The Kunsthistorisches Museum is an art museum in Vienna, Austria. Housed in its festive palatial building on Ringstraße, it is crowned with an octagonal dome; the term Kunsthistorisches Museum applies to the main building. It is the largest art museum in the country, it was opened around 1891 at the same time as the Natural History Museum, Vienna, by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary. The two museums face each other across Maria-Theresien-Platz. Both buildings were built between 1871 and 1891 according to plans drawn up by Gottfried Semper and Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer; the two Ringstraße museums were commissioned by the emperor in order to find a suitable shelter for the Habsburgs' formidable art collection and to make it accessible to the general public. The façade was built of sandstone; the building is rectangular in shape, topped with a dome, 60 meters high. The inside of the building is lavishly decorated with marble, stucco ornamentations, gold-leaf, paintings; the museum's primary collections are those of the Habsburgs from the portrait and armour collections of Ferdinand of Tirol, the collections of Emperor Rudolph II, the collection of paintings of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, of which his Italian paintings were first documented in the Theatrum Pictorium.
Notable works in the picture gallery include: Jan van Eyck: Portrait of Cardinal Niccolò Albergati Antonello da Messina: San Cassiano Altarpiece Raphael: Madonna of the Meadow St Margaret and the Dragon Albrecht Dürer: Avarice Adoration of the Trinity Titian: The Bravo Portrait of Isabella d'Este Lorenzo Lotto: Madonna and Child with Saint Catherine and Saint James Tintoretto: Susanna and the Elders Pieter Brueghel the Elder: The Fight Between Carnival and Lent Children's Games The Tower of Babel The Procession to Calvary The Gloomy Day The Return of the Herd The Hunters in the Snow The Peasant and the Nest Robber, 1568 The Peasant Wedding The Peasant Dance Giuseppe Arcimboldo: The Four Seasons Summer Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio: The Crowning with Thorns Madonna of the Rosary David with the Head of Goliath Peter Paul Rubens: Miracles of St. Francis Xavier Angelica and the Hermit Ildefonso Altarpiece Self-Portrait The Fur Rembrandt: Self Portrait Johannes Vermeer: The Art of Painting Diego Velázquez: Several portraits of the Spanish royal family, a branch of the Habsburg, sent to Vienna.
Thomas Gainsborough: Landscape in Suffolk The collections of the Kunsthistorisches Museum: Egyptian and Near Eastern Collection Collection of Greek and Roman Antiquities Collection of Sculpture and Decorative Arts Coin Cabinet Library Ephesus Museum Collection of Ancient Musical Instruments Collection of Arms and Armour Archive Secular and Ecclesiastical Treasury Museum of Carriages and Department of Court Uniforms Collections of Ambras Castle the Austrian Theatre Museum in Palais LobkowitzAlso affiliated are the: Museum of Ethnology in the Neue Burg. It was featured in an episode of Museum Secrets on the History Channel, it had been the biggest art theft in Austrian history. The museum is the subject of Johannes Holzhausen's documentary film The Great Museum, filmed over two years in the run up to the re-opening of the newly renovated and expanded Kunstkammer rooms in 2013. Imperial Treasury, Vienna List of largest art museums Media related to Kunsthistorisches Museum at Wikimedia Commons Official website Photoartkalmar.com: Spherical panorama of entrance Flickr.com: Hofburg's Armory photo gallery
Ice skates are metal blades attached underfoot and used to propel the bearer across a sheet of ice while ice skating. The first ice skates were made from leg bones of horse, ox or deer, were attached to feet with leather straps; these skates required a pole with a sharp metal spike, used for pushing the skater forward, unlike modern bladed skates. Modern skates come in many different varieties, which are chosen depending on the nature of the requirements needed for the skating activity, they are worn recreationally in ice rinks or on frozen bodies of water across the globe and are used as footwear in many sports, including figure skating, ice hockey, speed skating and tour skating. According to a study done by Federico Formenti, University of Oxford, Alberto Minetti, University of Milan, Finns were the first to develop ice skates some 5,000 years ago from animal bones; this was important for the Finnish populations to save energy in harsh winter conditions when hunting in Finnish Lakeland. The earliest known skate to use a metal blade was found in Scandinavia and was dated to 200 A.
