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The Hobbit

The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien, it was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. The book is recognized as a classic in children's literature; the Hobbit is set within Tolkien's fictional universe and follows the quest of home-loving Bilbo Baggins, the titular hobbit, to win a share of the treasure guarded by Smaug the dragon. Bilbo's journey takes him from rural surroundings into more sinister territory; the story is told in the form of an episodic quest, most chapters introduce a specific creature or type of creature of Tolkien's geography. Bilbo gains a new level of maturity and wisdom by accepting the disreputable, romantic and adventurous sides of his nature and applying his wits and common sense; the story reaches its climax in the Battle of Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict.

Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story, along with motifs of warfare. These themes have led critics to view Tolkien's own experiences during World War I as instrumental in shaping the story; the author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in mythology and fairy tales are noted as influences. The publisher was encouraged by the book's critical and financial success and, requested a sequel; as Tolkien's work progressed on the successor The Lord of the Rings, he made retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled; the work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, radio, board games, video games. Several of these adaptations have received critical recognition on their own merits. Bilbo Baggins, the titular protagonist, is a reserved hobbit.

During his adventure, Bilbo refers to the contents of his larder at home and wishes he had more food. Until he finds a magic ring, he is more baggage than help. Gandalf, an itinerant wizard, introduces Bilbo to a company of thirteen dwarves. During the journey the wizard disappears on side errands dimly hinted at, only to appear again at key moments in the story. Thorin Oakenshield, the proud, pompous head of the company of dwarves and heir to the destroyed dwarvish kingdom under the Lonely Mountain, makes many mistakes in his leadership, relying on Gandalf and Bilbo to get him out of trouble, but proves himself a mighty warrior. Smaug is a dragon who long ago pillaged the dwarvish kingdom of Thorin's grandfather and sleeps upon the vast treasure; the plot involves a host of other characters of varying importance, such as the twelve other dwarves of the company. Gandalf tricks Bilbo Baggins into hosting a party for Thorin Oakenshield and his band of dwarves, who sing of reclaiming the Lonely Mountain and its vast treasure from the dragon Smaug.

When the music ends, Gandalf unveils Thrór's map showing a secret door into the Mountain and proposes that the dumbfounded Bilbo serve as the expedition's "burglar". The dwarves ridicule the idea, but Bilbo, joins despite himself; the group travels into the wild, where Gandalf saves the company from trolls and leads them to Rivendell, where Elrond reveals more secrets from the map. When they attempt to cross the Misty Mountains they are caught by goblins and driven deep underground. Although Gandalf rescues them, Bilbo gets separated from the others. Lost in the goblin tunnels, he stumbles across a mysterious ring and encounters Gollum, who engages him in a game of riddles; as a reward for solving all riddles Gollum will show him the path out of the tunnels, but if Bilbo fails, his life will be forfeit. With the help of the ring, which confers invisibility, Bilbo escapes and rejoins the dwarves, improving his reputation with them; the goblins and Wargs give chase, but the company are saved by eagles before resting in the house of Beorn.

The company enters the black forest of Mirkwood without Gandalf. In Mirkwood, Bilbo first saves the dwarves from giant spiders and from the dungeons of the Wood-elves. Nearing the Lonely Mountain, the travellers are welcomed by the human inhabitants of Lake-town, who hope the dwarves will fulfil prophecies of Smaug's demise; the expedition finds the secret door. The enraged dragon, deducing that Lake-town has aided the intruder, sets out to destroy the town. A thrush had overheard Bilbo's report of Smaug's vulnerability and reports it to Lake-town defender Bard. Bard's arrow slays the dragon; when the dwarves take possession of the mountain, Bilbo finds the Arkenstone, an heirloom of Thorin's family, hides it away. The Wood-elves and Lake-men besiege the mountain and request compensation for their aid, reparations for Lake-town's destruction, settlement of old claims on the treasure. Thorin refuses and, having summoned his kin from the Iron Hills, reinforces

International Sabanc─▒ Theater Festival

International Sabancı Theater Festival or International Adana Theater Festival, more State Theater-Sabancı International Adana Theater Festival, is theatre festival held every year in Adana since 1999. It is a joint organization of Turkish State Theatres, the Ministry of Tourism and Culture and the Sabancı Foundation. Many national and international theater groups perform their plays during the festival. Featuring as an annual international festival lasting a month, the festival entertains 20 thousand devotees of drama, who are eager to see the plays performed during the festival; the festival plays were only staged in Adana until 2005 and since some of the plays are staged at Sabancı University's Performing Arts Center in Istanbul. The "Sakıp Sabancı Lifetime Achievement Award" is presented on the opening day of the festival since 2005, to honor and recognize the role of the masters, who had profound contributions to the evolution of the drama as an art; the 13th edition of the festival kicked off on March 27, the World Theatre Day, with an astounding opening show staged by Italian ensemble Studio Festi on the Seyhan River and the Taşköprü.

