few would become the first movie stars. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, in 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company. It is the last major film studio headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles. Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company, hungarian-born founder, Adolph Zukor, who had been an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed mainly to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time.
By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, and Zukor was on his way to success and its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth, which starred Sarah Bernhardt. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish, the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with virtually no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film. Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies, Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor, until this time, films were sold on a statewide or regional basis which had proved costly to film producers. Also, Famous Players and Lasky were privately owned while Paramount was a corporation, in 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, and Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, and merged the three companies into one, with only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its Paramount Pictures soon dominated the business.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, the driving force behind Paramounts rise was Zukor. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg and they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation, three years later, because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max, the Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957, Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as talkies, and in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris
Chico Benymon is an American actor, singer and fashion designer best known for his role as Andre Spencer Williams on the UPN comedy Half & Half. He starred in the Nickelodeon TV series The Haunted Hathaways, Chico will be starring in five upcoming movie projects, Where is Love Waiting, Nite Tales, The Movie, Burning Sands, Cuttin da Mustard, and Steppin, The Movie. He is currently filming the drama, Where is Love Waiting, the drama Burning Sands is in pre-production whereas the comedies Cuttin da Mustard and Steppin, The Movie are currently in production. Benymon co-starred in the 2010 film Speed-Dating, Chico Benymon at AllMovie Chico Benymon on Myspace
Nickelodeon is an American basic cable and satellite television network launched on December 1,1977, and is owned by Viacom through Viacom Media Networks and based in New York City. It is primarily aimed at children and adolescents aged 7–18 while its weekday morning edutainment programs are targeted at children ages 2–6. As of July 2015, Nickelodeon is available to approximately 93.7 million pay television households in the US, the name of the channel comes from the first five cent movie theaters called nickelodeons. Nickelodeons history dates back to December 1,1977, when Warner Cable Communications launched the first two-way interactive cable system, QUBE, in Columbus, Ohio. Its C-3 cable channel carried Pinwheel daily from 7,00 a. m. to 9,00 p. m. Eastern Time, Nickelodeon launched on April 1,1979, initially distributed to Warner Cable systems via satellite on the RCA Satcom-1 transponder. Originally commercial-free, advertising was introduced in January 1984, the channel airs reruns of select original series that are no longer in production, as well as occasional original made-for-TV movies.
The channel aired special editions of Nick News with Linda Ellerbee. The channel occasionally airs feature films produced by the networks Nickelodeon Movies film production division, although the film division bears the Nickelodeon brand name, the cable channel does not have access to most of the movies produced by its film unit. Nick Jr. – Nickelodeon currently programs shows targeted at preschool-age children on Monday through Fridays from 8,30 am-3,00 pm Eastern, the block primarily targets audiences of preschool age as Nickelodeons usual audience of school-age children are in school during the blocks designated time period. Programs currently seen in this block include Blaze and the Monster Machines, Team Umizoomi, Bubble Guppies, PAW Patrol, Max & Ruby, Saturday morning block - a morning block of primarily animated series from 9 am-12,30 pm Eastern and Pacific Time. It launched on September 22,2012, as Gotta See Saturday Mornings, recent episodes of certain original series may air when no new episodes are scheduled to air that week.
The schedule features series such as SpongeBob SquarePants, Bunsen Is a Beast, ALVINNN. nicks New Saturday Night – a primetime live-action block airing from 8-10pm Eastern and Pacific Time. It launched on September 22,2012, as Gotta See Saturday Nights, recent episodes of certain original series may air when no new episodes are scheduled to air that week. The schedule features The Thundermans and Henry Danger, premieres of the networks original made-for-cable movies occasionally air during the primetime block, usually in the form of premiere showings. SNICK – SNICK was the networks first dedicated Saturday primetime block that aired from 8,00 to 10,00 p. m. Eastern, geared toward pre-teens and teenagers, it debuted on August 15,1992. The block featured mainly live-action series, although it featured animated series. SNICK was discontinued on August 28,2004, and was replaced the following week by a Saturday night edition of the TEENick block and it was hosted by Stick Stickly, a Mr. Bill-like popsicle stick character.