D. and was fitted with a thin strip of copper folded and attached to the underside of a leather shoe. William Fitzstephen, writing in the 12th century, described the use of bone skates in London; the following seems to be an Early Modern English translation of the Latin original: when the great fenne or moore is frozen, many young men play upon the ice, some striding as wide as they may, doe slide swiftly... some tye bones to their feete, under their heeles, shoving themselves by a little picked staffe, doe slide as swiftly as birde flyeth in the aire, or an arrow out of a crossbow. There are five main types of ice skates: the figure skate, the hockey skate, the bandy skate, the racing skate and the touring skate. Figure skates are used in the sport of figure skating. Unlike hockey skates, they have toe picks on the front of the blade, which are made out of stainless steel or aluminium with a steel runner; the toe pick has a variety of uses, but is most used for certain jumps in figure skating, such as the Lutz jump and toe loop or starting a backspin.
Figure skating boots are made of several layers of leather and the leather is stiff to provide ankle support. In addition, the figure skate's blade is curved, allowing for minute adjustments in balance and weight distribution; the base of the figure-skate blade is concave, or "hollow ground." The hollow, which runs the length of the blade, creates two edges, which come in contact with the ice. The forward part of the blade, the toe-rake, is saw-toothed and is used for jumps and spins on the toes. Hockey skates are used for playing the games of ice ringette; the boot is made of molded plastic and ballistic nylon. Skates used in competitive hockey use molded plastic for the upper boot, as this results in limited mobility; the skates used by goaltenders are cut lower in the ankle than a normal hockey skate and the boot sits closer to the ice for a lower center of gravity. The boot itself is encased in hardened plastic, called a "cowling", protecting the toe and heel from the force of the shot puck.
The blade is longer and has less rocker to make it easier for the goalie to move side to side in the crease. Goalie skates lack a tendon guard. Unlike regular hockey skates, goalie skates are protected by a synthetic material covering the toe-part of the skate; this is to prevent damage from the puck. The blade of the goalie skate is not as useful in turning as regular hockey skates, because the blade is rockered less, thus making turns inconvenient; the material used to make the boot of the goalie skate is a harder synthetic material than regular hockey boots. Sharpening ice hockey skates plays a key factor in a player’s ability to skate and players will sharpen their skates hundreds of times throughout their career. Similar to figure skates, the blade is hollow ground in cross section, creating two edges that contact and cut into the ice, allowing increased maneuverability; the blades are sharpened with round-edged grinding wheels. The wheels grind out a hollow semi-circle along the length of the underside of the blade, forming the sharp edge on each side.
Skate blade sharpness is measured by the thickness of the round-edged grinding wheel being used, the smaller the radius, the sharper the edge will be. The sharpness chosen by a player is based upon preference, not player size or level of play. While a one-half-inch radius of hollow is the most common and standard sharpening for most players, the standard radius of hollow for goalies is three-quarters inch. Bandy skates are used for playing the game of bandy; the boot is made of leather. The boot is lower than the hockey version not covering the ankles. All bandy skates are designed such; the blade is an inch longer than the hockey skates, allowing for higher speeds at the large bandy rink. The Russian bandy skates have an longer blade and a low cut shoe. Racing skates known as speed skates, have long blades and are used for speed skating. A clap skate is a type of skate. Short track racing skates have a longer overall height to the blade to allow for deep edge turns without the boot contacting the ice.
For better turning ability, racing skates may have a radius, from 8 metres for short track to 22 metres for long track. Racing skates have a flat bottom. There is no hollow, only a squared off bottom with two edges; this i
24 Frames (film)
24 Frames is a 2017 Iranian experimental film directed by Abbas Kiarostami. It was his final feature film before his death in July 2016, it was posthumously shown in the 70th Anniversary Events section at the 2017 Cannes Film Festival. 24 Frames premiered at the 70th Cannes Film Festival on 23 May 2017. In the United States, Janus Films began the film's limited release on 2 February 2018 at the Film Society of Lincoln Center. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 95% based on 43 reviews, with an average rating of 8.1/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "24 Frames offers Kiarostami fans one final, affecting reminder of what made this filmmaker a talent to treasure." On Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating to reviews, the film has a weighted average score of 76 out of 100, based on 15 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Janus Films official site 24 Frames on IMDb 24 Frames at AllMovie 24 Frames at Box Office Mojo 24 Frames at Metacritic 24 Frames at Rotten Tomatoes
A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence
A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence is a 2014 internationally co-produced black comedy-drama film written and directed by Roy Andersson. It is the third installment in his "Living" trilogy, following Songs from the Second Floor and You, the Living, it premiered at the 71st Venice International Film Festival where it was awarded the Golden Lion for Best Film. It was selected as the Swedish entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 88th Academy Awards but it was not nominated, its title is a reference to the 1565 painting The Hunters in the Snow by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The painting depicts a rural wintertime scene, with some birds perched on tree branches. Andersson said he imagined that the birds in the scene are watching the people below, wondering what they are doing, he explained the title of the film as a "different way of saying'what are we doing', that's what the movie is about." At the Venice Film Festival, Andersson said that the film had been inspired by the 1948 Italian film Bicycle Thieves by Vittorio De Sica.