"Water Symphony" show. The opening ceremony of the festival was held at the Adana HiltonSA hotel with the attendance of many distinguished guests. Chairman of the Sabancı Foundation Board of Trustees, Güler Sabancı, noted in her speech that as people of Anatolia, a cradle of several cultures, they bore significant responsibility for the dissemination of culture and arts around Turkey. Sabancı underscored the Foundation's efforts to increase the number of art viewers in Turkey and to ensure future generations to embrace the cultural legacy, she remarked that the Foundation was content to contribute to the promotion of the cultural wealth of Anatolia to the rest of the world. Asserting that the Festival integrates more with the city of Adana each year, Sabancı added, "Today our city Adana is taking firm steps to transform to an international center for arts and culture. We feel proud to open a window to the world through the bountiful land of Adana thanks to the State Theater-Sabancı International Adana Theater Festival."

General Manager of State Theaters, Lemi Bilgin, who took the floor at the ceremony said, "We feel proud to organize the 13th Adana Theater Festival this year, an event that elevates human values by way of arts. The Festival, which commenced on March 27, the World Theatre Day, represents the first loop of the State Theater festival chain. We are happy to present the ensembles from various countries who exhibit the most exquisite examples of their cultures here; as life flows at dizzying speed, such festivals add meaning to our lives. We want to take this opportunity to thank art lovers of Adana for cherishing and embracing arts." Minister of Culture and Tourism, Ertuğrul Günay, expressed the success of international festivals organized in various provinces of Turkey. "I would like to thank Sabancı Family and Sabancı Foundation for their ongoing support for State Theaters-Sabancı International Adana Theater Festival, to everyone else, who have enabled the staging of various local and foreign works of theater to meet the audiences."

“Sakıp Sabancı Lifetime Achievement Award” is awarded to Gülriz Sururi in 2011. Among works performed during the festival are Chinghiz Aitmatov’s unforgettable My Poplar in a Red Scarf by the Gabit Musirepov Kazakhstan State Theater Child and Youth. Other performances at the festival include The Diary of a Mad Man and Eleven Snapshots from Nazim Hikmet's Human Landscapes from My Country by the Ankara State Theatre. 461 artists from 17 ensembles performed outdoor shows as well as street shows during the opening and closing of the festival, whereas the remainder of the plays took stage at Sabancı Cultural Center again this year. The 12th Theater Festival began on March 27, again on the World Theatre Day, with a spectacular show by the Italian Studio Festi ensemble. Studio Festi is known across the world with their fascinating visual performances and dramatic creations orchestrated in city centers, natural surroundings and historical sites, their show for the Festival opening viewed by thousands of people with great interest.

The one-hour "Concert for Elements" performed on the Seyhan River featured Studio Festi dancers defying gravity atop huge planets and model ships rising to the sky. Dancing with fire, water sphere choreographies and the fireworks show were among other captivating spectacles performed by the group; the festival reaches more than 20 thousand spectators every year, features 21 performances by 12 foreign and 6 Turkish ensembles this year. In addition, 5 ensembles performed their plays at the Sabanci University Performing Arts Center, bringing the festival spirit to Istanbul. General Manager of State Theaters Lemi Bilgin said, “We are proud to have the 12th Theater Festival in Adana. Starting on the World Theatre Day, this festival is first in a series of festivals by the State Theaters. We are as excited. We are del

Dominican Republic and the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank

The Dominican Republic is a lower middle-income country stretching over 18,172 miles on the Island of Hispaniola. It has the tenth largest economy in Latin America, the largest economy in the Caribbean region. Agriculture, Free Trade Zone Manufacturing, mining drive the economy. Due to the FTZ Model, the DR has an open market economy, free from tariffs, licensing requirements and other regulations which has made trade with other countries easier and cheaper; this is. The purpose of the World Bank is to provide long term financial and project planning assistance to any country, struggling with extreme poverty; the World Bank consists of five integral organizations. They are the IBRD, IDA, IFC, MIGA, the ICSID; the World Bank has sent the Dominican Republic $230 million dollars, $1 million, $150 million, $180 million in 2019. The loans vary each year depending on existing loans and other factors that influence the Project Cycle. World Bank projects in the Dominican Republic vary from expanding the energy sector, improving education, to strengthening infrastructure.

