Invisible Man is a novel by Ralph Ellison, published by Random House in 1952. It addresses many of the social and intellectual issues facing African Americans early in the twentieth century, including black nationalism, the relationship between black identity and Marxism, the reformist racial policies of Booker T. Washington, as well as issues of individuality and personal identity. Invisible Man won the U. S. National Book Award for Fiction in 1953. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked Invisible Man 19th on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. Time magazine included the novel in its TIME 100 Best English-language Novels from 1923 to 2005, calling it "the quintessential American picaresque of the 20th century", rather than a "race novel, or a bildungsroman". Malcolm Bradbury and Richard Ruland recognize an existential vision with a "Kafka-like absurdity". According to The New York Times, former U. S. president Barack Obama modeled his memoir Dreams from My Father on Ellison's novel.
Ellison says in his introduction to the 30th Anniversary Edition that he started to write what would become Invisible Man in a barn in Waitsfield, Vermont in the summer of 1945 while on sick leave from the Merchant Marine. The book took five years to complete with one year off for what Ellison termed an "ill-conceived short novel." Invisible Man was published as a whole in 1952. Ellison had published a section of the book in 1947, the famous "Battle Royal" scene, shown to Cyril Connolly, the editor of Horizon magazine by Frank Taylor, one of Ellison's early supporters. In his speech accepting the 1953 National Book Award, Ellison said that he considered the novel's chief significance to be its "experimental attitude." Before Invisible Man, many novels dealing with African Americans were written for social protest, most notably, Native Son and Uncle Tom's Cabin. By contrast, the narrator in Invisible Man says, "I am not complaining, nor am I protesting either," signaling the break from the normal protest novel that Ellison held about his work.
In the essay'The World in a Jug,', a response to Irving Howe's essay'Black Boys and Native Sons,' which "pit Ellison and Baldwin against Wright and then," as Ellison would say, "gives Wright the better argument," Ellison makes a fuller statement about the position he held about his book in the larger canon of work by an American who happens to be African. In the opening paragraph to that essay Ellison poses three questions: "Why is it so true that when critics confront the American as Negro they drop their advanced critical armament and revert with an air of confident superiority to quite primitive modes of analysis? Why is it that Sociology-oriented critics seem to rate literature so far below politics and ideology that they would rather kill a novel than modify their presumptions concerning a given reality which it seeks in its own terms to project? Why is it that so many of those who would tell us the meaning of Negro life never bother to learn how varied it is?" Ellison's Invisible Man dovetails the Harlem Renaissance and the Black Arts Movement.
John Oliver Killens once denounced Invisible Man by saying: “The Negro people need Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man like we need a hole in the head or a stab in the back.... It is a vicious distortion of Negro life." Ellison's influences include, among others, The Waste Land by T. S. Eliot. In an interview with Richard Kostelanetz, Ellison states that what he had learned from the poem was imagery, improvisation--techniques he had only before seen in jazz.. Some other influences include Ernest Hemingway, he once called Faulkner the south's greatest artist. In the Paris Review, in the Spring Issue, 1955, in an interview he said this about Hemingway: "At night I practiced writing and studied Joyce, Dostoyevsky and Hemingway. Hemingway. I guess many young writers were doing this, but I used his description of hunting when I went into the fields the next day. I had been hunting since I was eleven, but no one had broken down the process of wing-shooting for me, it was from reading Hemingway that I learned to lead a bird.
When he describes something in print, believe him. Some of Ellison's influences had a more direct impact on his novel as when Ellison divulges this, in his introduction to the 30th anniversary of Invisible Man, that the "character" who had announced himself on his page he "associated so distantly, with the narrator of Dostoevsky's Notes From Underground". Although, despite the "distantly" remark, it appears that Ellison used that novella more than just on that occasion; the beginning of Invisible Man, for example, seems to be structured similar to Notes From Underground: "I am a sick man" compared to "I am an invisible man". Arnold Rampersad, Ellison's biographer, expounds that Melville had a profound influence on Ellison's freedom to describe race so acutely and generously. "resembles no one else in previous fiction so much as he resembles Ishmael of Moby-Dick." Ellison signals his debt in the prologue to the novel, where the narrator remembers a moment of truth under the influence of marijuana and evokes a church service: "Brothers and sisters, my text this morning is the'Blackness of Blackness.'
