The Asahi Shimbun is one of the five national newspapers in Japan. Its circulation, which was 7.96 million for its morning edition and 3.1 million for its evening edition as of June 2010, was second behind that of Yomiuri Shimbun, the company has its registered headquarters in Osaka. When Shin-ichi Hakojima was CEO, they tied up with the International Herald Tribune and published an English-language newspaper and it continued from April 2001 until February 2011. It replaced Asahis previous English-language daily, the Asahi Evening News, in 2010, this partnership was dissolved due to unprofitability and the Asahi Shimbun now operates the Asia & Japan Watch online portal for English readers. The Tribune cooperates with Asahi on Aera English, a magazine for English learners. The three founding officers of a staff of twenty were Kimura Noboru, Murayama Ryōhei, and Tsuda Tei, the companys first premises were at Minami-dōri, Edobori in Osaka. On 13 September of the year, Asahi printed its first editorial.
In 1881, the Asahi adopted a format, and enlisted Ueno Riichi as co-owner. From 1882, Asahi began to receive support from the Government and Mitsui. Then, under the leadership of Ueno, whose brother was one of the Mitsui managers, and Murayama, on 10 July 1888, the first issue of the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun was published from the Tokyo office at Motosukiyachō, Kyōbashi. The first issue was numbered No.1,076 as it was a continuation of three papers, Jiyū no Tomoshibi, Tomoshibi Shimbun and Mesamashi Shimbun. On 1 April 1907, the renowned writer Natsume Sōseki, 41, resigned his positions at Tokyo Imperial University, now Tokyo University. This was soon after the publication of his novels Wagahai wa neko de aru and Botchan, on 1 October 1908, Osaka Asahi Shimbun and Tokyo Asahi Shimbun were merged into a single unified corporation, Asahi Shimbun Gōshi Kaisha, with a capitalization of approximately 600,000 yen. Indeed, the liberal position led to its vandalization during the February 26 Incident of 1936.
Influential editorial writers of Asahi such as Shintarō Ryū, Hiroo Sassa, and Hotsumi Ozaki were the members of the Shōwa Kenkyūkai. Ogata was one of the members of the Genyōsha which had been formed in 1881 by Tōyama Mitsuru. The Genyōsha was an ultranationalist group of organized crime figures and those with far right-wing political beliefs, kōki Hirota, who was hanged as a Class A war criminal, was a leading member of the Genyōsha and one of Ogatas best friends. Hirota was the chairman of Tōyamas funeral committee, and Ogata was the vice-chairman, Ryū, who had been a Marxist economist of the Ōhara Institute for Social Research before he entered Asahi, advocated centrally planned economies in his Nihon Keizai no Saihensei
Letter to the editor
A letter to the editor is a letter sent to a publication about issues of concern from its readers. Usually, letters are intended for publication, in many publications, letters to the editor may be sent either through conventional mail or electronic mail. Letters to the editor are most frequently associated with newspapers and newsmagazines, they are sometimes published in other periodicals, and radio and television stations. In the latter instance, letters are read on the air. In that presentation form, it can be described as viewer mail or listener mail, in academic publishing, letters to the editor of an academic journal are usually open postpublication reviews of a paper, often critical of some aspect of the original paper. The authors of the original paper sometimes respond to these with a letter of their own, controversial papers in mainstream journals often attract numerous letters to the editor. Good citation indexing services list the original papers together with all replies, depending on the length of the letter and the journals style, other types of headings may be used, such as peer commentary.
There are some variations on this practice, some journals request open commentaries as a matter of course, which are published together with the original paper, and any authors reply, in a process called open peer commentary. The subject matter of letters to the editor vary widely, the most common topics include, Supporting or opposing a stance taken by the publication in its editorial, or responding to another writers letter to the editor. Commenting on a current issue being debated by a governing body – local, regional or national depending on the publications circulation, the writer will urge elected officials to make their decision based on his/her viewpoint. Remarking on materials that have appeared in a previous edition, such letters may either be critical or praising. Correcting a perceived error or misrepresentation, LTEs always have been a feature of American newspapers. Through the 19th century, LTEs were increasingly centralized near the editorials of newspapers, modern LTE forums differ little from those earlier counterparts. A typical forum will include a half-dozen to a dozen letters, the latter criterion is a fairly recent development in LTE management.
Prior to the Cold War paranoia of the century, anonymous LTEs were common, in fact. By the 1970s, editors had developed strong negative attitudes toward anonymous letters, although primarily considered a function of print publications, LTEs are present in electronic media. In broadcast journalism, LTEs have always been a feature of 60 Minutes. LTEs are widespread on the Internet in various forms, by the early 21st century, the Internet had become a delivery system for many LTEs via e-mail and news Web sites
A newspaper is a serial publication containing news about current events, other informative articles about politics, arts, and so on, and advertising. A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers. As of 2017, most newspapers are now published online as well as in print, the online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly, News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news, typically the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Papers include articles which have no byline, these articles are written by staff writers, a wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. As of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies, most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue.
