The Post-Standard is a major newspaper serving the greater Syracuse, New York, metro area. Published by Advance Publications, it is one of several consumer brands of Advance Media New York; the other major brand is syracuse.com. The newspaper is published seven days a week and is home-delivered to subscribers on Tuesday and Sunday, it is available via e-edition every day. Advance Media New York's other consumer brands are NYUp.com and Central New York The Good Life Magazine. The Post-Standard was founded in 1829 as The Onondaga Standard; the first issue was published Sept. 10, 1829, after Vivus W. Smith consolidated the Onondaga Journal with the Syracuse Advertiser under The Onondaga Standard name. Through the 1800s, it was known variously as The Weekly Standard, The Daily Standard and The Syracuse Standard. On July 10, 1894, The Syracuse Post was first published. On Dec. 26, 1898, the owners of The Daily Standard and The Syracuse Post merged to form The Post-Standard. The first issue of the newly merged paper was published Jan.
1, 1899. The merged company was based at 136 E. Genesee St. in Syracuse. By 1900, Syracuse had a population of 135,000 and the publication had a "sworn circulation" of 17,575 daily, 12,571 semi-weekly and 15,195 on Sunday, it was touted as "a clean, aggressive, up-to-date newspaper." The newspaper bragged that "The Post-Standard has a larger circulation than any other daily paper between Greater New York and Rochester."On July 23, 1939, publisher Samuel I. Newhouse entered the Syracuse market, buying Syracuse's two evening papers, the Syracuse Herald and the Syracuse Journal, merging them into the Syracuse Herald-Journal, he launched a Sunday paper, the Herald American. In 1944, Newhouse bought The Post-Standard; the news and editorial departments of the newspapers operated independently from each other for decades. The Post-Standard was published in the morning, the Herald-Journal in the afternoon, the Herald American on Sundays; until 1971, when a new building on Clinton Square opened, the newspapers were published in separate locations.
The newspapers became known collectively as The Syracuse Newspapers. By the turn of the century, it became apparent; the Herald-Journal closed in September 2001, was merged into The Post-Standard. The newspaper company was an early adopter of digital media; the company launched digital audio services delivered via telephone in the early 1990s under the direction of John Mariani and Stan Linhorst. The company, under Director of New Media Stan Linhorst, started Syracuse.com in November 1994. The newspaper collaborated with Syracuse University's iSchool on the launch. At first, the website was branded Syracuse OnLine and until the summer of 1995 operated on a server hosted at syr.edu. Few newspapers were establishing websites back then. In December 2001, the newspaper began printing on a new offset lithography press made in Switzerland by Wifag; the 750-ton five-story press allowed for color on just about every page, the newspaper soon began using the front-page motto, America’s Most Colorful Paper.
The press is housed in a 45,000-square-foot, glass-enclosed "press hall" constructed at the back of the newspaper building. The Wifag press replaced a 33-year-old machine using the letterpress technique; the new press and building expansion cost $39.5 million. The newspaper remains owned by the Newhouse family's Advance Publications. Advance publishes the Staten Island Advance, The Star-Ledger and The Jersey Journal in New Jersey,The Times-Picayune in New Orleans, The Oregonian in Portland, The Plain Dealer in Cleveland; the Newhouse family owns Conde Nast magazines. In 2012, following a path used in its other markets and continuing its digital pioneering, established a new business structure and company, Syracuse Media Group, to emphasize its digital future; the news/editorial and marketing staffs were incorporated into that company. Their offices moved to 220 S. Warren St. Syracuse. Support services for The Post-Standard, including the press and press staff, remain in the Clinton Square building at 101 N. Salina St. Syracuse.