The Dominican Republic joined the IMF December 28, 1945. The goal of the IMF is to ensure financial stability and are the final resort for countries who are struggling. Government officials have abused the IMF by using them as a way to save the economy to cover up scandals of corruption. For instance, in 2002 the Dominican Republic went through a Recession after the Bank, Baninter went bankrupt. President Mejia bailed out the bank despite the negligence of the Bank management resulting in the loss of $2.2 billion. President Mejia only received $120 of the $600 million he asked from the IMF; the Dominican Republic lost 67 % of about $700 million. The Dominican Recession brought a halt to the steady rapid growth brought by the telecommunications and mining sectors; the DR was exporting good and unemployment was down. However, due to the corruption and decision by President Mejia to bail out the bank, that went Bankrupt. President Mejia only received $120 million of the $600 million he asked from the IMF to save the country.

In 2004, an additional $66 million was disbursed to aid the economy after losing $700 million in bank bailouts. Rural and underdeveloped areas of the Dominican Republic and cheap immigrant labor, provide most of the labor force behind the growing economy; the economy grew 7.1% between 2014-2016 by exporting at low prices. The DR exports 50% of their products to the U. S. and over 500 U. S companies manufacture products in the Dominican Republic; the downside to the FTZ model is that it depends on the global market and will not sustain itself in the long run. The country still has high levels of poverty despite a growing economy because it continues to lack investing in human capital. There continues to be tension with the Dominican people because much of this economic strength has come at the cost of depleting natural resources and impacting the health of many Dominicans those who work/live near mines. In order to achieve economic prosperity, they must lower their dependency on the global market, prepare for natural disasters, improve human capital, manage natural resources and government officials must be held accountable for decisions they make that affect the Dominican population

Grazia Di Michele

Grazia Di Michele is an Italian singer-songwriter. Born Maria Grazia Di Michele in Rome to parents from Abruzzo, at young age, she founded with Chiara Scotti and Clelia Lamorgese "L'Ape di Vetro", a politically inspired musical group which disbanded after a few years, she debuted as a solo singer at Folkstudio, a music venue in Rome, in 1977. In those years she worked in a cultural club in Rome, the "Johann Sebastian Bar", worked as a disc jockey in radio, her first album Cliché, characterized by provocative lyrics about feminist and social themes, was released in 1978. In 1983 she released the album Ragiona col cuore, of which the title track tells the story of a lesbian love in 1986 she got her first and major commercial success with the single "Le ragazze di Gauguin" and with the album with the same name. Between 1990 and 1993 she entered the Sanremo Music Festival three times, ranking third in 1993 with "Gli amori diversi", a duet with Rossana Casale. Album1978 - Cliché 1983 - Ragiona col cuore 1986 - Le ragazze di Gauguin 1988 - L'amore è un pericolo 1990 - Raccolta 1991 - Grazia Di Michele 1993 - Confini 1995 - Rudji 2001 - Naturale 2005 - Chiamalavita 2005 - Respiro 2006 - Le più belle canzoni di Grazia Di Michele 2009 - Passaggi segreti 2012 - Giverny Official website Grazia Di Michele at Discogs Grazia Di Michele on IMDb

Church of the Intercession, Krasny Sulin

Church of the Intercession ― the only one of three Orthodox churches that has still been preserved until our days in the town of Krasny Sulin, Rostov Oblast, Russia. Its architecture is much smaller in size. Church of the Intercession is a five-domed church with largest of them being at the centre. There is a three-tiered bell tower at the church territory. Church of the Intercession was founded in Sulinovsko-Kundrjuchensky khutor in 1911, its architect is unknown, but historians found out that many such churches were built on the Don land on projects of the famous architect Peter Semenovich Studenikin. The construction began in 1912, was conducted under the supervision of ataman and honorary citizen Alexander Ivanovich Polyakov. First church building was erected at the expense of khutor community, in 1913 the khutor administration allocated funds in the amount of 29,000 rubles for the completion of construction works and purchase of all the necessary accessories for clergy. In 1914, construction was completed.

On December 10, 1914, the church was consecrated by Archbishop of Novocherkassk Vladimir. Church of the Intercession survived the October Revolution. Services were held there until its closure in 1935, was opened only under the German occupation during World War II. Here was sent a priest -- a Greek; the occupation authorities have tried to bring disunity to the Russian Orthodox Church, and, in this regard tried to pick up clergymen that didn't have any ties with Moscow. After the liberation of the town, services at the temple for some time had not been carried out, resumed only in 1946, after the new appointment of a priest, have not stopped until then. In 1980 the churched was redecorated. On January 15, 1981, the temple was recognized as a monument of history and culture of the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, on the decision of the Regional Council of December 17, 1992, the church was declared a monument of history and culture of the Russian Federation. In 2003, on the territory of the temple there was established a Sunday school.