The slow cinema movie consists of a series of self-contained tableaux, sometimes connected by recurring themes or characters. The story loosely follows two traveling novelty salesmen and Sam, who live in a desolate flophouse, their unsuccessful attempts to win customers for their joke articles. Although there is no main storyline in the traditional sense, all scenes are connected. Holger Andersson as Jonathan Nils Westblom as Sam A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence received an 88% "Certified Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 95 reviews, with an average rating of 7.8/10. The consensus reads: "Expertly assembled and indelibly original, A Pigeon Sat on a Branch concludes writer-director Roy Andersson's Living trilogy in style." The film received a score of 81 out of 100 on Metacritic, based on 23 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim". List of submissions to the 88th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Swedish submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence on IMDb A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence at the Swedish Film Institute Database A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence at Rotten Tomatoes A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence at Metacritic A Pigeon Sat On A Branch Reflecting on Existence on kinocritics.com
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. Foxes have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed upturned snout, a long bushy tail. Twelve species belong to the monophyletic "true foxes" group of genus Vulpes. Another 25 current or extinct species are always or sometimes called foxes. Foxes live on every continent except Antarctica. By far the most common and widespread species of fox is the red fox with about 47 recognized subspecies; the global distribution of foxes, together with their widespread reputation for cunning, has contributed to their prominence in popular culture and folklore in many societies around the world. The hunting of foxes with packs of hounds, long an established pursuit in Europe in the British Isles, was exported by European settlers to various parts of the New World; the word fox comes from Old English. This in turn derives from Proto-Indo-European *puḱ-, meaning ’thick-haired. Male foxes are known as dogs, tods or reynards, females as vixens, young as cubs, pups, or kits, though the latter name is not to be confused with a distinct species called kit foxes.
Vixen is one of few words in modern English that retains the Middle English southern dialect "v" pronunciation instead of "f". A group of foxes is referred to leash, or earth. Within the Canidae, the results of DNA analysis shows several phylogenetic divisions: The fox-like canids, which include the kit fox, red fox, Cape fox, Arctic fox, fennec fox; the wolf-like canids, including the dog, gray wolf, red wolf, eastern wolf, golden jackal, Ethiopian wolf, black-backed jackal, side-striped jackal and African wild dog. The South American canids, including hoary fox, crab-eating fox and maned wolf. Various monotypic taxa, including the bat-eared fox, gray fox, raccoon dog. Foxes are smaller than some other members of the family Canidae such as wolves and jackals, while they may be larger than some within the family, such as Raccoon dogs. In the largest species, the red fox, males weigh on average between 4.1 and 8.7 kg, while the smallest species, the fennec fox, weighs just 0.7 to 1.6 kg. Fox-like features include a triangular face, pointed ears, an elongated rostrum, a bushy tail.
Foxes are digitigrade, thus, walk on their toes. Unlike most members of the family Canidae, foxes have retractable claws. Fox vibrissae, or whiskers, are black; the whiskers on the muzzle, mystaciae vibrissae, average 100–110 mm long, while the whiskers everywhere else on the head average to be shorter in length. Whiskers are on the forelimbs and average 40 mm long, pointing downward and backward. Other physical characteristics vary according to adaptive significance. Fox species differ in fur color and density. Coat colors range from pearly white to black and white to black flecked with white or grey on the underside. Fennec foxes, for example, have short fur to aid in keeping the body cool. Arctic foxes, on the other hand, have tiny ears and short limbs as well as thick, insulating fur, which aid in keeping the body warm. Red foxes, by contrast, have a typical auburn pelt, the tail ending with white marking. A fox's coat color and texture may vary due to the change in seasons. To get rid of the dense winter coat, foxes moult once a year around April.
Coat color may change as the individual ages. A fox's dentition, like all other canids, is I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 4/4, M 3/2 = 42. Foxes have pronounced carnassial pairs, characteristic of a carnivore; these pairs consist of the upper premolar and the lower first molar, work together to shear tough material like flesh. Foxes' canines are pronounced characteristic of a carnivore, are excellent in gripping prey. In the wild, the typical lifespan of a fox is one to three years, although individuals may live up to ten years. Unlike many canids, foxes are not always pack animals, they live in small family groups, but some are known to be solitary. Foxes are omnivores; the diet of foxes is made up of invertebrates such as insects, small vertebrates such as reptiles and birds, can include eggs and plants. Many species are generalist predators. Most species of fox consume around 1 kg of food every day. Foxes cache excess food, burying it for consumption under leaves, snow, or soil. Foxes tend to use a pouncing technique where they crouch down to camouflage themselves in the terrain using their hind legs, leap up with great force to land on top of their targeted prey.
