A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas. They typically contain information concerning the makeup, social statistics and physical features of a country, region. Content of a gazetteer can include a location, dimensions of peaks and waterways, population, GDP. This information is divided into topics with entries listed in alphabetical order. Ancient Greek gazetteers are known to have existed since the Hellenistic era, the geographer Stephanus of Byzantium wrote a geographical dictionary in the sixth century which influenced European compilers. Modern gazetteers can be found in sections of most libraries as well as on the internet. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the gazetteer as an index or dictionary. It includes as an example a work by the British historian Laurence Echard in 1693 that bore the title The Gazetteers, or Newsmans Interpreter, Echard wrote that the title Gazetteers was suggested to him by a very eminent person whose name he chose not to disclose.
For Part II of this published in 1704, Echard referred to the book simply as the Gazeteer. This marked the introduction of the word gazetteer into the English language, white suggests that the very eminent person written of by Echard was his colleague Edmund Bohun, and chose not to mention Bohun because he became associated with the Jacobite movement. Since the 18th century, the word gazetteer has been used interchangeably to define either its meaning or a daily newspaper. Gazetteers are often categorized by the type, and scope, of the information presented, short-form gazetteers appear as a place–name index in the rear of major published atlases. Thematic gazetteers list places or geographical features by theme, for example fishing ports, nuclear power stations and their common element is that the geographical location is an important attribute of the features listed. Gazetteer editors gather facts and other information from government reports, the census, chambers of commerce, together with numerous other sources.
In his journal article Alexander and the Ganges, the 20th-century historian W. W, tarn calls a list and description of satrapies of Alexanders Empire written between 324 and 323 BC as an ancient gazetteer. Tarn notes that the document is dated no than June 323 BC and it was revised by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC. Historian Truesdell S. Brown asserts that what Dionysius describes in this quote about the logographers should be categorized not as a true history but rather as a gazetteer. This interesting codification of data, probably made by a priest, is paralleled by very similar editions of data on the walls at Edfu
Herbert Hope Risley
He is notable for the formal application of the caste system to the entire Hindu population of British India in the 1901 census, of which he was in charge. As an exponent of science, he used the ratio of the width of a nose to its height to divide Indians into Aryan and Dravidian races. Risley was born in Buckinghamshire, England, in 1851 and attended New College and he was initially posted to Bengal, where his professional duties engaged him in statistical and ethnographic research, and he soon developed an interest in anthropology. In the intervening years he compiled various studies of Indian communities based on ideas that are now considered to constitute scientific racism, aside from being honoured by his country, including by the award of a knighthood, Risley became President of the Royal Anthropological Institute. Herbert Hope Risley was born at Akeley in Buckinghamshire and his father was a rector and his mother the daughter of John Hope, who had served in the Bengal Medical Service at Gwalior.
During his schooldays at Winchester College, where many of his relatives had preceded him, continuing his education with a scholarship at New College, Oxford, he graduated with a second-class Bachelor of Arts degree in law and modern history in 1872. He had already passed the examination for the Indian Civil Service in 1871, entered it on 3 June 1873. His initial posting was to Midnapur in Bengal as an Assistant Magistrate, the area was inhabited in part by forest tribes. He soon took to studying them and retained an interest in the anthropology of such tribes for the remainder of his life. He became involved in William Wilson Hunters Statistical Survey of India, which began in 1869 and he became Assistant Secretary to the Government of Bengal and then, in 1879, was appointed as Under Secretary in the Home Department of the Government of India. In 1880 he returned to work at level, at Govindpur. The couple had a son and a daughter, to return to work in the districts was Risleys personal preference and was made despite his unusually rapid rise through the ranks.
He went from Govindpur back to Hazaribagh and then, in 1884, to Manbhum, Risleys survey task was aided when research papers of a recently deceased Indian Medical Service doctor, James Wise, were given to him by the doctors widow. Wise had researched the people of Eastern Bengal and it was agreed that, after ascertaining the accuracy of his work, in return, those volumes of the survey dealing with ethnographic matters would be dedicated to Wise. Further assistance came from the research of Edward Tuite Dalton into the tribes of Chhotanagpur. Dalton, like Wise, had published his efforts but now they would be integrated as a part of a larger whole. In 1891 Risley published a paper entitled The Study of Ethnology in India and it was a contribution to what Thomas Trautmann, a historian who has studied Indian society, describes as the racial theory of Indian civilisation. Trautmann notes, that the convergence of their theories was not a deliberate collaboration, in the same year,1891, the four volumes of The Tribes and Castes of Bengal were published
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUPs chief executive, Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The university became involved in the print trade around 1480, and grew into a printer of Bibles, prayer books. OUP took on the project became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, by contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year. OUP was first exempted from United States corporation tax in 1972, as a department of a charity, OUP is exempt from income tax and corporate tax in most countries, but may pay sales and other commercial taxes on its products.
