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The Hershey Company

The Hershey Company known as Hershey, is an American multinational company and one of the largest chocolate manufacturers in the world. It manufactures baked products, such as cookies, milk shakes and many more, its headquarters are in Hershey, home to Hersheypark and Hershey's Chocolate World. It was founded by Milton S. Hershey in 1894 as the Hershey Chocolate Company, a subsidiary of his Lancaster Caramel Company; the Hershey Trust Company owns a minority stake, but retains a majority of the voting power within the company. Hershey's chocolate is available across the United States, in over 60 countries worldwide, they have three large distribution centers, with modern labor management systems. In addition, Hershey is a member of the World Cocoa Foundation, it is associated with the Hersheypark Stadium and the Giant Center. After an apprenticeship to a confectioner in 1873, Milton S. Hershey founded a candy shop in Philadelphia; this candy shop was only open for six years, after which Hershey apprenticed with another confectioner in Denver, where he learned to make caramel.

After another failed business attempt in New York, Hershey returned to Pennsylvania, where in 1886 he founded the Lancaster Caramel Company. The use of fresh milk in caramels proved successful, in 1900, after seeing chocolate-making machines for the first time at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Hershey sold his caramel company for $1,000,000, began to concentrate on chocolate manufacturing, stating to people who questioned him, "Caramels are just a fad, but chocolate is a permanent thing." In 1896, Milton built a milk-processing plant so he could create and refine a recipe for milk chocolate candies. In 1899, he developed the Hershey process, less sensitive to milk quality than traditional methods. In 1900, he began manufacturing Hershey's Milk Chocolate Bars called Hershey's Bars or Hershey Bars. In 1903, Hershey began construction of a chocolate plant in his hometown of Derry Church, which came to be known as Hershey, Pennsylvania; the town was an inexpensive place for their families to live.

To increase employee morale, Milton provided leisure activities and created what would become Hersheypark to make sure the citizens enjoyed themselves. The milk chocolate bars manufactured at this plant proved popular, the company grew rapidly. In 1907, he introduced a new candy, bite-sized, flat-bottomed, conical-shaped pieces of chocolate that he named "Hershey's Kiss". At first they were individually wrapped by hand in squares of aluminum foil; the introduction of machine wrapping in 1921 simplified the process while adding the small paper ribbon to the top of the package to indicate that it was a genuine Hershey product. Today, 80 million of the candies are produced daily. Other products introduced included Mr. Goodbar, containing peanuts in milk chocolate, Hershey's Syrup, semisweet chocolate chips, the Krackel bar containing crisped rice. Labor unrest came to Hershey in the late 1930s as a Congress of Industrial Organizations-backed union attempted to organize the factory workers. A failed sit-down strike in 1937 ended in violence, as loyalist workers and local dairy farmers beat many of the strikers as they attempted to leave the plant.

By 1940, an affiliate of the American Federation of Labor had organized Hershey's workers under the leadership of John Shearer, who became the first president of Local Chapter Number 464 of the Bakery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers' International Union. Local 464 still represents the Hershey workforce. Shortly before World War II, Bruce Murrie, son of long-time Hershey's president William F. R. Murrie, struck a deal with Forrest Mars to create a hard sugar-coated chocolate that would be called M&M's. Murrie had 20% interest in the confection, which used Hershey chocolate during the rationing era during World War II. In 1948, Mars became one of Hershey's main competitors. In June 2006, Philadelphia city councilman Juan Ramos called for Hershey's to stop marketing "Ice Breakers Pacs", a kind of mint, due to the resemblance of its packaging to a kind, used for illegal street drugs. In September 2006, ABC News reported that several Hershey chocolate products were reformulated to replace cocoa butter with vegetable oil as an emulsifier.

According to the company, this change was made to reduce the costs of producing the products instead of raising their prices or decreasing the sizes. Some consumers complained that the taste was different, but the company stated that in the company-sponsored blind taste tests, about half of consumers preferred the new versions; as the new versions no longer met the Food and Drug Administration's official definition of "milk chocolate", the changed items were relabeled from stating they were "milk chocolate" and "made with chocolate" to "chocolate candy" and "chocolatey."In April 2015, the Hershey chocolate plant on East Chocolate Avenue in Hershey Pennsylvania was demolished to make way for mixed-use development. A 2016 attempt to sell Hershey to Mondelez International was scuttled because of objections by the Hershey Trust. In October 2019, Hershey’s partnered with Yuengling to produce a limited release collaboration beer titled Yuengling Hershey’s Chocolate Porter, becoming Hershey's first licensed beer partnership.