In 2015, the Syracuse Media Group name changed to Advance Media New York, reflecting the company's wider geographic ambition. The news staff, equipped with mobile devices and photograph for the company's digital media. A separate staff of curators chooses content to be published in print; the move from the Clinton Square building, where The Post-Standard presses still operate, emphasized the digital mission of the new company. News coverage is overseen by Director of Content John Lammers. Advertising and marketing are overseen by Michele Sardinia, vice president of digital solutions, William Allison, vice president of sales, Annette Peters, marketing director. Circulation and customer service are overseen by Thomas Brown; the circulation of The Post-Standard in the first quarter of 2015 was 120,363 on Sunday, 71,101 on its home-delivered days, an average of 33,000 on its non-delivery days. Sean Kirst is a featured news columnist and Bud Poliquin is a featured sports columnist. Kirst was the winner of the 2008 Ernie Pyle Journalism Award for human interest writing, given by the Scripps Howard Foundation to the newspaper writer nationwide who most exemplifies the works of Pyle, a famed World War II correspondent.
Marie Morelli is Editorial Opinions Leader. Others on the editorial board include Chairman Stephen A. Rogers, President Tim Kennedy, Dir
Staten Island Advance
The Staten Island Advance is a daily newspaper published in the borough of Staten Island in New York City. The only daily newspaper published in the borough, the only borough to have its own major daily paper, it covers news of local and community interest, including borough politics; as of April 25, 2007, Monday-Friday circulation was down 3.9% from the previous year, to 59,461. Sunday dropped 4.6% to 73,203. It is the namesake and nominal flagship publication of Advance Publications; the Advance was created in 1886 by printer John J. Crawford and businessman James C. Kennedy as the Richmond County Advance; the name was changed to the Daily Advance. When the Advance began, there were nine competing daily newspapers in Staten Island; the circulation of the Advance surpassed these early competitors. Its circulation grew from 4,500 in 1910 to over 80,000 by the mid 1990s. In 1908, Samuel Irving Newhouse Sr. started working for New Jersey Democratic machine politician, Bayonne Times newspaper owner, Judge Hyman Lazarus's law office as an office-boy and rent-collector.
By the time Samuel Newhouse Sr. was 21 in 1916, his boss, Judge Lazarus rewarded him with a salary of around $30,000 per year, 25 percent ownership of the Bayonne Times, for loyal service. Newhouse purchased the Staten Island Advance with Judge Lazarus in 1922; this was one of the first newspapers. When Lazarus died in 1924, Newhouse bought his family's share of Staten Island Advance stock. During the 1920s, the Newhouse family loaned money to Henry Garfinkle, which enabled him to open newsstands that increased sales of the Newhouse family's Staten Island Advance at the St. George Ferry Terminal on Staten Island, opened newsstands throughout Manhattan, as well as LaGuardia Airport, Newark Airport, the Port Authority Bus Terminal. During the Great Depression in the 1930s, the Newhouse family had enough money to buy the Long Island Press in Jamaica and competitors Long Island Star, North Shore Journal and Nassau Journal, as well as the Newark Ledger, the Newark Star and newspapers in Syracuse.
The Newhouse family paid its non-unionized newsroom employees at the Long Island Press, one third less than the unionized New York Times and New York Daily News paid its reporters for similar work in the 1930s. Newhouse paid himself a salary greater than the total of all the salaries paid to the 65 newsroom employees there; the Newhouse family purchased newspapers in Syracuse, Jersey City and Harrisburg in the 1940s, in St. Louis and Alabama in the 1950s; some began to wonder. The Newhouse family's wealth approached $200 million in the late 1950s, enabling it to purchase Vogue and other Conde Nast magazines. Author Richard Meeker describes the mounting suspicions about the Newhouse family's source of wealth in "Newspaperman: S. I. Newhouse And The Business Of News": "Newspaper analysts were so suspicious of the source of Newhouse's funds that they discussed the possibility that he was laundering money... Some went so far as to suggest that his newspaper operations had been used as a front for the notorious Reinfeld mob, a group of booze-peddling hoodlums whose boss had made millions during prohibition."