And the congregation answers:'That blackness is most black, most black...'" In this scene Ellison "reprises a moment in the second chapter of Moby-Dick", where
Sir Arthur Pearson, 1st Baronet
Sir Cyril Arthur Pearson, 1st Baronet, was a British newspaper magnate and publisher, best known for founding the Daily Express. Pearson was born in the village of Wookey, Somerset to Arthur Cyril and Phillippa Massingberd Maxwell Pearson and educated at Winchester College in Hampshire, his father was Rector of Drayton Parslow in England. His first job was as a journalist working for the London-based publisher George Newnes on Tit-Bits magazine. Within his first year he had impressed Newnes enough for him to make him his principal assistant. In December 1887, Pearson married Isobel Sarah Bennett, the daughter of Canon Frederick Bennett, of Maddington, with whom he had three daughters. In 1897, Pearson married, as his second wife, daughter of William John Fraser. Ethel, Lady Pearson, won be appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire; the couple had a son and three daughters. In 1890, after six years of working for Newnes, Pearson left to form his own publishing business and within three weeks had created the periodical journal Pearson's Weekly, the first issue of which sold a quarter of a million copies.
A philanthropist, in 1892 he established the charitable Fresh Air Fund, still in operation and now known as Pearson's Holiday Fund, to enable disadvantaged children to partake in outdoor activities. In 1898, he purchased the Morning Herald, in 1900 merged it into his new creation, the halfpenny Daily Express; the Express was a departure from the papers of its time and created an immediate impact by carrying news instead of only advertisements on its front page. He was successful in establishing papers in provincial locations such as the Birmingham Daily Gazette, he came into direct competition with the Daily Mail and in the resulting commercial fight took control of The Times, being nominated as its manager, but the deal fell through. In 1898, Pearson founded The Royal Magazine, a monthly literary magazine which remained in publication until 1939. In 1900 Pearson despatched the explorer and adventurer Hesketh Hesketh-Prichard to Patagonia to investigate dramatic reports of a giant hairy mammal inhabiting the forests, conjectured to be a giant ground sloth, long since extinct.
Hesketh-Prichard's reports from 5,000 miles away gripped readers of The Express, despite him finding no trace of the creature. During this same period, Pearson was active as a writer, wrote a number of tourist guides to locations in Britain and Europe. Under the pseudonym of "Professor P R S Foli", he wrote Handwriting as an Index to Character in 1902, as well as works on fortune-telling and dream interpretation. Pearson was a strong supporter of Joseph Chamberlain's tariff-reform movement, organised the Tariff Reform League in 1903, becoming its first chairman. In 1904 he purchased the struggling The Standard and its sister paper the Evening Standard for £700,000 from the Johnstone family, he merged the Evening Standard with his St James's Gazette and changed the Conservative stance of both papers into a pro-Liberal one, but was unsuccessful in arresting the slide in sales and in 1910 sold them to the MP Sir Davison Dalziel, Sir Alexander Henderson. Beginning to lose his sight due to glaucoma despite a 1908 operation, Pearson was progressively forced from 1910 onwards to relinquish his newspaper interests.
Through the British and Foreign Blind Association, Pearson published his Pearson's Easy Dictionary in Braille form in 1912. Blind, Pearson was made president of the National Institution for the Blind in 1914, raising its income from £8,000 to £360,000 in only eight years. On 29 January 1915, he founded The Blinded Soldiers and Sailors Care Committee, for soldiers blinded by gas attack or trauma during the First World War, its goal, radical for the times, was to provide vocational training rather than charity for invalided servicemen, thus to enable them to carry out independent and productive lives. Not only were blinded soldiers trained in work such as basket weaving or massage, but in social skills such as dancing, braille reading or sports to give them back self-confidence. Upon releasing them, they were gifted little tokens of independence such as braille watches; this was important considering the fact that many blinded soldiers were young men, who would have to live with their disability for decades to come.
Pearson's dedication to this work led to him receiving a Baronetcy on 12 July 1916, whereupon he took the title Pearson, 1st Baronet of St Dunstan's, London. He received the GBE in 1917. Pearson was a close friend of the pioneer of the Scouting movement Baden-Powell, supportive of his efforts in setting up the movement and publishing its magazine The Scout; when Pearson's scheme for publishing in Braille was faltering due to lack of funds, on 2 May 1914 Baden-Powell publicly requested that "all Scouts perform a'good turn' for The Scout magazine publisher Mr C Arthur Pearson, in order to raise money for his scheme of publishing literature in Braille for the blind." In 1919, Pearson wrote the book Victory over blindness:. He founded the Greater London Fund for the Blind in 1921, funded by the establishment of its annual'Geranium Day' appeal. Pearson died on 9 December 1921 when he drowned in his bath after knocking himself unconscious in a fall, he was buried in Hampstead Cemetery after a service to which the Cabinet, the British and Norwegian royal families, many institutes for the blind all sent official
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how fast light propagates through the material. It is defined as n = c v, where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the phase velocity of light in the medium. For example, the refractive index of water is 1.333, meaning that light travels 1.333 times as fast in vacuum as in water. The refractive index determines how much the path of light is bent, or refracted, when entering a material; this is described by Snell's law of refraction, n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2, where θ1 and θ2 are the angles of incidence and refraction of a ray crossing the interface between two media with refractive indices n1 and n2. The refractive indices determine the amount of light, reflected when reaching the interface, as well as the critical angle for total internal reflection and Brewster's angle; the refractive index can be seen as the factor by which the speed and the wavelength of the radiation are reduced with respect to their vacuum values: the speed of light in a medium is v = c/n, the wavelength in that medium is λ = λ0/n, where λ0 is the wavelength of that light in vacuum.