Using their pronounced canine te
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Melancholia (2011 film)
Melancholia is a 2011 psychological drama science fiction art film written and directed by Lars von Trier and starring Kirsten Dunst, Charlotte Gainsbourg, Kiefer Sutherland, with Alexander Skarsgård, Brady Corbet, Cameron Spurr, Charlotte Rampling, Jesper Christensen, John Hurt, Stellan Skarsgård, Udo Kier in supporting roles. The film's story revolves around two sisters, one of whom is preparing to marry just before a rogue planet is about to collide with Earth. Von Trier's initial inspiration for the film came from a depressive episode; the film is a Danish production by Zentropa, with international co-producers in Sweden, France and Italy. Filming took place in Sweden. Melancholia prominently features music from the prelude to Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde, it is the second entry in von Trier's unofficially titled "Depression Trilogy", preceded by Antichrist and followed by Nymphomaniac. Melancholia premiered 18 May 2011 at the 64th Cannes Film Festival --. Dunst received the festival's Best Actress Award for her performance, a common area of praise among critics.
Although not without its detractors, many critics and film scholars have considered the film to be a personal masterpiece, one of the best films of 2011. The film begins with an introductory sequence involving the main images from space; these still images reveal the key elements of the film: Justine the bride in deep melancholy with birds falling behind her. Delayed by their stretch limousine's difficulty traversing the narrow winding rural road, newlyweds Justine and Michael arrive two hours late for their own wedding reception at the estate of Justine's sister and her husband, John. Justine has a dysfunctional family: brother-in-law John appears to resent having to pay for the wedding. No one asks what Justine wants, or why she is unhappy, but throughout the dinner she is praised for being beautiful. Claire urges Justine to hide her debilitating melancholy from her new husband Michael. Justine flees the wedding reception in a golf cart. Frustrated by excessive fabric, she tears her dress getting out of the cart.
At the eighteenth hole of the golf course on the estate, she looks up at the night sky, squatting to urinate on the hole. Justine's boss, Jack, is ruthless and gluttonous. During his wedding speech, he's hustling Justine to meet a work deadline, he pushes her throughout the evening to create a tagline to promote a campaign based on a modern facsimile of Bruegel's The Land of Cockaigne. She opens an art book at this painting. During the cutting of the wedding cake and Gaby independently escape to take baths. Justine's boss's nephew, Tim, is given the chance to exploit the opportunity to get the tagline at all costs in order to promote his career: a task similar to what Justine was so successful at, he reluctantly, but doggedly, pursues Justine throughout the wedding reception. She cannot consummate her marriage with her husband and goes out onto a sand trap and has sex with Tim. Unable to get the tagline from Justine, Tim is fired for his "professional" failure, but Justine resigns, telling Jack that he is a "despicable, power-hungry little man."
After several hours of being alienated from each other and Michael agree to call off the marriage. Michael departs. Early the following morning, while horseback riding with Claire, Justine notices Antares is no longer visible in the sky; the reason for Antares's disappearance has become public knowledge: a newly discovered rogue planet called Melancholia, which entered the Solar System from behind the Sun, was blocking the star from view. The planet has now become visible in the sky as it approaches closer to Earth. John is excited about the "fly-by" predicted by scientists, while Claire is frightened by alternate predictions of the earth being hit. In the meantime, Justine's depression has grown worse, she is placed in the care of John. Justine is catatonic and Claire is unable to help her to assist her into the bath. In an effort to cheer her up, Claire makes meatloaf. Justine admits that she is so numb that her favourite meal tastes of ash; as Justine is forced into waking patterns, her connection to her beloved black horse Abraham becomes remote and frustrating.
On two occasions, the horse refuses to cross a bridge over a river. Justine acts brutally towards the horse and whips him mercilessly to the ground. Meanwhile, Claire is fearful that the end of the world is imminent, despite her husband's assurances, she searches the Internet and finds an article predicting that Melancholia and the Earth will, in fact, collide. Her husband assures her that these anecdotes are written by "prophets of doom" looking for their 15 minutes of fame. Claire tries to relax; the next day, a somewhat-healthier Justine confesses to Claire that she "knows" certain things—like the number of beans in the bottle at her wedding reception and that Earth and Melancholia will destroy each other. What's more, Justine says: this is a good thing because the Earth is evil; that night, Melancholia passes Earth. However, the ne