The block was replaced for the summer of 1999 by Henry, the Stick Stickly character was revived for The 90s Are All That on TeenNick, which debuted in 2011
Sam & Cat
Sam & Cat is an American teen sitcom that originally aired from June 8,2013, to July 17,2014, on Nickelodeon. It is a crossover spin-off/sequel of both iCarly and Victorious and it stars Jennette McCurdy as Sam Puckett and Ariana Grande as Cat Valentine. The girls meet by chance during an adventure and become roommates. The series was picked up for 20 episodes on November 29,2012 and it began filming in January 2013 and premiered on June 8,2013. The first season was doubled to 40 episodes on July 11,2013, after airing 33 episodes, Nickelodeon released a promo stating two episodes remained to air. On July 13,2014, after a production hiatus, Nickelodeon canceled the series. The final episode aired on July 17,2014, as a lead-in to the first Kids Choice Sports Awards ceremony, ever since Carly Shay moved to Italy with her father, Sam Puckett has been touring the West Coast on her motorcycle and stops in Venice, Los Angeles. She witnesses Cat Valentine being thrown into the back of a garbage truck and they become friends and Cat convinces her to become roommates after Cats cheerful and supportive grandmother Nona moves to a retirement home called Elderly Acres.
Jennette McCurdy as Sam Puckett, who is rude, loves pranks, after her best friend Carly Shay moved to Italy to live with her dad, Sam tours the west coast on her motorcycle until she saves Cat from a garbage truck. She becomes friends with Cat and joins her in the job they start. She secretly has a heart of gold and a spot for Cat. Sam is not afraid of anything and is handy at fighting or bossing her way out of any situation, Ariana Grande as Cat Valentine, who is sweet, naive and almost always happy. She has a nature, often takes things literally. She has an attention span and has bright red hair dyed to resemble her favorite snack. Cat has been living with her grandmother Nona since her parents went away to visit her brother and she can be emotional and does not take criticism well. Despite her ditziness, she is very intelligent and empathetic. In the earlier parts of the show, Ariana Grande dyed her hair red when playing Cat Valentine until it was changed to her wearing a wig in episodes. Cameron Ocasio as Dice, is Sam and Cats neighbor who lives with his mom, Dice is cool and collected, and he knows all the tenants and gossip
TeenNick is an American digital cable and satellite television channel that is owned by Nickelodeon Group, a unit of the Viacom Media Networks division of Viacom. The channel features a mix of programming, Nickelodeon-produced series. The channel was known as TEENick from March 4,2001 to February 1,2009. TeenNicks name was taken from the former TEENick program block, which aired on parent channel Nickelodeon from 2001 to 2009, as of February 2015, TeenNick is available to approximately 72.3 million pay television households in the United States. TeenNick originally debuted on April 1,2002 as a programming block on Noggin called The N. This was acknowledged in The Ns daily sign-off message, which explained that The N would resume its programming at 6,00 p. m. ET that day, MTV Networks started developing the concept of The N in 2002. From its launch, The N targeted an audience than Noggin and was more entertainment-based in nature compared to Noggins educational format. In October 2006, Viacom bought the quiz website Quizilla, Noggins final sign on was a sudden cut-in to the intro of the British series 64 Zoo Lane replacing the song.
Dish Network began to carry The N and Noggin as separate channels on May 6,2009, on February 24,2009, Nickelodeon announced that The N was to be rebranded as TeenNick to bring the channel in line with the Nickelodeon brand identity. The channel relaunched as TeenNick on September 28,2009, at 6 a. m, ET, accompanied by the debut of the new logo, former parent network Noggin was relaunched as Nick Jr. on that same date. Nick Cannon, who starred in the Nickelodeon series All That and The Nick Cannon Show, had a presence on the channel. Nearly all of The Ns existing program inventory was carried over to the relaunched channel, most of the channels original series were not carried over to TeenNick. m. to 3 p. m. ET. Despite the rebranding, some electronic program guide providers identify TeenNick as The N, in July 2011, TeenNick began carrying programs originally filmed for high definition broadcast in a letterboxed format, due to the absence of an HD simulcast feed of the channel. The channel currently airs from 6,00 AM to 10,00 PM, the Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, a longtime mainstay of The N, moved to TBS and Freeform in September 2009 upon the expiration of Viacoms rights to the series.
On April 20,2011, TeenNick announced that it had acquired the rights to air Buffy the Vampire Slayer starting that May, the majority of TeenNicks weekday and weekend daytime schedule consists of reruns of current and former Nickelodeon series. Some defunct Nickelodeon series air regularly during the day, such as Neds Declassified School Survival Guide, iCarly, originally airing on weeknights only until October 8,2011, the block aired nightly from midnight to 2,00 a. m. E. T. with an encore from 2-4AM ET, the block featured holiday-themed programming during holiday periods such as The 90s Are All That Holidaze during the holiday season in 2014. In 2015, The 90s Are All That was rebranded as The Splat to include programming from the 1980s and early-mid 2000s, in addition, The Splat features themed weeks, live stunts, retro recreations, and its own dedicated website
Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of exercises requiring balance, flexibility, agility and control. The movements involved in gymnastics contribute to the development of the arms, shoulders, alertness, daring, self-confidence and self-discipline are mental traits that can be developed through gymnastics. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, most forms of competitive gymnastics events are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique. Each country has its own governing body affiliated to FIG. Competitive artistic gymnastics is the best known of the gymnastic events and it typically involves the womens events of vault, uneven bars, balance beam and floor exercise. Mens events are floor exercise, pommel horse, still rings, parallel bars, other FIG disciplines include rhythmic gymnastics and tumbling, acrobatic gymnastics and aerobic gymnastics. Disciplines not currently recognized by FIG include wheel gymnastics, aesthetic group gymnastics, mens rhythmic gymnastics and TeamGym.