In 2010 in church began another great-scale restoration works. Донские Епархиальные Ведомости от 11 декабря 1914 г. Кудрявцев В. В. «Страницы прошлого листая», стр. 20-21. ГАРО. Ф.р-4173. Оп.6. Д.52

State ratifying conventions

State ratifying conventions are one of the two methods established by Article V of the United States Constitution for ratifying proposed constitutional amendments. The only amendment, ratified through this method thus far is the 21st Amendment. Article V reads in pertinent part: The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths thereof, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress.... Ratification of a proposed amendment has been done by state conventions only once—the 1933 ratification process of the 21st Amendment; the 21st is the only constitutional amendment that repealed another one, that being the 18th Amendment, ratified 14 years earlier.

As is true for a state legislature when ratifying a proposed federal constitutional amendment, a state ratifying convention may not in any way change a proposed constitutional amendment, but must accept or reject the proposed amendment as written. The convention method of ratification described in Article V is an alternate route to considering the pro and con arguments of a particular proposed amendment, as the framers of the Constitution wanted a means of sometimes bypassing the state legislatures in the ratification process. To some extent, the convention method of ratification loosely approximates a one-state, one-vote national referendum on a specific proposed federal constitutional amendment, thus allowing the sentiments of registered voters to be somewhat more directly felt on sensitive issues; the theory is that the delegates of the conventions—who would themselves be average citizens—might be less to bow to political pressure to accept or to reject a given amendment than would be the case with state legislators.

The United States Supreme Court has ruled that a popular referendum is not a substitute for either the legislature or a ratifying convention—nor can a referendum approve of, or disapprove of, a state legislature's, or a convention's, decision on an amendment. This ruling was challenged under Arizona State Legislature v. Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission, in which the United States Supreme Court defined the term "legislature" broadly to include, "the power that makes laws", which the court held included direct lawmaking by the people of the state; the majority opinion stated that the Article V use of the term "legislature" applied only to the representative body of the states as a "federal" function, as opposed to a "state" function of the legislature as prescribed in Article 1, Section 4 of the U. S. Constitution; this conflict over the interpretation of the word "legislature" creates potential constitutional questions over the role that popular referendums could play in state ratifying conventions.

New Mexico law provides that the members of its legislature would themselves be the delegates and form such a ratifying convention—if Congress were to again select that particular method of ratification. The issue having never come before the federal courts, it is unknown whether this New Mexico state law violates Article V. In a state's legislature, the ratification method is procedurally simple—merely propose a resolution, memorial, or proclamation of ratification and vote it up or down in each chamber of that state legislature, but using the convention method of ratification is a bit more complicated because it is, by necessity and different from a state legislature. As early as the 1930s, state lawmakers enacted laws to prepare for the possibility of Congress specifying the convention method of ratification. Many laws refer to a one-off event, with an ad-hoc convention convened for the purposes of the 21st amendment. Other laws, provided guidelines for ratifying conventions in general. Once Congress has proposed a federal constitutional amendment which Congress specifies is to be ratified by the convention method, Vermont's governor has 60 days to call for an election of delegates to that convention, the setting of a date for those elections.

Note that the Vermont code does not contemplate the calling of ratifying conventions from a national amendment convention, though the same procedures would be followed. Fourteen persons are elected to be members of the ratifying convention; those 14 would be elected statewide, meaning that each voter would cast votes for fourteen people, with the top fourteen vote-getters being elected. The election must take place from three to twelve months after the governor's call; the convention must begin 20 to 30 days after the election. The convention itself is held in the Senate chamber in the state capital; the candidates who are seeking to become delegates are selected from a list of 28 possible Vermont citizens. All 28 candidates are selected by the governor, lieutenant governor, speaker of the house; the persons selected must agree to be placed on the ballot - 14 of whom are opposed to ratification, 14 of whom are in favor. The ballots are to be plainly marked so that voters can decide based on the candidate's stand on the issue, or on name recognition.

The state has 14 counties - each county is to have one "pro" and one "con" candidate. Voters can vote for all "For" or any combination thereof; the elected delegates meet with the majority of those elected being a quorum. The Vermont code does not detail how the convention is to conduct its business aside from the fact that there will