One way the Newhouse family was able to accumulate so much money so during the 20th century was by hiring accountants and lawyers who figured out unique ways for the Newhouse dynasty to avoid paying a fair share of taxes on their growing family wealth. As Newspaperman reported: "‘They played every tax game there was’, recalled one man who once served as publisher for several Newhouse newspapers; that meant that every cost that could conceivably be written off as a business deduction was, that assets were depreciated as as possible, that new acquisitions were ‘written up’ as high as the law allowed... Where Newhouse developed a special advantage was in the way he avoided paying taxes for the profits that remained to him after the payment of corporate taxes... "Thanks to an ingenious device created by his accountant, Louis Glickman, implemented by his attorney, Charles Goldman, Newhouse was able to avoid paying taxes on accumulated earnings and, thus, to multiply the value of his earnings several times.
Doing so involved the creation of a special corporate structure for the various newspapers... Because the Goldman-Glickman construct kept the various enterprises separate--for tax purposes at least--each could claim the right to its own surplus. Taken together, the accumulation that resulted was many times what the IRS would have allowed had Newhouse treated all of his operations as a single corporation." Meeker characterized the Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation as "a charity his Samuel Irving Newhouse Sr.'s lawyers had created as an additional tax dodge", charged that Newhouse Foundation funds were used by the Newhouse family to finance its $18 million purchase of Alabama's Birmingham News in 1955. After Samuel Newhouse Sr. died in 1979, his two sons, Samuel Irving Newhouse Jr. and Donald Newhouse, were accused of tax evasion by the IRS in 1983. While the IRS dropped tax fraud charges against them in the 1980s, it increased the Newhouse family tax delinquency bill to $1.2 billion, asserting that the Newhouse estate was worth $2.2 billion—not $1.2 billion—when Samuel Newhouse Sr. died in 1979, according to the March 13, 1989 issue of The Nation.
One year after Newhouse's death in 1979, the Advance Group purchased Random House, but sold it to Bertelsmann in 1998. The original office of the Staten Island Advance was located on Castleton Avenue in the West Brighton neighborhood. In 1960, the paper moved to the current office on West Fingerboard Road in Grasmere; this is also
The Republican (Springfield, Massachusetts)
The Republican is a newspaper based in Springfield, Massachusetts covering news in the Greater Springfield area, as well as national news and pieces from Boston and northern Connecticut. It is owned by a division of Advance Publications. During the 19th century the paper played a key role in the United States Republican Party's founding, Charles Dow's career, the invention of the honorific "Ms." Despite the decline of printed media, The Republican was the 69th largest newspaper in 2017 with a circulation of 76,353, has seen marked growth in its digital platform affiliate MassLive, with a record 4.7 million unique views in August 2017. Established by Samuel Bowles II in 1824 as a rural weekly, it was converted into a daily in 1844. From the beginning it had a focus on local news; as as possible its news-gathering was extended until within a few years its columns contained departments of items from every town and hamlet along the Connecticut Valley, as well as from Springfield. It achieved national renown in the 19th century under the tenure of Samuel Bowles III, a legacy, passed to his son, Samuel Bowles IV.
In 1855, Bowles III called for the founding of a new party. He suggested the name "Republican". Once abolitionists founded a party by this name, The Republican became one if its most unrelenting supporters. Bowles III believed that the newspaper should be a power in the moral and literary, as well as the political life of the community, he tried to make his paper fulfill those functions. With the aid of J. G. Holland and others who joined the staff the paper attained excellent literary quality and a high moral tone, its opinions soon reached all New England, after the formation of the Republican party they extended far beyond the limits of any section. During the controversies affecting slavery and resulting in the American Civil War, Bowles supported, in general, the Whig and Republican parties, but in the period of Reconstruction under President Ulysses S. Grant, his paper represented anti-administration or Liberal Republican opinions, while in the disputed election of 1876 it favored the claims of Samuel J. Tilden, subsequently became independent in politics.