The word gymnastics derives from the common Greek adjective Greek, by way of the related verb γυμνάζω, whose meaning is to train naked, train in gymnastic exercise, generally to train, the verb had this meaning, because athletes in ancient times exercised and competed without clothing. It came into use in the 1570s, from Latin gymnasticus, from Greek gymnastikos fond of or skilled in bodily exercise, Gymnastics originated in ancient Spain and was originally intended for military training, where it was used by soldiers to prepare for warfare. Don Francisco Amorós y Ondeano, was born on February 19,1770 in Valencia and he was a Spanish colonel, and the first person to introduce educative gymnastic in France. Jahn promoted the use of bars and high bars in international competition. The Federation of International Gymnastics was founded in Liege in 1881, by the end of the nineteenth century, mens gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896.
During the 1920s, women organized and participated in gymnastics events, the first womens Olympic competition was primitive, only involving synchronized calisthenics and track and field. These games were held in 1928, in Amsterdam, by 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, and uniform grading structures had been agreed upon. At this time, Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with highly disciplined and difficult performances, television has helped publicize and initiate a modern age of gymnastics. Both mens and womens gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, in 2006, a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. With an A Score being the difficulty score, which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine, the B Score, is the score for execution, and is given for how well the skills are performed. The following disciplines are governed by FIG, Artistic Gymnastics is usually divided into Mens and Womens Gymnastics
SpongeBob SquarePants is an American animated television series created by marine biologist and animator Stephen Hillenburg for Nickelodeon. The series chronicles the adventures and endeavors of the title character, the series popularity has made it a media franchise, as well as the highest rated series to ever air on Nickelodeon, and the most distributed property of MTV Networks. As of 2015, the franchise has generated $12 billion in merchandising revenue for Nickelodeon. Many of the ideas for the series originated in an educational comic book titled The Intertidal Zone. SpongeBob was originally going to be named SpongeBoy, and the series was to be called SpongeBoy Ahoy. Nickelodeon held a preview for the series in the United States on May 1,1999, following the television airing of the 1999 Kids Choice Awards. The series officially premiered on July 17,1999 and it has received worldwide critical acclaim since its premiere and gained enormous popularity by its second season. A feature film, The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie, was released in theaters on November 19,2004, on July 21,2012, the series was renewed and aired its ninth season, beginning with the episode Extreme Spots.
The series has won a variety of awards, including six Annie Awards, eight Golden Reel Awards, in 2011, a newly described species of fungi, Spongiforma squarepantsii, was named after the cartoons title character. The series revolves around its title character and his various friends, SpongeBob SquarePants is an energetic and optimistic sea sponge who lives in a sea pineapple and loves his job as a fry cook at the Krusty Krab. He has a pet snail, who meows like a cat, living two houses down from SpongeBob is his best friend Patrick Star, a dim-witted yet friendly pink starfish who lives under a rock. Despite his mental setbacks, Patrick still sees himself as intelligent, Squidward Tentacles is SpongeBobs next-door neighbor and co-worker at the Krusty Krab. Squidward is an arrogant and ill-tempered octopus who lives in an Easter Island moai and he enjoys playing the clarinet and painting self-portraits, but hates his job as a cashier. Another close friend of SpongeBob is Sandy Cheeks, a squirrel from Texas and she is a scientist and an expert in karate.
She lives in an oak tree entrapped in a glass dome locked by an airtight. When outside of her dwelling, she wears an astronaut-like suit because she cannot breathe underwater, Mr. Krabs, a miserly crab obsessed with money, is the owner of the Krusty Krab restaurant and SpongeBobs boss. Krabs has a teenage daughter named Pearl, whom he values equally with his riches. His rival, Plankton, is a small green copepod who owns a low-rank fast-food restaurant called the Chum Bucket, located across the street from the Krusty Krab. Plankton spends most of his time planning to steal the recipe for Mr. Krabss popular Krabby Patty burgers, so as to gain the upper hand