The Jungle is a 1906 novel by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair. Sinclair wrote the novel to portray the harsh conditions and exploited lives of immigrants in the United States in Chicago and similar industrialized cities, his primary purpose in describing the meat industry and its working conditions was to advance socialism in the United States. However, most readers were more concerned with several passages exposing health violations and unsanitary practices in the American meat packing industry during the early 20th century, which contributed to a public outcry which led to reforms including the Meat Inspection Act. Sinclair famously said of the public reaction, "I aimed at the public's heart, by accident I hit it in the stomach." The book depicts working-class poverty, the lack of social supports and unpleasant living and working conditions, a hopelessness among many workers. These elements are contrasted with the rooted corruption of people in power. A review by the writer Jack London called it "the Uncle Tom's Cabin of wage slavery."Sinclair was considered a muckraker, or journalist who exposed corruption in government and business.
In 1904, Sinclair had spent seven weeks gathering information while working incognito in the meatpacking plants of the Chicago stockyards for the socialist newspaper Appeal to Reason. He first published the novel in serial form in 1905 in the newspaper, it was published as a book by Doubleday in 1906; the main character in the book, Jurgis Rudkus, a Lithuanian immigrant, tries to make ends meet in Chicago. The book begins with his wedding feast, he and his family live near the stockyards and meatpacking district where many immigrants, who do not know much English, work. He takes a job at Brown's slaughterhouse. Jurgis had thought the US would offer more freedom, he and his young wife struggle to survive as they fall into debt and become prey to con men. Hoping to buy a house, they exhaust their savings on the down payment for a substandard slum house, which they cannot afford; the family is evicted after their money is taken. Jurgis had expected to support his wife and other relatives, but all—the women and his sick father—seek work to survive.
As the novel progresses, the jobs and means the family use to stay alive lead to their physical and moral decay. Accidents at work and other events lead the family closer to catastrophe. Jurgis' father dies as a direct result of the unsafe work-conditions in the meatpacking plant. One of the children, dies from food poisoning. Jonas -- the other remaining adult male aside from Jurgis -- is never heard from again. An injury results in Jurgis being fired from the meatpacking plant; the family's breakdown progresses as Jurgis discovers an arrangement in which Ona has traded regular sexual favors to Phil Connor, Jurgis' boss, in exchange for being allowed to keep her job. In revenge, Jurgis attacks Connor, resulting in his imprisonment. After being released from jail, Jurgis finds, he finds them staying in a boarding house. She dies in childbirth at age 18 from blood loss. Soon after, his first child drowns in a muddy street. Jurgis takes up drinking, his brief sojourn as a hobo in the rural United States shows him that no real escape is available—farmers turn their workers away when the harvest is finished.
Jurgis holds down a succession of laboring jobs and works as a con man. He drifts without direction, he finds out that Marija, Ona's cousin, had become a prostitute to support the family and is now addicted to morphine. One night Jurgis wanders into a lecture being given by a socialist orator, where he finds community and purpose. After a fellow-socialist employs him, Jurgis locates his wife's family. Jurgis resumes his support of his wife's family; the book ends with another socialist rally. Jurgis Rudkus, a Lithuanian who immigrates to the US and struggles to support his family. Ona Lukoszaite Rudkus, Jurgis' teenage wife. Marija Berczynskas, Ona’s cousin, she dreams of marrying a musician. After Ona's death and Rudkus' abandonment of the family, she becomes a prostitute to help feed the few surviving children. Teta Elzbieta Lukoszaite, Ona’s stepmother, she takes care of the children and becomes a beggar. Grandmother Swan, another Lithuanian immigrant. Dede Antanas, Jurgis' father, he contributes work despite poor health.