The OUP today transfers 30% of its surplus to the rest of the university. OUP is the largest university press in the world by the number of publications, publishing more than 6,000 new books every year, the Oxford University Press Museum is located on Great Clarendon Street, Oxford. Visits must be booked in advance and are led by a member of the archive staff, displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, and the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary. The first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood, the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinuss Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer. Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as 1468, thus apparently pre-dating Caxton, roods printing included John Ankywylls Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century, the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxfords case.
Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, Oxfords chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the universitys printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute, Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, and benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers Company and the Kings Printer and these were brought together in Oxfords Great Charter in 1636, which gave the university the right to print all manner of books. Laud obtained the privilege from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford and this privilege created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although initially it was held in abeyance. The Stationers Company was deeply alarmed by the threat to its trade, under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes
University of Chicago
The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. It holds top-ten positions in national and international rankings and measures. The university currently enrolls approximately 5,700 students in the College, Chicagos physics department helped develop the worlds first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction beneath the viewing stands of universitys Stagg Field. The university is home to the University of Chicago Press. With an estimated date of 2020, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university. Both Harper and future president Robert Maynard Hutchins advocated for Chicagos curriculum to be based upon theoretical and perennial issues rather than on applied sciences, the University of Chicago has many prominent alumni. 92 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, faculty, or staff, similarly,34 faculty members and 16 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur “Genius Grant”. Rockefeller on land donated by Marshall Field, while the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings.
The original physical campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B, Cobb who provided the funds for the campus first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, and matched Marshall Fields pledge of $100,000. Organized as an independent institution legally, it replaced the first Baptist university of the same name, william Rainey Harper became the modern universitys first president on July 1,1891, and the university opened for classes on October 1,1892. The business school was founded thereafter in 1898, and the law school was founded in 1902, Harper died in 1906, and was replaced by a succession of three presidents whose tenures lasted until 1929. During this period, the Oriental Institute was founded to support, in 1896, the university affiliated with Shimer College in Mount Carroll, Illinois. The agreement provided that either party could terminate the affiliation on proper notice, several University of Chicago professors disliked the program, as it involved uncompensated additional labor on their part, and they believed it cheapened the academic reputation of the university.
The program passed into history by 1910, in 1929, the universitys fifth president, Robert Maynard Hutchins, took office, the university underwent many changes during his 24-year tenure. In 1933, Hutchins proposed a plan to merge the University of Chicago. During his term, the University of Chicago Hospitals finished construction, the Committee on Social Thought, an institution distinctive of the university, was created. Money that had been raised during the 1920s and financial backing from the Rockefeller Foundation helped the school to survive through the Great Depression, during World War II, the university made important contributions to the Manhattan Project. The university was the site of the first isolation of plutonium and of the creation of the first artificial, in the early 1950s, student applications declined as a result of increasing crime and poverty in the Hyde Park neighborhood
William Wilson Hunter
Sir William Wilson Hunter KCSI CIE was a Scottish historian, statistician, a compiler and a member of the Indian Civil Service. William Wilson Hunter was born on 15 July 1840 in Glasgow, Scotland, to Andrew Galloway Hunter and he was the second son, among his fathers three sons. He started his education in 1854 at the Quaker Seminary at Queenswood, after a year he joined, the Glasgow Academy. He was educated at Glasgow University and Bonn, acquiring a knowledge of Sanskrit, in 1869 Lord Mayo, the governor-general, asked Hunter to submit a scheme for a comprehensive statistical survey of India. The work involved the compilation of a number of local gazetteers, in stages of progress. Hunter said that It was my hope to make a memorial of Englands work in India, more lasting, because truer and more complete, than these monuments of Mughal Empire, in 1872 Hunter published his history of Orissa. He embarked on a series of tours throughout the country, and he supervised the A Statistical Account of Bengal, during the same period the first Census of India has been taken, and furnished a vast accession to our knowledge of the people.
