The Jazz Singer is a 1927 American musical drama film directed by Alan Crosland. It is the first feature-length motion picture with not only a synchronized recorded music score but lip-synchronous singing and speech in several isolated sequences, its release ended the silent film era. It was produced by Warner Bros. with its Vitaphone sound-on-disc system. The film features six songs performed by Al Jolson, it is based on the play of the same name by Samson Raphaelson, which itself was adapted from one of his short stories titled "The Day of Atonement". The film depicts the fictional story of Jakie Rabinowitz, a young man who defies the traditions of his devout Jewish family. After singing popular tunes in a beer garden, he is punished by his father, a hazzan, prompting Jakie to run away from home; some years now calling himself Jack Robin, he has become a talented jazz singer. He attempts to build a career as an entertainer, but his professional ambitions come into conflict with the demands of his home and heritage.
Darryl F. Zanuck won an Honorary Academy Award for producing the film. In 1996, The Jazz Singer was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry of "culturally or aesthetically significant" motion pictures. In 1998, the film was chosen in voting conducted by the American Film Institute as one of the best American films of all time, ranking at number ninety. Cantor Rabinowitz wants his son to carry on the generations-old family tradition and become a cantor at the synagogue in the Jewish ghetto of Manhattan's Lower East Side. But, down at the beer garden, thirteen-year-old Jakie Rabinowitz is performing so-called jazz tunes. Moisha Yudelson tells Jakie's father, who drags him home. Jakie clings to his mother, Sara, as his father declares, "I'll teach him better than to debase the voice God gave him!" Jakie threatens: "If you whip me again, I'll run away—and never come back!" After the whipping, Jakie kisses his mother goodbye and, runs away. At the Yom Kippur service, Rabinowitz mournfully tells a fellow celebrant, "My son was to stand at my side and sing tonight—but now I have no son."
As the sacred Kol Nidre is sung, Jakie sneaks back home to retrieve a picture of his loving mother. About 10 years Jakie has changed his name to the more assimilated Jack Robin. Jack is called up from his table at a cabaret to perform on stage. Jack wows the crowd with his energized rendition. Afterward, he is introduced to the beautiful a musical theater dancer. "There are lots of jazz singers, but you have a tear in your voice," she says, offering to help with his budding career. With her help, Jack gets his big break: a leading part in the new musical April Follies. Back at the family home Jack left long ago, the elder Rabinowitz instructs a young student in the traditional cantorial art. Jack appears and tries to explain his point of view, his love of modern music, but the appalled cantor banishes him: "I never want to see you again—you jazz singer!" As he leaves, Jack makes a prediction: "I came home with a heart full of love, but you don't want to understand. Some day you'll understand, the same as Mama does."
Two weeks after Jack's expulsion from the family home and 24 hours before opening night of April Follies on Broadway, Jack's father falls gravely ill. Jack is asked to choose between the show and duty to his family and faith: in order to sing the Kol Nidre for Yom Kippur in his father's place, he will have to miss the big premiere; that evening, the eve of Yom Kippur, Yudleson tells the Jewish elders, "For the first time, we have no Cantor on the Day of Atonement." Lying in his bed and gaunt, Cantor Rabinowitz tells Sara that he cannot perform on the most sacred of holy days: "My son came to me in my dreams—he sang Kol Nidre so beautifully. If he would only sing like that tonight—surely he would be forgiven." As Jack prepares for a dress rehearsal by applying blackface makeup, he and Mary discuss his career aspirations and the family pressures they agree he must resist. Sara and Yudleson come to Jack's dressing room to plea for him to come to his father and sing in his stead. Jack is torn, he delivers his blackface performance, Sara sees her son on stage for the first time.