This implies that vacuum has a refractive index of 1, that the frequency of the wave is not affected by the refractive index. As a result, the energy of the photon, therefore the perceived color of the refracted light to a human eye which depends on photon energy, is not affected by the refraction or the refractive index of the medium. While the refractive index affects wavelength, it depends on photon frequency and energy so the resulting difference in the bending angle causes white light to split into its constituent colors; this is called dispersion. It can be observed in prisms and rainbows, chromatic aberration in lenses. Light propagation in absorbing materials can be described using a complex-valued refractive index; the imaginary part handles the attenuation, while the real part accounts for refraction. The concept of refractive index applies within the full electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to radio waves, it can be applied to wave phenomena such as sound. In this case the speed of sound is used instead of that of light, a reference medium other than vacuum must be chosen.
The refractive index n of an optical medium is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum, c = 299792458 m/s, the phase velocity v of light in the medium, n = c v. The phase velocity is the speed at which the crests or the phase of the wave moves, which may be different from the group velocity, the speed at which the pulse of light or the envelope of the wave moves; the definition above is sometimes referred to as the absolute refractive index or the absolute index of refraction to distinguish it from definitions where the speed of light in other reference media than vacuum is used. Air at a standardized pressure and temperature has been common as a reference medium. Thomas Young was the person who first used, invented, the name "index of refraction", in 1807. At the same time he changed this value of refractive power into a single number, instead of the traditional ratio of two numbers; the ratio had the disadvantage of different appearances. Newton, who called it the "proportion of the sines of incidence and refraction", wrote it as a ratio of two numbers, like "529 to 396".
Hauksbee, who called it the "ratio of refraction", wrote it as a ratio with a fixed numerator, like "10000 to 7451.9". Hutton wrote it as a ratio with a fixed denominator, like 1.3358 to 1. Young did not use a symbol for the index of refraction, in 1807. In the next years, others started using different symbols: n, m, µ; the symbol n prevailed. For visible light most transparent media have refractive indices between 1 and 2. A few examples are given in the adjacent table; these values are measured at the yellow doublet D-line of sodium, with a wavelength of 589 nanometers, as is conventionally done. Gases at atmospheric pressure have refractive indices close to 1 because of their low density. All solids and liquids have refractive indices above 1.3, with aerogel as the clear exception. Aerogel is a low density solid that can be produced with refractive index in the range from 1.002 to 1.265. Moissanite lies at the other end of the range with a refractive index as high as 2.65. Most plastics have refractive indices in the range from 1.3 to 1.7, but some high-refractive-index polymers can have values as high as 1.76.
For infrared light refractive indices can be higher. Germanium is transparent in the wavelength region from 2 to 14 µm and has a refractive index of about 4. A type of new materials, called topological insulator, was found holding higher refractive index of up to 6 in near to mid infrared frequency range. Moreover, topological insulator material are transparent; these excellent properties make them a type of significant materials for infrared optics. According to the theory of relativity, no information can travel faster than the speed of light in vacuum, but this does not mean that the refractive index cannot be lower than 1; the refractive index measures the phase velocity of light. The phase velocity is the speed at which the crests of the wave move and can be faster than the speed of light in vacuum, thereby give a refractive index below 1; this can occur close to resonance frequencies, for absorbing media, in plasmas, for X-rays. In the X-ray regime the refractive indices are
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The Bab Ballads is a collection of light verses by W. S. Gilbert, illustrated with his own comic drawings; the book takes its title from Gilbert's childhood nickname. He began to sign his illustrations "Bab". Gilbert wrote the "ballads" collected in the book before he became famous for his comic opera librettos with Arthur Sullivan. In writing these verses Gilbert developed his "topsy-turvy" style in which the humour is derived by setting up a ridiculous premise and working out its logical consequences, however absurd; the ballads reveal Gilbert's cynical and satirical approach to humour. They became famous on their own, as well as being a source for plot elements and songs that Gilbert recycled in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, they were read aloud at private dinner-parties, at public banquets and in the House of Lords. The ballads have been much published, some have been recorded or otherwise adapted. Gilbert himself explained how The Bab Ballads came about: In 1861 Fun was started, under the editorship of Mr. H. J. Byron.