Some newspapers are government-run or at least government-funded, their reliance on advertising revenue, the editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high quality. This is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world, circa 2005, there were approximately 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day. Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7, plunged during the financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more specifically, journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles from online newspapers.
Increasing paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects, the oldest newspaper still published is the Gazzetta di Mantova, which was established in Mantua in 1664. While online newspapers have increased access to newspapers by people with Internet access, literacy is a factor which prevents people who cannot read from being able to benefit from reading newspapers. Periodicity, They are published at intervals, typically daily or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on newly-emerging news stories or events, Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule allows
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
The Yomiuri Shimbun is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka and other major Japanese cities. It is part of the Yomiuri Group, Japans largest media conglomerate and it is one of the five national newspapers in Japan, the other four are the Asahi Shimbun, the Mainichi Shimbun, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, and the Sankei Shimbun. The headquarters is in Otemachi, Tokyo, founded in 1874, the Yomiuri Shimbun is credited with having the largest newspaper circulation in the world, having a combined morning and evening circulation of 14,323,781 through January 2002. In 2010, the daily was the one in the list of the worlds biggest selling newspapers with a circulation of 10,021,000. As of mid-year 2011, it still had a combined morning-evening circulation of almost 13.5 million for its national edition, the paper is printed twice a day and in several different local editions. Yomiuri Shimbun established the Yomiuri Prize in 1948 and its winners have included Yukio Mishima and Haruki Murakami. The Yomiuri was launched in 1874 by the Nisshusha newspaper company as a daily newspaper.
Throughout the 1880s and 1890s the paper came to be known as a literary publication with its regular inclusion of work by writers such as Ozaki Kōyō. In 1924, Shoriki Matsutaro took over management of the company and his innovations included improved news coverage, a full-page radio program guide, and the establishment of Japans first professional baseball team. The emphasis of the paper shifted to news coverage aimed at readers in the Tokyo area. By 1941 it had the largest circulation of any newspaper in the Tokyo area. In 1942, under conditions, it merged with the Hochi Shimbun. The Yomiuri was the center of a scandal in 1945 and 1946. In October,1945, a postwar democratization group called for the removal of Shoriki Matsutaro, when Shoriki responded by firing five of the leading figures of this group, the writers and editors performed the first production control strike on October 27,1945. This method of striking became an important union tactic in the coal, the Yomiuri employees continued to produce the paper without heeding executive orders until a police raid on June 21,1946.
It features the Jinsei Annai advice column, the Yomiuri has a history of promoting nuclear power within Japan. During the 1950s Matsutaro Shoriki, the head of the Yomiuri and it wrote Kan should seriously reflect on the way he made his request. It followed up with an article wondering about how dangerous Hamaoka really was, the next day damage to the pipes inside the condenser was discovered at one of the plants following a leak of seawater into the reactor
Responsive web design
Responsive web design is an approach to web design aimed at allowing desktop webpages to be viewed in response to the size of the screen or web browser one is viewing with. In addition its important to understand that Responsive Web Design tasks include offering the same support to a variety of devices for a single website, as mentioned by the Nielsen Norman Group, content and performance are necessary across all devices to ensure usability and satisfaction. Flexible images are sized in relative units, so as to prevent them from displaying outside their containing element. Media queries allow the page to use different CSS style rules based on characteristics of the device the site is being displayed on, Responsive web design has become more important as the amount of mobile traffic now accounts for more than half of total internet traffic. Therefore, Google announced Mobilegeddon and started to boost the ratings of sites that are mobile friendly if the search was made from a mobile device, Responsive web design is an example of user interface plasticity.
Different landing page URLs can be used for different platforms, or Ajax can be used to display different advertisement variants on a page, CSS tables permit hybrid fixed+fluid layouts. There are now many ways of validating and testing RWD designs, ranging from mobile site validators, the Chrome and Safari browsers and the Chrome console offer responsive design viewport resizing tools, as do third parties. Use cases of RWD will now expand further with increased usage, according to Statista. Limited browser capabilities meant that for Internet Explorer, the layout could adapt dynamically in the browser whereas for Netscape, cameron Adams created a demonstration in 2004 that is still online. By 2008, a number of related terms such as flexible, fluid, cSS3 media queries were almost ready for prime time in late 2008/early 2009. Ethan Marcotte coined the term web design —and defined it to mean fluid grid/ flexible images/ media queries—in a May 2010 article in A List Apart. He described the theory and practice of responsive web design in his brief 2011 book titled Responsive Web Design, Responsive design was listed as #2 in Top Web Design Trends for 2012 by. net magazine after progressive enhancement at #1.