The materials now amassed form a Statistical Survey of a continent with a population exceeding that of all Europe, Hunters own article on India was published in 1880 as A Brief History of the Indian Peoples, and has been widely translated and utilized in Indian schools. A revised form was issued in 1895, under the title of The Indian Empire, its People, Hunter said that Nothing is more costly than ignorance. Its aim has been not literary graces, nor scientific discovery, nor antiquarian research, in 1882 Hunter, as a member of the governor-generals council, presided over the Commission on Indian Education, in 1886 he was elected vice-chancellor of the University of Calcutta. In 1887 he retired from the service, was created KCSI, gell arranged the publication of the series by June 1889, with Hunter receiving £75 for each volume, and the author £25. Gells experience of the earlier unsaleable Sacred Books of the East, Hunter himself contributed the volumes on Dalhousie and Mayo to the series.
He had previously written an official Life of Lord Mayo, which was published on 19 November 1875 in two volumes with an edition appearing in 1876. He wrote an article on Indian affairs for The Times. He was much hindered by the state of his materials. Hunter dedicated his 1892 work Bombay 1885 to 1890, A Study in Indian Administration to Florence Nightingale and his works include the novel titled The Old Missionary, and The Thackerays in India. He died at Oaken Holt on 6 February 1900, mittal believes that Hunter represented the official mind of the bureaucratic Victorian historians in India, of whom James Talboys Wheeler and Alfred Comyn Lyall were other examples. A Comparative Dictionary of the Languages of India and High Asia, based on the Hodgson Lists, Official Records, and Mss
Richard Burn (Indologist)
Sir Richard Burn CSI was a civil servant in British India, historian of India and numismatist. He was the editor of Volume IV of The Cambridge History of India, Burn was born in Liverpool, educated at the Liverpool Institute, at Christ Church College, University of Oxford. Burn entered the Indian Civil Service in 1891 and he became Under-Secretary to the Government of the United Provinces in 1897, Superintendent of the Census 1900, and of the Imperial Gazetteer in 1902, and editor in 1905. He was Secretary to the Government of the United Provinces, and member of the Legislative Council and he became a Commissioner in 1918 and member of the Board of Revenue, United Provinces, in 1922. In 1926 he was Acting Finance Member, Burn was awarded the Kaiser-i-Hind gold medal for famine services in India in 1907–08. The Gazetteer was published in 26 volumes at Oxford from 1909, the first edition had been published in 1881 and the second in 1885–87. There is a story relating that a newcomer in the secretariat of the Government of India was appalled by the number of officials whom it was deemed necessary to consult regarding a certain file.
In sending it on, he noted that by mistake the file had not yet been submitted for the opinion of the Bishop of Calcutta. Burn was a knowledgeable numismatist, producing papers on the subject that were published in the Numismatic Chronicle and the journals of the Royal Asiatic Society and he was a founder member, in 1910, of the Numismatic Society of India. Census report of the United Provinces, the Cambridge History of India Vol. IV The Mughul period. Planned by Wolseley Haig, edited by Richard Burn, the Cambridge History of India Vol. VI. With chapters on the development of administration, 1818–1858
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India, the resulting political union was called the Indian Empire and after 1876 issued passports under that name. It lasted until 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign states, the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India and this area is very diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, and the Thar desert. In addition, at times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948, among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798, the kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states.
The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861, however. The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory, British India and the Native States. In general, the term British India had been used to to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has used to refer to the British in India. The terms Indian Empire and Empire of India were not used in legislation, the monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was often used in Queen Victorias Queens Speeches and Prorogation Speeches. The passports issued by the British Indian government had the words Indian Empire on the cover, in addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, during the partition of Bengal the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship.
In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, and the new provinces in the east became, Bengal, there were 565 princely states when India and Pakistan became independent from Britain in August 1947. The princely states did not form a part of British India, the larger ones had treaties with Britain that specified which rights the princes had, in the smaller ones the princes had few rights. Within the princely states external affairs and most communications were under British control, the British exercised a general influence over the states internal politics, in part through the granting or withholding of recognition of individual rulers. Although there were nearly 600 princely states, the majority were very small