She has a tearful revelation: "Here he belongs. If God wanted him in His house, He would have kept him there. He's not my boy anymore—he belongs to the whole world now." Afterward, Jack returns to the Rabinowitz home. He kneels at his father's bedside and the two converse fondly: "My son—I love you." Sara suggests. Mary arrives with the producer, who warns Jack that he'll never work on Broadway again if he fails to appear on opening night. Jack can't decide. Mary challenges him: "Were you lying when you said your career came before everything?" Jack is unsure if he can replace his father: "I haven't sung Kol Nidre since I was a little boy." His mother tells him, "Do what is in your heart, Jakie—if you sing and God is not in your voice—your father will know." The producer cajoles Jack: "You're a jazz singer at heart!" At the theater, the opening night audience is told. Jack sings the Kol Nidre in his father's place, his father listens from his deathbed to the nearby ceremony and speaks his last, forgiving words: "Mama, we have our son again."
The spirit of Jack's father is shown at his side in the synagogue. Mary has come to listen, she sees how Jack has reconciled the division in his soul: "a jazz singer—singing to his God." "The season passes—and time heals—the show goes on." Jack, as
Late preterm infants are infants born at a gestational age between 34 0⁄7 weeks and 36 6⁄7 weeks. They have higher morbidity and mortality rates than term infants due to their relative physiologic and metabolic immaturity though they are the size and weight of some term infants. "Late preterm" has replaced "near term" to describe this group of infants, since near term incorrectly implies that these infants are "almost term" and only require routine neonatal care. In 2005, late-preterm births accounted for more than 70% of all preterm births, or 377,000 infants. In fact, much of the increase in the preterm birth rate in recent years can be attributed to increases in late-preterm births. Several important factors that may predispose late-preterm infants to medical conditions associated with immaturity: respiratory distress apnea temperature instability hypoglycemia hyperbilirubinemia poor feedingAt 34–35 weeks, the brain weight is only about 2⁄3 that of a full-term baby; this may lead to an increased risk of: Mental retardation Developmental delay/disability Special needs – education Retention in kindergarten Cerebral palsy Late preterm infants have immature gastrointestinal function and feeding difficulties that predispose them to in increase in enterohepatic circulation, decreased stool frequency and hyperbilirubinemia.
Feeding during the birth hospitalization may be transiently successful, but not sustained after discharge. Feeding difficulties are associated with low oromotor tone and neural maturation predispose these infants to dehydration and hyperbilirubinemia. Late Preterm Infants have an increased risk of being underweight and stunted at 12 and 24 months of age versus term infants. Proper nutrition is essential for normal growth, optimal neurologic and cognitive development, immune protection, long term health; the last trimester of pregnancy the fetus is expressing active amino acid transport, lipid transfer, glucose facilitated diffusion. Delivery of the premature infant requires higher energy expenditure, but with inadequate intake the infant will have negative nitrogen balance. There are higher needs for Calcium and Vitamin D. For every 10 kcal/kg increase in energy intake in the first week of life, there is a 4.6 points increase in MDI at 18 months. For every 1 g/kg increase in protein intake in the first week of life, 8.2 point increase in MDI at 18 months.
Small mouth and immature oral muscle Weak suck and poor latch Easily tire with feeding Maternal delayed milk production Factors such as hemodynamic stability, severe IUGR, abdominal exam, whether feeding cues are present, stable glucose could all effect the timing of nutrition. Some preterm infants will be NPO. If infants are unable to start oral or enteral intake intravenous fluids may begin with amino acids or total parenteral nutrition. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics section on breastfeeding recommendations are all infants should receive human milk. Use caution. Center for Disease Control recommends that sterile formulas and fortifiers be used when mom is not available. Powdered formula and HMF may be contaminants. Start with the mom's diet during breastfeeding. Mom should be eating adequate calories, protein, B vitamins and DHA. Colostrum production can range from 26-56 mL the first day to 113-185 mL for day two. Although colostrum production is not voluminous, it can still meet the needs of the newborn.