Mashable called 2013 the Year of Responsive Web Design, many other sources have recommended responsive design as a cost-effective alternative to mobile applications
Hitoshi Ashida was a Japanese politician who served as the 47th Prime Minister of Japan from 10 March to 15 October 1948. He was a prominent figure in the postwar political landscape. Ashida was born in Fukuchiyama and studied French civil law at Tokyo Imperial University, after graduation, he worked in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for twenty years. In 1932, Ashida ran his first successful campaign for a seat in the House of Representatives as a member of the Seiyūkai Party and he sided with Ichirō Hatoyamas orthodox wing following the Seiyukais split in 1939. After the war, Ashida won a seat in the new Diet as a member of the Liberal Party, Ashida became prime minister in 1948, leading a coalition government of Democratic and Socialist members. His tenure ended just seven months after it began, two of his cabinet ministers were accused of corruption in the Showa Electric scandal, which forced the cabinet to resign. Ten years later, in 1958, Ashida was cleared of all charges in relation to the incident and he died a year at the age of seventy-one.
Media related to Hitoshi Ashida at Wikimedia Commons
An editorial, leading article or leader, is an often-unsigned opinion piece written by the senior editorial staff or publisher of a newspaper, magazine, or any other written document. Editorials may be supposed to reflect the opinion of the periodical and major United States newspapers, such as The New York Times and The Boston Globe, often classify editorials under the heading opinion. Illustrated editorials may appear in the form of editorial cartoons, typically, a newspapers editorial board evaluates which issues are important for their readership to know the newspapers opinion. However, a newspaper may choose to publish an editorial on the front page, in the English-language press this occurs rarely and only on topics considered especially important, it is more common, however, in some European countries such as Spain and France
Edward George Seidensticker was a noted post-World War II scholar and preeminent translator of classical and contemporary Japanese literature. His English translation of the epic The Tale of Genji, published in 1976, was well received critically and is counted among the preferred modern translations. Seidensticker is closely associated with the work of three major 20th Century Japanese writers—Yasunari Kawabata, Junichirō Tanizaki, and Yukio Mishima. His landmark translations of the novels of Yasunari Kawabata, in particular Snow County and Thousand Cranes, led, in part, Seidensticker was born in 1921 on an isolated farmstead near Castle Rock, Colorado. His father, named Edward G. Seidensticker, was the owner of a modest ranch which struggled financially during the 1920s and early 1930s, his mother, Seidensticker was raised Catholic and is of German and Irish heritage. By high school, cognizant that he was neither athletic nor mechanically adept, he began to slip away during spare time to read Dickens and Thackeray and he found Tolstoy most to his liking, the works of Mark Twain, the least.
He was only one of two in his class at Douglas County High School to go off to college, the other being his older brother William. Seidensticker desired to attend an East Coast university, but because of his familys financial situation, he grudgingly enrolled in the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was assumed he would study law, following in the footsteps of his grandfather and several uncles, but he chose the field of economics switched to English, in June 1942, he graduated with a degree in English. As the 1940s unfolded, the U. S. Navy began to expand its Japanese Language School, after the attack on Pearl Harbor, an invitation was issued to shift the school to the University of Colorado. By the middle of 1942, the school had completed its move to Colorado, among those who came east to Boulder with the program was student Donald Keene. Seidensticker, who had been seeking a way to manage through the war without being drafted and he traveled to Washington, D. C. for a school-admittance interview, the first time he had been east of the Chicago, and was accepted.
Upon completion of the 14-month intensive program, he was able to read a Japanese language newspaper, the Boulder Boys, whom the men who attended the language school were fondly called, were given the choice of becoming officers in the navy or Marine Corps. Seidensticker selected the Marines due to an abundance of boyish romanticism, Seidensticker received basic training with the Marines in North Carolina, after which he was shifted to Camp Pendleton on the West Coast. It was in California that he first encountered Japanese prisoners of war, late in 1944 he and his language-officer colleagues were transferred to the Hawaiian Islands and Pearl Harbor. They were given duties to translate captured documents and to prisoners of war. In February 1945, Seidensticker was boarded on a bound for Iwo Jima. He was not among the first waves of troops to land during the battle, by the gunfire had ceased as the Japanese had retreated north to bunkers and caves
The New York Times International Edition
From 1967 to 2013, the paper was known as the International Herald Tribune, and was renamed The International New York Times on October 15,2013. In October 2016, the newspaper was integrated with its parent. Autumn that year saw the closing of editing and preproduction operations in the Paris newsroom. The Paris Herald was founded on 4 October 1887, as the European edition of the New York Herald by the parent paper’s owner, James Gordon Bennett, the company was based in Neuilly-sur-Seine, a suburb of Paris, France. After the death of Bennett in 1918, Frank Andrew Munsey bought the New York Herald, Munsey sold the Herald newspapers in 1924 to the New York Tribune, and the Paris Herald became the Paris Herald Tribune, while the New York paper became New York Herald Tribune. The newspaper became a mainstay of American expatriate culture in Europe, in Jean-Luc Godard’s 1960 film Breathless, the female lead character Patricia is an American student journalist who sells the New York Herald Tribune on the streets of Paris.