Its editorial board endorsed the Democratic candidate for president in every modern election except the 2008 election, in which it endorsed John McCain, but subsequently endorsed Barack Obama in the 2012 election. During Bowles' lifetime, subsequently, the Republican office was a sort of school for young journalists in the matter of pungency and conciseness of style, one of his maxims being: "put it all in the first paragraph". Bowles was an acquaintance of Emily Dickinson, he published a handful of the few poems by the poet printed in her lifetime, including "A narrow fellow in the grass" and "Safe in their alabaster chambers". Bowles was succeeded as editor-in-chief of the Republican by his son Samuel Bowles. Charles Dow, founder of Dow Jones and The Wall Street Journal, started his career as a business reporter for the Springfield Daily Republican, as an apprentice to the newspaper's then-owner, Samuel Bowles III; the title "Ms." was first suggested by an anonymous 1901 letter to The Republican.
The letter read, in part, "To call a maiden Mrs. is only a shade worse than to insult a matron with the inferior title Miss. Yet it is not always easy to know the facts... The abbreviation'Ms.' is simple, it is easy to write, the person concerned can translate it properly according to the circumstances."The second half of the 20th century saw the consolidation of Springfield's newspapers. The Republican became part of two other local papers; the Springfield Daily News and the Morning Union merged in the 1970s operating as separate papers endorsing different candidates for the same offices. The two editions were combined into The Union-News in 1988, with The Sunday Republican being published on Sundays. An organization called the Springfield Newspapers became the local division of the Newhouse family empire; the newspaper was known as The Springfield Union News & Sunday Republican. I. E. "Sy" Sanborn, longtime Chicago sportswriter and one of the original organizers of the Baseball Writers' Association of America in 1908, began his career in Springfield with the Union-News.
The newspaper reverted to its historical, pre-Union-News name of The Republican around 2001. George Arwady became publisher of The Springfield Republican on December 31, 2009. Republican Block, the newspaper's home from 1858 to 1867 History of American newspapers Parts of this article come from Cambridge History of English and American Literature in the public domain; the Republican, online editionOther publications by The RepublicanMassLive George S. Merriam and Times of Samuel Bowles V. 1 Richard Hooker, The Story of an Independent Newspaper John J. Scanlon, The Passing of the Springfield Republican
Vogue is a fashion and lifestyle magazine covering many topics including fashion, culture and runway. Vogue began as a weekly newspaper in 1892 in the United States, before becoming a monthly publication years later; the British Vogue was the first international edition launched in 1916, while the Italian version has been called the top fashion magazine in the world. As of today, there are 23 international editions. In 1892, Arthur Baldwin Turnure, an American business man, founded Vogue as a weekly newspaper in the United States, sponsored by Kristoffer Wright. Turnure's intention was to create a publication that celebrated the "ceremonial side of life". From its inception, the magazine targeted the new New York upper class. Vogue glamorously "recount their habits, their leisure activities, their social gatherings, the places they frequented, the clothing they wore...and everyone who wanted to look like them and enter their exclusive circle." The magazine at this time was concerned with fashion, with coverage of sports and social affairs included for its male readership.
Despite the magazine's content, it grew slowly during this period. Condé Montrose Nast purchased Vogue in 1905 one year before Turnure's death and grew the publication, he started Vogue overseas in the 1910s. Under Nast, the magazine soon shifted its focus to women, in turn the price was soon raised; the magazine's number of publications and profit increased under Nast's management. By 1911, the Vogue brand had garnered a reputation that it continues to maintain, targeting an elite audience and expanding into the coverage of weddings. According to Condé Nast Russia, after the First World War made deliveries in the Old World impossible, printing began in England; the decision to print in England proved to be successful causing Nast to release the first issue of French Vogue in 1920. The magazine's number of subscriptions surged during the Great Depression, again during World War II. During this time, noted critic and former Vanity Fair editor Frank Crowninshield served as its editor, having been moved over from Vanity Fair by publisher Condé Nast.