Harry Burnett Reese invented Reese's Peanut Butter Cups after founding the H. B. Reese Candy Company in 1923. Reese died on May 1956 in West Palm Beach, Florida leaving the company to his six sons. On July 2, 1963 the H. B

Sreda (production company)

Sreda is a production company which produces TV programs and serials for Channel One, Russia-1, NTV, Channel 5, TV Centre, REN TV, STS, TV-3, Friday! collaborated with the Ukrainian channels Ukraine, Inter, 1+1 and ICTV, the Belarus channel Belarus-1 and the Kazakh channel Channel One Eurasia. It was founded in June 2008 by Alexander Tsekalo after his departure from the post of deputy general director for special projects of the Channel One; until March 31, 2014 the co-owner of the company was producer Ruslan Sorokin. It is the first TV company in the history of Russian television, which adapted the serial format of the BBC channel. In 2016 Sreda adapted another BBC series, under the title of Klim, it is the first Russian television company which managed to sell its series to Netflix. Other series which Netflix acquired from Sreda include The Method, Fartsa and Sparta. TV series The Dark Side of the Moon Silver Spoon The Method Fartsa Locust Klim Trotsky Territory Sparta Gogol Films Cinderella Locust TV shows Big Difference Prozhektorperiskhilton Official website

Eric James (priest)

Eric Arthur James was an Anglican priest, Chaplain Extraordinary to HM the Queen, for many years a regular participant in the "Thought for the Day" feature of BBC Radio 4's Today programme. He was associated with St Albans Cathedral for some years. James was born in Essex, he left Dagenham County High School in Dagenham, Essex, at fourteen, when the Second World War broke out, worked for seven years at a riverside wharf on the Thames where the Globe Theatre now stands. After the war, he was accepted as a student by King's College London, where he studied theology, gaining Master of Arts and Bachelor of Divinity degrees. After he was ordained he became Assistant Curate of St Stephen with St John, from 1951 to 1955, he was Chaplain of Trinity College, Cambridge from 1955 to 1959, thereby became associated with some of the best known clerics of his generation: Mervyn Stockwood, John Robinson, Robert Runcie, Trevor Huddleston. He was Select Preacher from 1959-60 to the University of Cambridge. From 1959-64 he was Vicar of St George and Warden of Trinity College Mission.

From 1964-9 he was Director of People. From 1964 to 1972 he was Proctor in Convocation. James was made Chaplain to the Queen in 1984 and was Preacher to Gray's Inn from 1978 to 1997, as well as Director of Christian Action from 1979 to 1990 and one of the people who inspired the 1985 Faith in the City report, he was Select Preacher from 1991 to 1992 to the University of Oxford, was awarded the Lambeth degree of DD in 1993. He was the biographer of John Robinson, Bishop of Woolwich, he lived in the London Charterhouse. He died on 1 May 2012. Eric James's biography on UPSO


Oulunkylä is a suburb and a neighbourhood of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. It is located 6 kilometres north from the center of the city, it has been inhabited since the 13th century. Earlier an independent municipality, it was made part of Helsinki in 1946. Oulunkylä is the name of a district, it consists of Patola, Veräjämäki and Veräjälaakso, has a total area of 4.51 km2. For centuries, Oulunkylä was part of Helsingin pitäjä; the neighbourhood started to grow after a railway station was founded there in 1881. In the late 19th century and early 20th century Oulunkylä was known for many villas that were built there. In 1921 it became an independent municipality. However, most of the Oulunkylä area was owned by the City of Helsinki and in 1946 Oulunkylä, along with many other suburbs, was annexed by Helsinki; the modern Oulunkylä is constructed according to the zoning scheme of 1953 that transformed the neighbourhood from a villa community into an apartment building suburb. Oulunkylä Ice Rink, a rink used for speed skating and bandy, is located in Oulunkylä.