Not to be confused with combined sewer overflow Sanitary sewer overflow is a condition in which untreated sewage is discharged from a sanitary sewer into the environment prior to reaching sewage treatment facilities. When caused by rainfall it is known as wet weather overflow, it is meaningful in developed countries, which have extensive treatment facilities. Frequent causes of SSO spills include: Blockage of sewer lines Infiltration/Inflow of excessive stormwater into sewer lines during heavy rainfall Malfunction of pumping station lifts or electrical power failure Broken sewer lines. SSOs can cause gastrointestinal illnesses, beach closures and restrictions on fish and shellfish consumption. Developed countries such as the United States, most Western European nations, Singapore, South Korea and Japan are struggling with public health problems of SSO prevention; the magnitude of the problem is much greater in most developing countries. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that at least 23,000 to 75,000 SSO events occur in the United States each year.
EPA estimated that upgrading every municipal treatment and collection system to reduce the frequency of overflow events to no more than once every five years would cost about $88 billion as of 2004. This cost would be in addition to $10 billion invested. Although the volume of untreated sewage discharged to the environment is less than 0.01 percent of all treated sewage in the United States, the total volume amounts to several billion gallons per annum and accounts for thousands of cases of gastrointestinal illness each year. Developed European countries and Japan have similar or somewhat larger percentages of SSO events compared to the U. S. In developing countries, most wastewater is still not treated; the People's Republic of China discharged about 55 percent of all sewage without treatment of any type, as of 2001. In a developed Middle Eastern country such as Iran, the majority of Tehran's population has untreated sewage injected to the city’s groundwater. In Venezuela, a below-average country in South America with respect to wastewater treatment, 97 percent of the country’s sewage is discharged untreated into the environment.
In many countries there are obligations to measure and report SSO occurrence using real-time telemetry to warn the public and shellfishery operators. Sewers that were built in the early stages of urbanization were built before sewage treatment was implemented. Early sewers were simple drainage systems to remove surface runoff with any waste material it might contain; these drainage systems became combined sewers when sewage from kitchens and toilets was added. Early sewage treatment plants were built to treat the sewage during dry weather. Sanitary sewers were built to keep sewage from being mixed with surface runoff so the sewage could be efficiently treated during both wet and dry weather. Decentralized failures in dry weather occur from collection sewer line blockages, which can arise from a debris clog or tree root intrusion into the line itself. Half of SSOs in the United States are caused by blockage. Grease is the blocking agent in half of U. S. SSOs attributed to blockage, solid debris is the blocking agent for another 25 percent.
Roots are a contributing factor in one-quarter of United States SSOs attributed to blockage. Grease deposits are caused by cooking fats liquified with hot water for discharge to sanitary sewers; these fats congeal as solid deposits in the cooler sewer. Solid debris includes soiled clothing and sanitary napkins flushed down the toilet rather than being put in a waste bin. One of the main problems of a decentralized line failure is the difficulty of defining the location of overflow, since a typical urban system contains thousands of miles of collection pipes, the central treatment plant has no way of communicating with all the lines, unless expensive monitoring equipment has been installed. Companies in the UK have deployed bulk dielectric transducers suspended in the sewers to detect high levels and to report the events back over fixed wireless data networks. In certain locations this practice has permitted the reduction of pollution events by up to 60 percent. Dry weather blockage is less within combined sewers.
Combined sewer storm water regulators may be vulnerable to blockage by debris, but overflow from such blockage enters the diversion outfall to avoid flooding private or public property. One-quarter of United States SSOs occur during heavy rainfall events, which can cause inflow of stormwater into sanitary sewers through damage, improper connections, or flooding buildings and lift stations in low-lying areas of the collection system; the combined flow of sewage and stormwater exceeds the capacity of the sanitary sewer system and sewage is released into homes and streets. This circumstance is most prevalent in older cities. Inflow into the sanitary lines can be caused by tree root rupture of subsurface lines or by mechanical fracture due to age and overpressure from trucks and buildings. Another mode of system failure can include power outages, which may disable lift station pumps and cause sewage overflow from the lift station wet we