Pages from the paper can be seen tacked up through the office windows. In 1959 John Hay Whitney, a businessman and United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom, bought the New York Herald Tribune and its European edition. In 1966 the New York Herald Tribune was merged into the short-lived New York World Journal Tribune and ceased publication, in December 1966 The Washington Post became a joint owner. The New York Times became a joint owner of the Paris Herald Tribune in May 1967, in 1974, the IHT began transmitting facsimile pages of the paper between nations and opened a printing site near London. In 1977 the paper opened a site in Zürich. The IHT began transmitting electronic images of pages from Paris to Hong Kong via satellite in 1980. This was the first such intercontinental transmission of an English-language daily newspaper, in 1991, The Washington Post and The New York Times became sole and equal shareholders of the IHT. In February 2005 it opened its Asia newsroom in Hong Kong, in April 2001, the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun tied up with the IHT and published an English-language newspaper, the International Herald Tribune/Asahi Shimbun.
After The Washington Post sold their stake in the IHT, it continued being published under the name International Herald Tribune/Asahi Shimbun, on 30 December 2002 The New York Times Company took control of the paper by buying the 50% stake owned by The Washington Post Company. The takeover ended a 35-year partnership between the two US domestic competitors, the Post was forced to sell when the Times threatened to pull out and start a competing paper. As a result, the Post entered into an agreement to publish selected Post articles in The Wall Street Journal’s European edition, after the takeover the IHT was subtitled The Global Edition of the New York Times. In 2008, the NYT Company announced the merger of the New York Times, in March 2009 the IHT website became the global version of NYTimes. com
Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II. The name comfort women is a translation of the Japanese ianfu, a euphemism for prostitute. Estimates vary as to how women were involved, with numbers ranging from as low as 20,000 to as high as 360,000 to 410,000. Most of the women were from occupied countries, including Korea, although women were used for military comfort stations from Burma, Vietnam, Taiwan, East Timor, and other Japanese-occupied territories. Stations were located in Japan, the Philippines, Malaya, Burma, New Guinea, Hong Kong, Macau, a smaller number of women of European origin were involved from the Netherlands and Australia. According to testimonies, young women were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule, in many cases, women were lured with promises of work in factories or restaurants, once recruited, they were incarcerated in comfort stations both inside their nations and abroad.
Since prostitution in Japan was well-organized and open, the Japanese government, the Japanese Army established the comfort stations to prevent venereal diseases and rape by Japanese soldiers, to provide comfort to soldiers and head off espionage. According to Japanese historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi, the stations did not solve. Yoshimi has asserted, The Japanese Imperial Army feared most that the simmering discontentment of the soldiers could explode into a riot and that is why it provided women. The first comfort station was established in the Japanese concession in Shanghai in 1932, earlier comfort women were Japanese prostitutes who volunteered for such service. Many women responded to calls for work as factory workers or nurses, in the early stages of the war, Japanese authorities recruited prostitutes through conventional means. In urban areas, conventional advertising through middlemen was used alongside kidnapping, middlemen advertised in newspapers circulating in Japan and the Japanese colonies of Korea, Taiwan and China.
These sources soon dried up, especially from Japan, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs resisted further issuance of travel visas for Japanese prostitutes, feeling it tarnished the image of the Japanese Empire. The military turned to acquiring comfort women outside mainland Japan, mostly from Korea, many women were tricked or defrauded into joining the military brothels. The Japanese forced Hui Muslim girls in China to serve as sex slaves by setting up the Huimin Girls school, the military often directly demanded that local leaders procure women for the brothels along the front lines, especially in the countryside where middlemen were rare. When the locals were considered hostile, Japanese soldiers carried out the Three Alls Policy which included kidnapping and raping local civilians. Many girls enlisted for duty on the basis of these false representations. Only some of these girls who had paid their debt were allowed to return to Korea and these documents were initially made public at the war crimes trial