It was the first artificial ice pad for those sports in Finland. The Bandy World Championship has been hosted here. Botnia-69 has Oulunkylä Ice Rink as its home arena. Oulunkylän Kiekko-Kerho IF Gnistan Ville Valo Tapio Rautavaara Cynthia Makris Raimo Sirkiä Mikko Paananen Tito Colliander Joel Lehtonen Larin-Kyösti Friedebert Tuglas Helena Hietanen Vladimir Lenin lived here hiding from the Russian police. Media related to Oulunkylä at Wikimedia Commons

Syrian government reactions to the Syrian Civil War

This article details responses from Syrian government officials to widespread civil unrest which began in early 2011 and unraveled into nationwide civil war. Days before protests planned for 5 February 2011, Syrian authorities arrested several political activists, such as businessman Ghassan al-Najar, leader of the Islamic Democratic movement, the writer Ali al-Abdallah, Abbas Abbas, from the Syrian Communist Party and several other political personalities of Kurdish background, such as Adnan Mustafa. On 14 February and student Tal al-Mallouhi, imprisoned since 27 December 2009, was convicted of spying for the United States and sentenced to five years in prison. Washington asked for al-Mallohi's immediate release. On 15 February under pressure from human rights organizations, the Syrian government released Ghassan al-Najar after he went on a hunger strike following his arrest for calling for mass protests. On 22 March Syrian authorities arrested Loay Hussein, a human rights campaigner. On 25 March there were reports of mass detentions of protesters taking place.

On 29 April Dorothy Parvaz of Al Jazeera arrived in Damascus and was not heard of for several days The Syrian government confirmed that she had been detained, she had attempted to enter the country illegally with an expired Iranian passport. She was released on 18 May after detention in Iran. Many news outlets reported that a prominent LGBT anti-government blogger called Amina Arraf was arrested by Syrian authorities, but questions arose of whether she was a real person in the first place, she tuned out to be an American man blogging under a false name, who had used a photo of a random British woman as that of "Amina". Zainab al-Hosni, claimed to have been detained and beheaded by Syrian authorities turned out to be alive. A Syrian American man, Mohamad Anas Haitham Soueid, was charged by U. S. federal prosecutors on 5 October with tracking Syrian Americans supporting the uprising in the United States and passing information to Syrian authorities, who arrested family members of the dissidents living in Syria.

The U. S. government alleges that Soueid met with Assad during a two-week trip to Syria in summer 2011. In October, Amnesty International published a report showing that at least 30 Syrian dissidents living in Canada, France, Spain, United Kingdom and United States, faced intimidation by Syrian embassy officials, that in some cases, their relatives in Syria were harassed and tortured. Syrian embassy officials in London and Washington, D. C. were alleged to have taken photographs and videos of local Syrian dissidents and sent them to Syrian authorities, who retaliated against their families. In January 2012 a 718-page document claiming to be a leaked wanted suspects list from the Syrian Interior Ministry was published on the Internet; the list includes the names of thousands of dissidents accused of taking part in protests as well as armed activity against the Assad government. The document names informants for the government. On 5 February 2011, Internet services were said to have been curbed, although Facebook and YouTube were reported to have been restored three days later.

Suggestions were made. As of 29 July 2011, social media censorship took these forms: – Facebook: Homepage is accessible. HTTPS connection is blocked. – YouTube: Homepage and all other pages are accessible but the streaming domain, however, is blocked. Users can't watch videos. – Twitter: No direct blocking, but it's undergoing heavy throttling rendering the service inaccessible. In August 2011, Syrian security forces attacked the country's best-known political cartoonist, Ali Farzat, a noted critic of Syria's government and its five-month crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators and dissent. Relatives of the beaten humorist told Western media the attackers threatened to break Farzat's bones as a warning for him to stop drawing cartoons of government officials Assad. Ferzat was hospitalized with fractures in both hands and blunt force trauma to the head. Syrian activists claim government forces abducted and raped women in rebellious parts of the country using sexual violence as a means of quelling dissent.

An opposition campaigner supplied The Globe and Mail with details about six unknown cases of violence against women, saying that more such incidents remain hidden as Damascus struggles to contain the uprising. Syrian refugees fleeing to Turkey reported mass rape by Syrian soldiers, but there were other reports that in the Turkish refugee camp, more than 400 women were raped and sexually abused. On 19 March 2011 by legislative decree 35, Assad shortened the length of mandatory army conscription from 21 months to 18 months. On 20 March, the Syrian government announced that it would release 15 children, arrested on 6 March for writing pro-democracy graffiti. On 23 March, by regional decree 120, Faisal Ahmad Kolthoum was removed as Governor of Daraa. On 24 March, Assad's media adviser, Buthaina Shaaban, said that the government will be "studying the possibility of lifting the emergency law and licensing political parties"; the Syrian government announced a cut in personal taxation rates, an increase in public sector salaries of 1,500 Syrian pounds a month and pledges to increase press freedom, create more employment opportunities, reduce corruption.