With much labour I turned out an article three-quarters of a column long, sent it to the editor, together with a half-page drawing on wood. A day or two the printer of the paper called upon me, with Mr Byron's compliments, staggered me with a request to contribute a column of "copy" and a half-page drawing every week for the term of my natural life. I hardly knew how to treat the offer, for it seemed to me that into that short article I had poured all I knew. I was empty. I had exhausted myself: I didn't know any more. However, the printer encouraged me, I said I would try. I did try, I found to my surprise that there was a little left, enough indeed to enable me to contribute some hundreds of columns to the periodical throughout his editorship, that of his successor, poor Tom Hood!. For ten years Gilbert wrote articles and poems for Fun, of which he was the drama critic. Gilbert's first column "cannot now be identified"; the first known contribution is a drawing titled "Some mistake here" on page 56 of the issue for 26 October 1861.
Some of Gilbert's early work for the journal remains unidentified. The earliest pieces that Gilbert himself considered worthy to be collected in The Bab Ballads started to appear in 1865, much more from 1866 to 1869; the series takes its title from the nickname "Bab", short for "baby". It may be a homage to Charles Dickens's pen name "Boz". Gilbert did not start signing his drawings "Bab" until 1866, he did not start calling the poems The Bab Ballads until the first collected edition was published in 1869. From on his new poems in Fun were captioned "The Bab Ballads". Gilbert started numbering the poems, with "Mister William" as No. 60. However, it is not certain which poems Gilbert considered to be Nos. 1–59. Ellis counts backwards, including only those poems with drawings, finds that the first "Bab Ballad" was "The Story of Gentle Archibald". However, Gilbert did not include "Gentle Archibald" in his collected editions, while he did include several poems published earlier than that. Nor did Gilbert limit the collected editions to poems with illustrations.
By 1870 Gilbert's output of "Bab Ballads" had started to tail off corresponding to his rising success as a dramatist. The last poem that Gilbert himself considered to be a "Bab Ballad", "Old Paul and Old Tim," appeared in Fun in January 1871. In the remaining forty years of his life Gilbert made only a handful of verse contributions to periodicals; some posthumous editions of The Bab Ballads have included these poems, although Gilbert did not. By 1868 Gilbert's poems had won sufficient popularity to justify a collected edition, he selected forty-four of the poems for an edition of The “Bab” Ballads – Much Sound and Little Sense. A second collected edition, More “Bab” Ballads, including thirty-five ballads, appeared in 1872. In 1876 Gilbert collected fifty of his favourite poems in Fifty “Bab” Ballads, with one poem being collected for the first time and twenty-five poems that had appeared in the earlier volumes being left out; as Gilbert explained: The period during which they were written extended over some three or four years.
As it seemed to me that the volumes were disfigured by the presence of these hastily written impostors, I thought it better to withdraw from both volumes such Ballads as seemed to show evidence of carelessness or undue haste, to publish the remainder in the compact form under which they are now presented to the reader.. Gilbert's readers were not happy with the loss, in 1882 Gilbert published all of the poems that had appeared in either The “Bab” Ballads or More “Bab” Ballads, once again excluding "Etiquette." Some twentieth-century editions of More “Bab” Ballads include "Etiquette". In 1890 Gilbert produced Songs of a Savoyard, a volume of sixty-nine detached lyrics from the Savoy Operas, each with a new title, some of them reworded to fit the changed context. Many of them received "Bab" illustrations in the familiar style, he included two deleted lyrics from Iolanthe. The effect was that of a new volume of "Bab Ballads". Indeed, Gilbert considered calling the volume The Savoy Ballads. In 1898 Gilbert produced The Bab Ballads, with which are included Songs of a Savoyard.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English journalist, short-story writer and novelist. He was born in India. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King", his poems include "Mandalay", "Gunga Din", "The Gods of the Copybook Headings", "The White Man's Burden", "If—". He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story. Kipling was one of the most popular writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have known." In 1907, at the age of 41, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize and its youngest recipient to date. He was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, both of which he declined. Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century.