In July 1932, American Vogue placed its first color photograph on the cover of the magazine. The photograph was taken by photographer Edward Steichen and portrays a woman swimmer holding a beach ball in the air. Laird Borrelli notes that Vogue led the decline of fashion illustration in the late 1930s, when they began to replace their celebrated illustrated covers, by artists such as Dagmar Freuchen, with photographic images. Nast was responsible for introducing color printing and the "two-page spread." He impacted the magazine and turned it into a "successful business" and the "women's magazine we recognize today" and increased the sales volumes until his death in 1942. In the 1960s, with Diana Vreeland as editor-in-chief and personality, the magazine began to appeal to the youth of the sexual revolution by focusing more on contemporary fashion and editorial features that discussed sexuality. Toward this end, Vogue extended coverage to include East Village boutiques such as Limbo on St. Mark's Place, as well as including features of "downtown" personalities such as Andy Warhol's "Superstar" Jane Holzer's favorite haunts.
Vogue continued making household names out of models, a practice that continued with Suzy Parker, Jean Shrimpton, Lauren Hutton, Marisa Berenson, Penelope Tree, others. In 1973, Vogue became a monthly publication. Under editor-in-chief Grace Mirabella, the magazine underwent extensive editorial and stylistic changes to respond to changes in the lifestyles of its target audience. Mirabella states that she was chosen to change Vogue because "women weren't interested in reading about or buying clothes that served no purpose in their changing lives." She was selected to make the magazine appeal to "the free, working, "liberated" woman of the seventies. She changed the magazine by adding text with interviews, arts coverage, serious health pieces; when that type of stylistic change fell out of favor in the 1980s, Mirabella was brutally fired. Her take on it: "For a magazine devoted to style, this was not a stylish way of telling me." In July 1988, after Vogue had begun to lose ground to three-year-old upstart Elle, Anna Wintour was named editor-in-chief.
Noted for her trademark bob cut and sunglasses, Wintour sought to revitalize the brand by making it younger and more approachable. Wintour's influence allowed the magazine to maintain its high circulation, while staff discovered new trends that a broader audience could conceivably afford. For example, the inaugural cover of the magazine under Wintour's editorship featured a three-quarter-length photograph of Michaela Bercu, an Israeli model, wearing a bejeweled Christian Lacroix jacket and a pair of jeans, a departure from her predecessors' tendency to portray a woman's face alone; as fashion editor Grace Coddington wrote in her memoirs, the cover "endorsed a democratic new high/low attitude to dressing, added some youthful but sophisticated raciness, garnished it with a dash of confident energy and drive that implied getting somewhere fast. It was quintessential Anna." Throughout her reign at Vogue, Wintour accomplished her goals to revitalize the magazine and managed to produce some large editions of the magazine.
In fact, the "September 2004 edition c
Journal Square is a business district, residential area, transportation hub in Jersey City, New Jersey, which takes its name from the newspaper Jersey Journal whose headquarters were located there from 1911 to 2013. The "square" itself is at the intersection of Bergen Avenue; the broader area extends to and includes Bergen Square, McGinley Square, India Square, the Five Corners and parts of the Marion Section. Many local and federal agencies serving Hudson County maintain offices in the district. Prior to its development as a commercial district Journal Square was the site of many farmhouses and manors belonging to descendants of the original settlers of Bergen, the first chartered municipality in the state settled in 1660 and located just south at Bergen Square. In conjunction with the 1912 opening of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Summit Avenue station many were demolished to make way for modern buildings, including the still standing Labor Bank Building and the Public Service building.