On 26 March, Syrian authorities freed 260 political prisoners – 70 according to other sources – Islamists, held in Saidnaya prison. On 27 March, Bouthaina Shaaban confirmed that the emergency law would be lifted

First Battle of the Aisne

The First Battle of the Aisne was the Allied follow-up offensive against the right wing of the German First Army and the Second Army as they retreated after the First Battle of the Marne earlier in September 1914. The Advance to the Aisne consisted of the Battle of the Aisne; when the Germans turned to face the pursuing Allies on 13 September, they held one of the most formidable positions on the Western Front. Between Compiègne and Berry-au-Bac, the Aisne River winds westward and is about 100 feet wide, ranging from 12–15 feet deep. Low-lying ground extends a 1-mile on each side, rising abruptly to a line of steep cliffs 300–400 feet high gently levelling to a plateau; the Germans settled on the higher northern side 2 miles beyond the crest, behind a dense thicket that covered the front and slope. Low crops in the unfenced countryside offered no natural concealment to the Allies. Deep, narrow paths cut into the escarpment at right angles, exposing any infiltrators to extreme hazard; the forces on the northern plateau commanded a wide field of fire.

In dense fog on the night of 13 September, most of the British Expeditionary Force crossed the Aisne on pontoons or demolished bridges, landing at Bourg-et-Comin on the right and at Venizel on the left. At Chivres-Val east of Venizel, there was an escarpment the Germans had selected as their strongest position; the French Fifth Army crossed the Aisne at Berry-au-Bac and captured the eastern tip of Chemin des Dames, a steep ridge named after the royal coach road Louis XV had built for his daughters. Contact was established along the entire front. East of Chemin des Dames, the French Fourth and Ninth armies made only negligible progress beyond the positions they had reached on 13 September. Under the thick cover of the foggy night, the BEF advanced up the narrow paths to the plateau; when the mist evaporated under a bright morning sun, they were mercilessly raked by fire from the flank. Those caught in the valley without the fog's protective shroud fared no better, it soon became clear that neither side could budge the other and since neither chose to retreat, the impasse hardened into stalemate, that would lock the antagonists into a narrow strip for the next four years.

On 14 September, Sir John French ordered the entire BEF to entrench, but few entrenching tools were available. Soldiers scouted nearby farms and villages for pickaxes and other implements. Without training for stationary warfare, the troops dug shallow pits in the soil; these were at first intended only to afford cover against artillery fire. Soon the trenches were deepened to about seven feet. Other protective measures included camouflage and holes cut into trench walls braced with timber. Trench warfare was new for the Germans, whose training and equipment were designed for a mobile war to be won in six weeks, but they adapted their weapons to the new situation. Siege howitzers now lobbed massive shells into the Allied trenches. Skilful use of trench mortars and hand and rifle grenades, enabled the Germans to inflict great losses upon Allied troops, who had neither been trained nor equipped with these weapons. Searchlights and periscopes were part of the German equipment intended for other purposes, but put to use in the trenches.

A shortage of heavy weapons handicapped the British. Only their 60-pounders were powerful enough to shell enemy gun emplacements from the Aisne's south shore, these guns were inferior to German artillery in calibre and numbers. Four artillery battery of 6-inch guns, were rushed from England. Although a poor match against the German 8-inch howitzers, they helped somewhat. Defensive firepower was limited to two machine guns allotted to each battalion; the British regulars were excellent marksmen but their combined accuracy was no match for the German machine guns and grenades. British aircraft were used to report troop movements. Aviators were able to recognise the advantage of observing artillery fire. On 24 September, Lieutenants B. T. James and D. S. Lewis detected three well-concealed enemy gun batteries that were inflicting considerable damage on British positions, they radioed back the location of the batteries droned in a wide circle, waiting to spot their own gunners' exploding shells. Anti-aircraft fire was inaccurate.

The German Army used only percussion shells, according to Canadian sources, "not one in several hundred hit its aerial target, fell to earth at some point in the British lines and there burst." For a three-week period following the unexpected development of trench warfare, both sides gave up frontal assaults and began trying to envelop each other's northern flank. The period is called "Race to the Sea"; as the Germans aimed for the Allied left flank, the Allies sought the German right wing. The western front thus became a continuous trench system of more than 400 miles. From the Belgian channel town of Nieuwpoort, the trench lines ran southward for many miles, turning southeast at Noyon, continuing past Reims, Saint-Mihiel and Nancy. Meanwhile, the Belgian Army became a growing threat to German communications as the battle shifted northward; the Germans made plans on 28 September to crush the Belgian forces. This important maritime city