George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting". Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: " is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled, but as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with." Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, to Alice Kipling and John Lockwood Kipling. Alice was a vivacious woman, about whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room." Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the Principal and Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Bombay. John Lockwood and Alice had met in 1863 and courted at Rudyard Lake in Rudyard, England.
They married and moved to India in 1865. They had been so moved by the beauty of the Rudyard Lake area that when their first child was born they named him after it. Two of Alice's sisters married artists: Georgiana was married to the painter Edward Burne-Jones, her sister Agnes to Edward Poynter. Kipling's most famous relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, Conservative Prime Minister three times in the 1920s and'30s. Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J J School of Art in Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence. Although the cottage bears a plaque noting it as the site where Kipling was born, the original cottage may have been torn down decades ago and a new one built in its place; some historians and conservationists are of the view that the bungalow marks a site, close to the home of Kipling's birth, as the bungalow was built in 1882—about 15 years after Kipling was born. Kipling seems to have said as much to the Dean. Kipling wrote of Bombay: According to Bernice M. Murphy, "Kipling's parents considered themselves'Anglo-Indians' and so too would their son, though he spent the bulk of his life elsewhere.
Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent in his fiction."Kipling referred to such conflicts, for example: "In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she or Meeta would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution'Speak English now to Papa and Mamma.' So one spoke'English', haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in". Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended; as was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister Alice were taken to the United Kingdom—in their case to Southsea, Portsmouth—to live with a couple who boarded children of British nationals who were serving in India. For the next six years, the children lived with the couple, Captain Pryse Agar Holloway, once an officer in the merchant navy, Sarah Holloway, at their house, Lorne Lodge, at 4 Campbell Road, Southsea. In his autobiography, published 65 years Kipling recalled the stay with horror, wondered if the combination of cruelty and neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life: "If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day's doings he will contradict himself satisfactorily.
If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific, yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort". Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; the two Kipling children, did have relatives in England who
The Invisible Man Returns
The Invisible Man Returns is a 1940 American horror science fiction film from Universal. It was written as a sequel to the 1933 film The Invisible Man, based on the novel The Invisible Man by H. G. Wells; the studio had signed a multi-picture contract with Wells, they were hoping that this film would do as well as the first. It would be followed by the comedic The Invisible Woman the same year; the screen play for the film was written by Curt Siodmak. The film director was Joe May, who had directed The House of the Seven Gables; the cast of the film included Vincent Price, Cecil Kellaway, Sir Cedric Hardwicke, Nan Grey, Alan Napier and John Sutton. The film ran for 81 minutes in black-and-white with mono sound and holds an 89% rating at Rotten Tomatoes; the production ran over budget, costing $270,000, but it returned good box office revenues. The special effects by John P. Fulton, Bernard B. Brown and William Hedgcock received an Oscar nomination in the category Best Special Effects. In the documentary, Ted Newson's 100 Years of Horror, Price recalls that the undressing of the scarecrow scene took several hours to shoot, for only three minutes of on screen time.
The transparent effect was done with black velvet covering the actor. Sir Geoffrey Radcliffe is sentenced to death for the murder of his brother Michael, a crime he did not commit. Dr. Frank Griffin, the brother of the original invisible man, injects the prisoner with an invisibility drug; as Radcliffe's execution nears, he vanishes from his cell. Detective Sampson from the Scotland Yard guesses the truth while Radcliffe searches for the real murderer before the drug causes him to go insane; the Radcliffe family owns a mining operation. The promoted employee Willie Spears is promoted within the company, stirring Radcliffe's suspicions. After forcing Spear's car off the road, Spears is frightened into revealing that Richard Cobb, Radcliffe's cousin, is the murderer. After a confrontation, a chase scene ensues during which Radcliffe is struck by a bullet from Sampson. Cobb confesses to the murder before he dies. Now cleared of all wrongdoing, dying from blood loss and exposure, makes his way to Dr. Griffin.
A number of Radcliffe's employees volunteer to donate blood to Radcliffe. The transfusion succeeds, making Radcliffe visible again, allowing the doctor to operate and save his life. Sir Cedric Hardwicke as Richard Cobb Vincent Price as Sir Geoffrey Radcliffe / The Invisible Man Nan Grey as Helen Manson John Sutton as Dr. Frank Griffin Cecil Kellaway as Inspector Sampson Alan Napier as Willie Spears Forrester Harvey as Ben Jenkins Due to its critical success, the film was followed by a comedic-sequel titled The Invisible Woman, released that same year; the Invisible Man Returns on IMDb The Invisible Man Returns at AllMovie The Invisible Man Returns at the TCM Movie Database