The Newkirk House and Van Wagenen House remain, while the still-intact Sip Manor was moved to Westfield, New Jersey. The square was created in 1923 when the city condemned and demolished the offices of the Jersey Journal, thus creating a broad intersection with Hudson Boulevard which itself had been widened in 1908; the newspaper built the new square was named in its honor. The bridge carrying the boulevard was designed by consulting engineer Abraham Burton Cohen and completed in 1926. For most of the twentieth century Journal Square was the cultural entertainment center of Hudson County, home to the movies palaces built in the 1920s: The State, the Stanley Theater, the Loew's Jersey Theater. Karen Angel of The New York Daily News described Journal Square from the 1920s to the 1960s as "crown jewel, a glowing commercial and transportation hub of the city." The "Jersey Bounce", a hit song in the 1940s mentions Journal Square in its lyrics as the place where it got started. Two days before Election Day in 1960 John F. Kennedy made his last campaign speech before returning to New England at Journal Square.
Hudson Boulevard was named Kennedy Boulevard soon after his assassination. The Tube Bar, so-called for the Hudson Tubes was made famous by Louis "Red" Deutsch getting prank calls there; the Journal Square Transportation Center, opened between 1973-1975, includes the Journal Square PATH and bus station. And is headquarters of the Port Authority Trans-Hudson, it is attributed to have contributed to the decline of the district by moving the train-bus interchange, thus pedestrians, away from other commercial activities around the square. It is built on an elevated bridge structure above the Bergen Hill Cut, an 1834 railroad cut once used by Pennsylvania Railroad main line and Jersey City Branch and now by the PATH rapid transit system and an occasional freight train. In front of the station is a statue of Jackie Robinson who in 1946 crossed the baseball color line at Roosevelt Stadium. A statue of Christopher Columbus, the work of Jersey City native Archimedes Giacomontonio, has been located on the square since 1950.
The Stanley and the Loew's have both been restored, the first now an Assembly Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses, the latter used as a moviehouse and for other cultural events. The campus of Hudson County Community College is a collection of buildings throughout the district around the square. A few blocks to the south near McGinley Square, are Saint Peter's University, Hudson Catholic Regional High School, the Jersey City Armory. A concentration of shops operated two of the city's ethnic groups, Overseas Filipino and Indian American, can be found along Newark Avenue and near India Square to the north. Northeast of Journal Square is the county seat of Hudson County; the Hudson County Courthouse, located at 583 Newark Avenue 40°43′55″N 74°3′25″W, the adjacent Hudson County Administration Building, at 595 Newark Avenue, are home to the county's courts and a number of county agencies and departments. The Five Corners Branch of the Jersey City Public Library is sited on the intersection itself, while William L. Dickinson High School is located nearby at 2 Palisade Avenue.
Many of the buildings in Journal Square include housing stock, convenience stores and downscale franchises, that Jerremiah Healy, Mayor of Jersey City, has referred to as "ugly old eyesores." The redevelopment of Journal Square has attracted the interest of urban planners, architects and others, many who view its historical and future use as an important indicator of the contemporary understanding of how cities function. A proposed development by Kushner Real Estate Group and National Real Estate Advisors, Journal Squared, is planned as a 2,300,000 square foot 3-tower residential complex; the first phase, a 53-story tower, opened in early 2017. It sits directly adjacent to the Journal Squared PATH station as a continuation of the dense transit-oriented development that has arisen further to the east in Jersey City; the towers were designed by Hollwich Handel Architects. As of 2008 there were proposals to build a complex called 1 Journal Square which would combine rental housing, multi-story retail, parking.
Plans for the mixed-use development call for 68-story and 50-story residential towers above a 7-story retail and parking base with a rooftop terrace. While the site has been cleared, construction has not begun. Deadlines to begin construction by 2011 were not met by the developer, Mult-Employer Property TrustMEPT, in October 2011, purchased Newport Tower on the Hudson Waterfront for $377 million, a record price for an office
Jersey City, New Jersey
Jersey City is the second most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey, after Newark. It is the seat of Hudson County as well as the county's largest city; as of 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated that Jersey City's population was 270,753, with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since 2010, an increase of about 9.4% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was at 247,597. Ranking the city the 75th-most-populous in the nation. Part of the New York metropolitan area, Jersey City is bounded on the east by the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay and on the west by the Hackensack River and Newark Bay. A port of entry, with 30.7 miles of waterfront and extensive rail infrastructure and connectivity, the city is an important transportation terminus and distribution and manufacturing center for the Port of New York and New Jersey. Jersey City shares significant mass transit connections with Manhattan. Redevelopment of the Jersey City waterfront has made the city one of the largest centers of banking and finance in the United States and has led to the district being nicknamed Wall Street West.