Jokubas Szedvilas, Lithuanian immigrant who owns a deli on Halsted Street. Edward Marcinkus, Lithuanian immigrant and friend of the family. Fisher, Chicago millionaire whose passion is helping poor people in slums. Tamoszius Kuszleika, a fiddler who becomes Marija's fiancé. Jonas Lukoszas, Teta Elzbieta's brother, he disappears. Stanislovas Lukoszas, Elzibeta's eldest son. Mike Scully, the Democratic Party "boss" of the stockyards. Phil Connor, a boss at the factory where Ona works. Connor forces her into prostitution. Miss Henderson, Ona's forelady at the wrapping-room. Antanas, son of Jurgis and Ona, otherwise known as "Baby". Vilimas and Nikalojus, Elzbieta's second and third sons. Kristoforas, a crippled son of Elzbieta. Juozapas, another crippled son of Elzbieta. Kot
The 2si 215 is a family of single-cylinder, fan-cooled, two-stroke, single ignition, aircraft engines that were designed for ultralight aircraft. The basic engine was designed and produced by JLO-Motorenwerke of Germany and was acquired by the AMW Cuyuna Engine Company of Beaufort, South Carolina and marketed under the Cuyuna brand name; the engine was marketed by Cuyuna under the Two Stroke International brand. Cuyuna no longer markets engines for aircraft use although the 215 is still in production as an industrial and multi-fuel engine; the 215 is a conventional single-cylinder engine. The engine features single breaker and points ignition, with single capacitor discharge ignition used on the current models, it incorporates piston porting, tuned exhaust system, single carburetor, fan cooling, fuel pump, a cast iron cylinder liner, ball and roller bearings throughout. The 215R aircraft version was offered with an optional belt reduction system and the modern industrial versions have an optional gearbox with ratios of 2.04, 2.65 and 3.06.
Starting is a recoil starter with a custom electric starter available as an option. 215D Gasoline aircraft engine with direct drive. Single carburetor, 20 hp at 6000 rpm, weight 42 lb, out of production. 215F Gasoline industrial engine. Single carburetor, 20 hp at 6000 rpm, still in production. 215MF Multi-fuel industrial engine. Single carburetor, 7 to 12 hp at 6500 rpm, weight 53 lb, still in production. 215R Gasoline aircraft engine with belt reduction drive. Single carburetor, 20 hp at 6000 rpm, weight 39 lb, out of production. Data from Cuyuna & 2si Type: Single-cylinder, two-stroke aircraft engine Bore: 2.658 in Stroke: 2.362 in Displacement: 214 cc Length: 11.75 in Width: 7.0 in Height: 14.0 in Dry weight: 42 lb Valvetrain: piston porting Fuel type: Regular auto fuel Oil system: premixed oil and fuel at 50:1 Cooling system: fan cooled Reduction gear: optional belt reduction Power output: 20 hp at 6000 rpm Compression ratio: 12.5:1 List of aircraft engines Hirth F33 KFM 107 Rotax 277
Bubba is the second studio album by Canadian electronic music producer Kaytranada, released by RCA Records on December 13, 2019. The album features guest appearances from Kali Uchis, Pharrell Williams, Mick Jenkins, Estelle, Charlotte Day Wilson, GoldLink, among others. In November 2019, Kaytranada tweeted that the album was "finito", he formally announced the album at the Intersect Music Festival in Las Vegas in December 2019. The lead single "10%" featuring Kali Uchis was released on December 9, 2019. In the lead-up to the album release, Igloofest, a winter music festival, announced Kaytranada as a surprise guest. Just after the album release, Kaytranada announced DJ set in Montreal. Bubba received critical acclaim upon its release. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized score out of 100 to all reviews from mainstream publications, the album received an average score of 82, based on 7 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim". Jonah Bromwich from Pitchfork compared the album to 99.9%, describing it as "another set of coherent, well-sequenced set of tracks without any major drop-offs, all the more impressive as the album runs more than 50 minutes," and writing that Kaytranada "blesses this woeful decade with one last great dance record."
Max Freedman from Paste commented on the queer sound of the album, noting that "it’s hard not to read some of its traits as directly stemming from just how much happens in the first three years after someone comes out." Credits adapted from Apple Tidal. Credits adapted from Tidal. Kaytranada – production Colin Leonard – mastering engineering