After a peak population of 316,715 measured in the 1930 Census, the city's population saw a half-century-long decline to a nadir of 223,532 in the 1980 Census. Since the city's population has rebounded, with the 2010 population reflecting an increase of 7,542 from the 240,055 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 11,518 from the 228,537 counted in the 1990 Census; the land comprising what is now Jersey City was inhabited by a collection of tribes. In 1609, Henry Hudson, seeking an alternate route to East Asia, anchored his small vessel Halve Maen at Sandy Hook, Harsimus Cove and Weehawken Cove, elsewhere along what was named the North River. After spending nine days surveying the area and meeting its inhabitants, he sailed as far north as Albany. By 1621, the Dutch West India Company was organized to manage this new territory and in June 1623, New Netherland became a Dutch province, with headquarters in New Amsterdam. Michael Reyniersz Pauw received a land grant as patroon on the condition that he would establish a settlement of not fewer than fifty persons within four years.
He purchased the land from the Lenape. This grant is dated November 22, 1630 and is the earliest known conveyance for what are now Hoboken and Jersey City. Pauw, was an absentee landlord who neglected to populate the area and was obliged to sell his holdings back to the Company in 1633; that year, a house was built at Communipaw for Jan Evertsen Bout, superintendent of the colony, named Pavonia. Shortly after, another house was built at Harsimus Cove and became the home of Cornelius Van Vorst, who had succeeded Bout as superintendent, whose family would become influential in the development of the city. Relations with the Lenape deteriorated, in part because of the colonialist's mismanagement and misunderstanding of the indigenous people, led to series of raids and reprisals and the virtual destruction of the settlement on the west bank. During Kieft's War eighty Lenapes were killed by the Dutch in a massacre at Pavonia on the night of February 25, 1643. Scattered communities of farmsteads characterized the Dutch settlements at Pavonia: Communipaw, Paulus Hook, Hoebuck and other lands "behind Kill van Kull".
The first village established on what is now Bergen Square in 1660, is considered to be the oldest town in what would become the state of New Jersey. The flag of the city is a variation on the Prince's Flag from the Netherlands. Among the oldest surviving houses in Jersey City are the Newkirk House, the Van Vorst Farmhouse, the Van Wagenen House. During the American Revolutionary War, the area was in the hands of the British who controlled New York. In the Battle of Paulus Hook Major Light Horse Harry Lee attacked a British fortification on August 19, 1779. After this war, Alexander Hamilton and other prominent New Yorkers and New Jerseyeans attempted to develop the area that would become historic downtown Jersey City and laid out the city squares and streets that still characterize the neighborhood, giving them names seen in Lower Manhattan or after war heroes. During the 19th century, former slaves reached Jersey City on one of the four routes of the Underground Railroad that led to the city.
The City of Jersey was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 28, 1820, from portions of Bergen Township, while the area was still a part of Bergen County. The city was reincorporated on January 23, 1829, again on February 22, 1838, at which time it became independent of North Bergen and was given its present name. On February 22, 1840, it became part of the newly created Hudson County. Soon after the Civil War, the idea arose of uniting all of the towns of Hudson County east of the Hackensack River into one municipality. A bill was approved by the state legislature on April 2, 1869, with a special election to be held October 5, 1869. An element of the bill provide. While a majority of the voters across the county approved the merger, the only municipalities that had approved the consolidation plan and that adjoined Jersey City were Hudson City and Bergen City; the consolidation began on March 17, 1870, taking effect on May 3, 1870. Three years the present outline of Jersey City was completed when Greenville agreed to m
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi