Onomatopœia is the process of creating a word that phonetically imitates, resembles, or suggests the sound that it describes. As such words are uncountable nouns, onomatopoeia refers to the property of such words. Common occurrences of words of the onomatopoeia process include animal noises such as "oink", "miaow", "roar" and "chirp". Onomatopoeia can differ between languages: it conforms to some extent to the broader linguistic system. Although in the English language the term onomatopœia means "the imitation of a sound", the compound word onomatopœia in the Greek language means "making or creating names". For words that imitate sounds, the term ὴχομιμητικό or echomimetic) is used; the word ὴχομιμητικό derives from "ὴχώ", meaning echo or sound, "μιμητικό", meaning mimetic or imitating. In the case of a frog croaking, the spelling may vary because different frog species around the world make different sounds: Ancient Greek brekekekex koax koax for marsh frogs; some other common English-language examples are hiccup, bang, beep and splash.
Machines and their sounds are often described with onomatopoeia: honk or beep-beep for the horn of an automobile, vroom or brum for the engine. In speaking of a mishap involving an audible arcing of electricity, the word "zap" is used. Human sounds sometimes provide instances of onomatopoeia, as. For animal sounds, words like quack, bark or woof, meow/miaow or purr and baa are used in English; some languages flexibly integrate onomatopoeic words into their structure. This may evolve into a new word, up to the point that the process is no longer recognized as onomatopoeia. One example is the English word "bleat" for sheep noise: in medieval times it was pronounced as "blairt", or "blet" with the vowel drawled, which more resembles a sheep noise than the modern pronunciation. An example of the opposite case is "cuckoo", due to continuous familiarity with the bird noise down the centuries, has kept the same pronunciation as in Anglo-Saxon times and its vowels have not changed as they have in the word furrow.
Verba dicendi are a method of integrating onomatopoeic ideophones into grammar. Sometimes, things are named from the sounds. In English, for example, there is the universal fastener, named for the sound it makes: the zip or zipper Many birds are named after their calls, such as the bobwhite quail, the weero, the morepork, the killdeer and jays, the cuckoo, the chiffchaff, the whooping crane, the whip-poor-will, the kookaburra. In Tamil and Malayalam, the word for crow is kaakaa; this practice is common in certain languages such as Māori, so in names of animals borrowed from these languages. Although a particular sound is heard by people of different cultures, it is expressed through the use of different consonant strings in different languages. For example, the snip of a pair of scissors is cri-cri in Italian, riqui-riqui in Spanish, terre-terre or treque-treque in Portuguese, krits-krits in modern Greek and katr-katr in Hindi; the "honk" of a car's horn is ba-ba in Mandarin, tut-tut in French, pu-pu in Japanese, bbang-bbang in Korean, bært-bært in Norwegian, fom-fom in Portuguese and bim-bim in Vietnamese.
An onomatopoeic effect can be produced in a phrase or word string with the help of alliteration and consonance alone, without using any onomatopoeic words. The most famous example is the phrase "furrow followed free" in Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner; the words "followed" and "free" are not onomatopoeic in themselves, but in conjunction with "furrow" they reproduce the sound of ripples following in the wake of a speeding ship. Alliteration has been used in the line "as the surf surged up the sun swept shore...", to recreate the sound of breaking waves, in the poem "I, She and the Sea". Comic strips and comic books make extensive use of onomatopoeia. Popular culture historian Tim DeForest noted the impact of writer-artist Roy Crane, the creator of Captain Easy and Buz Sawyer: It was Crane who pioneered the use of onomatopoeic sound effects in comics, adding "bam," "pow" and "wham" to what had been an entirely visual vocabulary. Crane had fun with this, tossing in an occasional "ker-splash" or "lickety-wop" along with what would become the more standard effects.
Words as well as images became vehicles for carrying along his fast-paced storylines. In 2002, DC Comics introduced a villain named Onomatopoeia, an athlete, martial artist, weapons expert, who speaks pure sounds. Advertising uses onomatopoeia for mnemonic purposes, so that consumers will remember their products, as in Alka-Seltzer's "Plop, fizz, fizz. Oh, what a relief it is!" jingle, recorded in two different versions by Sammy Davis, Jr. Rice Krispies and Rice Bubbles make a "sn
New Journalism is a style of news writing and journalism, developed in the 1960s and 1970s, which uses literary techniques deemed unconventional at the time. It is characterized by a subjective perspective, a literary style reminiscent of long-form non-fiction and emphasizing "truth" over "facts", intensive reportage in which reporters immersed themselves in the stories as they reported and wrote them; this was in contrast to traditional journalism where the journalist was "invisible" and facts are reported as objectively as possible. The phenomenon of New Journalism is considered to have ended by the early 1980s; the term was codified with its current meaning by Tom Wolfe in a 1973 collection of journalism articles he published as The New Journalism, which included works by himself, Truman Capote, Hunter S. Thompson, Norman Mailer, Joan Didion, Terry Southern, Robert Christgau, Gay Talese and others. Articles in the New Journalism style tended not to be found in newspapers, but rather in magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's, CoEvolution Quarterly, New York, The New Yorker, Rolling Stone, for a short while in the early 1970s, Scanlan's Monthly.
Contemporary journalists and writers questioned the "newness" of New Journalism, as well as whether it qualified as a distinct genre. The subjective nature of New Journalism received extensive exploration. Criticism has been leveled at numerous individual writers in the genre, as well. Various people and tendencies throughout the history of American journalism have been labeled "new journalism". Robert E. Park, for instance, in his Natural History of the Newspaper, referred to the advent of the penny press in the 1830s as "new journalism"; the appearance of the yellow press—papers such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World in the 1880s—led journalists and historians to proclaim that a "New Journalism" had been created. Ault and Emery, for instance, said "Industrialization and urbanization changed the face of America during the latter half of the Nineteenth century, its newspapers entered an era known as that of the'New Journalism.'" John Hohenberg, in The Professional Journalist, called the interpretive reporting which developed after World War II a "new journalism which not only seeks to explain as well as to inform.
Although James E. Murphy noted that "...most uses of the term seem to refer to something more specific than vague new directions in journalism", Curtis D. MacDougal devoted the preface of the sixth edition of his Interpretative Reporting to New Journalism and cataloged many of the contemporary definitions: "Activist, participatory, tell-it-as-you-see-it, investigative, humanistic, reformist and a few more."The Magic Writing Machine—Student Probes of the New Journalism, a collection edited and introduced by Everette E. Dennis, came up with six categories, labelled new nonfiction, alternative journalism, advocacy journalism, underground journalism and precision journalism. Michael Johnson's The New Journalism addresses itself to three phenomena: the underground press, the artists of nonfiction, changes in the established media. In 1887, Matthew Arnold was credited with coining the term "New Journalism", a term that went on to define an entire genre of newspaper history Lord Northcliffe's turn-of-the-century press empire.
However, at the time, the target of Arnold's irritation was not Northcliffe, but the sensational journalism of Pall Mall Gazette editor, William Thomas Stead. He disapproved of the muck-raking Stead, declared that, under Stead, "the P. M. G. Whatever may be its merits, is fast ceasing to be literature." W. T. Stead called his brand of journalism'Government by Journalism' How and when the term New Journalism began to refer to a genre is not clear. Tom Wolfe, a practitioner and principal advocate of the form, wrote in at least two articles in 1972 that he had no idea of where it began. Trying to shed light on the matter, literary critic Seymour Krim offered his explanation in 1973. "I'm certain." In about April of 1965 he called me at Nugget Magazine, where I was editorial director, told me he wanted to write an article about new New Journalism. It was to be about the exciting things being done in the old reporting genre by Talese and Jimmy Breslin, he never wrote the piece, so far as I know, but I began using the expression in conversation and writing.
It was picked up and stuck." But wherever and whenever the term arose, there is evidence of some literary experimentation in the early 1960s, as when Norman Mailer broke away from fiction to write Superman Comes to the Supermarket. A report of John F. Kennedy's nomination that year, the piece established a precedent which Mailer would build on in his 1968 convention coverage and in other nonfiction as well. Wolfe wrote that his first acquaintance with a new style of reporting came in a 1962 Esquire article about Joe Louis by Gay Talese. "'Joe Louis at Fifty'a wasn't like a magazine article at all. It was like a short story, it began with a scene, an intimate confrontation between Louis and his third wife..." Wolfe said Talese was the first to apply fiction techniques to reporting. Esquire claimed credit as the seedbed for these new techniques. Esquire editor Harold Hayes wrote that "in the Sixties, events seemed to move too swiftly to allow the osmotic process of art to keep abreast, wh
From Bauhaus to Our House
From Bauhaus to Our House is a 1981 narrative of Modern architecture, written by Tom Wolfe. In 1975 Wolfe made his first foray into art criticism with The Painted Word, in which he argued that art theory had become too pervasive because the art world was controlled by a small elitist network of wealthy collectors and critics. Art critics were, in turn critical of Wolfe's book, arguing that he was a philistine who knew nothing of what he wrote. After The Painted Word, Wolfe published a collection of his essays, Mauve Gloves & Madmen, Clutter & Vine, his history of the earliest years of the space program, The Right Stuff. Undeterred by the hostile critical response to The Painted Word, even encouraged by the stir the book made, Wolfe set about writing a critique of modern architecture. From Bauhaus to Our House was excerpted in Harper's Magazine and published by Wolfe's long-time publisher Farrar, Straus & Giroux in 1981. Wolfe bluntly lays out his thesis in the introduction to From Bauhaus to Our House with a riff on the patriotic song "America the Beautiful" O beautiful, for spacious skies, for amber waves of grain, has there been another place on earth where so many people of wealth and power have paid for and put up with so much architecture they detested as within thy blessed borders today?
Wolfe criticizes the tendencies of modern architecture to avoid any external ornamentation. Wolfe praised architects like Louis Sullivan who, from the late 19th century to his death in 1924, built a number of ornate buildings. Wolfe turned his criticism on the International Style and Modern Architecture exemplified by architects such as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius. Wolfe believed that the buildings of the International Style and Modern Architecture could be appreciated by those who had to work in them. Wolfe's critique, was not purely aesthetic; as in The Painted Word Wolfe was critical of. Wolfe characterized the architecture as based on a political philosophy, inapplicable to America, for example, that it was silly to model American schools on "worker's flats" for the proletariat; the architecture world—like an art world dominated by critics, a literature world dominated by creative writing programs—was producing buildings that nobody liked. Many architects, in Wolfe's opinion, had no particular goal.
As Wolfe's arguments mirrored those he made in The Painted Word so was mirrored the critical response. The response to Wolfe's book from the architecture world was negative. Critics argued that, once again, Wolfe was writing on a topic he knew nothing about and had little insight to contribute to the conversation. Time critic Robert Hughes wrote that Wolfe had added nothing to the discussion of modern architecture except "a kind of supercilious rancor and a free-floating hostility toward the intelligentsia". Hilton Kramer writing in the Saturday Review found Wolfe's writing hyperbolic and refuted some of Wolfe's points. Wolfe had claimed, for example, that a Modern Architecture exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art had played a large role in subverting native culture; some critics conceded. Blake Morrison, writing in the Times Literary Supplement observed that some people felt such hostility to architecture because it is "a gallery we can't walk out of, a book we can't close, art we can't turn our backs on because it is there facing us on the other side of the street".
Others noted that, regardless of whether Wolfe was right or wrong, architecture was moving away from Modern architecture to Postmodern architecture. Many of the complaints that Wolfe lodged against Modern architecture the austere boxiness of the buildings, were no longer a facet of postmodern architecture. Critics observed. Paul Goldberger, the architecture critic for The New York Times wrote, "Mr. Wolfe's agility continues to dazzle, more than fourteen years after his essays first began to appear in print, but dazzle is not history, or architectural criticism, or social criticism, it is not an inquiry into the nature of the relationship between architecture and society." From Bauhaus to Our House excerpt in Harper's magazine. From Bauhaus to Our House at tomwolfe.com
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
The Right Stuff (book)
The Right Stuff is a 1979 book by Tom Wolfe about the pilots engaged in U. S. postwar research with experimental rocket-powered, high-speed aircraft as well as documenting the stories of the first Project Mercury astronauts selected for the NASA space program. The Right Stuff is based on extensive research by Wolfe, who interviewed test pilots, the astronauts and their wives, among others; the story contrasts the "Mercury Seven" and their families with test pilots such as Chuck Yeager, considered by many contemporaries as the best of them all, but, never selected as an astronaut. Wolfe wrote that the book was inspired by the desire to find out why the astronauts accepted the danger of space flight, he recounts the enormous risks that test pilots were taking, the mental and physical characteristics—the titular "right stuff"—required for and reinforced by their jobs. Wolfe likens the astronauts to "single combat warriors" from an earlier era who received the honor and adoration of their people before going forth to fight on their behalf.
The 1983 film The Right Stuff is adapted from the book. In 1972 Jann Wenner, the editor of Rolling Stone, assigned Wolfe to cover the launch of NASA's last Moon mission, Apollo 17. Wolfe became fascinated with the astronauts, his competitive spirit compelled him to try to outdo Norman Mailer's nonfiction book about the first Moon mission, Of a Fire on the Moon, he published a four-part series for Rolling Stone in 1973 titled "Post-Orbital Remorse", about the depression that some astronauts experienced after having been in space. After the series, Wolfe began researching the whole of the space program, in what became a seven-year project from which he took time to write The Painted Word, a book on art, to complete Mauve Gloves & Madmen, Clutter & Vine, a collection of shorter pieces. In 1977 he returned to his astronaut book full-time. Wolfe planned to write a complete history of the space program, though after writing through the Mercury program, he felt that his work was complete and that it captured the astronauts' ethos — the "right stuff" that astronauts and test pilots of the 1940s and 1950s shared — the unspoken code of bravery and machismo that compelled these men to ride on top of dangerous rockets.
While conducting research, he consulted with General Chuck Yeager and, after receiving a comprehensive review of his manuscript, was convinced that test pilots like Yeager should form the backdrop of the period. In the end, Yeager becomes a personification of the many postwar test pilots and their "right stuff"; the phrase itself may have originated in the Joseph Conrad story "Youth". The Right Stuff was published in 1979 by Farrar and Giroux and became Wolfe's best selling book yet, it was praised by most critics, was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award, won the National Book Award for Nonfiction. In the foreword to a new edition, published in 1983 when the film adaptation was released, Wolfe wrote that his "book grew out of some ordinary curiosity" about what "makes a man willing to sit up on top of an enormous Roman candle… and wait for someone to light the fuse"; the story is more about the space race than space exploration in general. The Soviet Union's early space efforts are mentioned only as background, focusing on an early portion of the U.
S. space program. Only Project Mercury, the first operational manned space-flight program, is covered; the Mercury Seven were Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, Deke Slayton. Emphasis is given to the personal stories of the astronauts and their wives rather than the technical aspects of space travel and the flights themselves; the storyline involves the political reasons for putting people into space, asserting that the Mercury astronauts were a burden to the program and were only sent up for promotional reasons. Reasons for including living beings in spacecraft are touched upon, but the first option considered was to use a chimpanzee. Another option considered were athletes accustomed to physical stress, such as circus trapeze artists. Wolfe states that President Dwight D. Eisenhower, insisted on pilots though the first crew members would not fly the spacecraft; when Gus Grissom lands at sea and exits his space capsule, saving the capsule seems more important to the recovery team than saving the pilot because of the value of the data.
Wolfe contrasts the Seven with the Edwards AFB test pilots, among whom was Chuck Yeager, shut out of the astronaut program after NASA officials decided to use college-degreed pilots, not ones who gained their commissions as enlisted men, such as participants in the USAAF Flying Sergeants Program in World War II. Chuck Yeager spent time with Tom Wolfe explaining accident reports "that Wolfe kept getting all wrong". Publishing insiders say these sessions between Wolfe and Yeager led Wolfe to highlight Yeager's character, presence and anecdotes throughout the book; as an example, Yeager prides his speech to the Society of Test Pilots that the first rider in the Mercury development program would be a monkey, not a real test pilot, Wolfe plays this drama out on the angst felt by the Mercury Astronauts over those remarks. Yeager himself downplayed the theory of "the right stuff", attributing his survival of potential catastrophes to knowing his airplane along with some good luck. Another test pilot highlighted in the book is Scott Crossfield.
Crossfield and Yeager were friendly rivals for speed and altitude records. A 3-hour, 13-minute film released in 1983 stars Sam Shepard, Scott Glenn, Ed Harris, Dennis Quaid, Fred Ward, Barbara Hershey, Kim Stanley, Levon Helm, Veronica Cartwri
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is an American auto racing sanctioning and operating company, best known for stock-car racing. Its three largest or National series are the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the Xfinity Series, the Gander Outdoors Truck Series. Regional series include the NASCAR K&N Pro Series East and West, the Whelen Modified Tour, NASCAR Pinty's Series, NASCAR Whelen Euro Series, NASCAR PEAK Mexico Series. NASCAR sanctions over 1,500 races at over 100 tracks in 48 US states as well as in Canada and Europe. NASCAR has presented races at the Suzuka and Motegi circuits in Japan, the Calder Park Thunderdome in Australia. NASCAR ventures into eSports via the PEAK Antifreeze NASCAR iRacing Series and a sanctioned ladder system on that title; the owned company was founded by Bill France Sr. in 1948, Jim France has been CEO since August 6, 2018. The company's headquarters is in Florida. Internationally, its races are broadcast on television in over 150 countries. In the 1920s and 30s, Daytona Beach became known as the place to set world land speed records, supplanting France and Belgium as the preferred location for land speed records, with 8 consecutive world records set between 1927 and 1935.
After a historic race between Ransom Olds and Alexander Winton in 1903, the beach became a mecca for racing enthusiasts and 15 records were set on what became the Daytona Beach Road Course between 1905 and 1935. By the time the Bonneville Salt Flats became the premier location for pursuit of land speed records, Daytona Beach had become synonymous with fast cars in 1936. Drivers raced on a 4.1-mile course, consisting of a 1.5–2.0-mile stretch of beach as one straightaway, a narrow blacktop beachfront highway, State Road A1A, as the other. The two straights were connected by two tight rutted and sand covered turns at each end. Stock car racing in the United States has its origins in bootlegging during Prohibition, when drivers ran bootleg whiskey made in the Appalachian region of the United States. Bootleggers needed to distribute their illicit products, they used small, fast vehicles to better evade the police. Many of the drivers would modify their cars for speed and handling, as well as increased cargo capacity, some of them came to love the fast-paced driving down twisty mountain roads.
The repeal of Prohibition in 1933 dried up some of their business, but by Southerners had developed a taste for moonshine, a number of the drivers continued "runnin' shine", this time evading the "revenuers" who were attempting to tax their operations. The cars continued to improve, by the late 1940s, races featuring these cars were being run for pride and profit; these races were popular entertainment in the rural Southern United States, they are most associated with the Wilkes County region of North Carolina. Most races in those days were of modified cars. Street vehicles were lightened and reinforced. Mechanic William France Sr. moved to Daytona Beach, from Washington, D. C. in 1935 to escape the Great Depression. He was familiar with the history of the area from the land speed record attempts. France entered the 1936 Daytona event, he took over running the course in 1938. He promoted a few races before World War II. France had the notion. Drivers were victimized by unscrupulous promoters who would leave events with all the money before drivers were paid.
In 1947, he decided this racing would not grow without a formal sanctioning organization, standardized rules, regular schedule, an organized championship. On December 14, 1947, France began talks with other influential racers and promoters at the Ebony Bar at the Streamline Hotel at Daytona Beach, that ended with the formation of NASCAR on February 21, 1948; the first Commissioner of NASCAR was Erwin "Cannonball" Baker. A former stock car and open-wheel racer who competed in the Indianapolis 500 and set over one hundred land speed records. Baker earned most of his fame for his transcontinental speed runs and would prove a car's worth by driving it from New York to Los Angeles. After his death, the famous transcontinental race the'Cannonball Run' and the film, inspired by it were both named in his honor. Baker is enshrined in the Automotive Hall of Fame, the Motorcycle Hall of Fame, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame; this level of honor and success in each diverse racing association earned Baker the title of "King of the Road".
In the early 1950s, the United States Navy stationed Bill France Jr. at the Moffett Federal Airfield in northern California. His father asked him to look up Bob Barkhimer in California. Barkhimer was a star of midget car racing from the World War II era, ran about 22 different speedways as the head of the California Stock Car Racing Association. Young Bill developed a relationship with his partner, Margo Burke, he went to events with them, stayed weekends with them and became familiar with racing on the west coast. "Barky", as he was called by his friends, met with Bill France Sr.. In the spring of 1954, NASCAR became a stock car sanctioning body on the Pacific Coast under Barky. Wendell Scott was the first African-American to win a race in the Grand National Series, NASCAR's highest level, he was posthumously inducted into the NASCAR Hall of Fame in Charlotte, N. C. January 30, 2015. On March 8, 1936, a collection of drivers gathered at Florida; the drivers brought coupes, hardtops and sports cars to compete in an event to determine the fastest cars, best dr
John Boorman, is an English filmmaker, best known for his feature films such as Point Blank, Hell in the Pacific, Zardoz, Exorcist II: The Heretic, The Emerald Forest and Glory, The General, The Tailor of Panama and Queen and Country. He has received five Academy Award nominations, twice for Best Director, he is credited with creating the first Academy Award screeners to promote The Emerald Forest. In 2004 Boorman received the BAFTA Fellowship for lifetime achievement from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Boorman was born in Shepperton, England, the son of Ivy and George Boorman, he was educated at the Salesian School in Surrey. Boorman first began by working as a journalist in the late 1950s, he ran the newsrooms at Southern Television in Southampton and Dover before moving into TV documentary filmmaking becoming the head of the BBC's Bristol-based Documentary Unit in 1962. Capturing the interest of producer David Deutsch, he was offered the chance to direct a film aimed at repeating the success of A Hard Day's Night: Catch Us If You Can is about competing pop group Dave Clark Five.
While not as successful commercially as Lester's film, it drew good reviews from distinguished critics such as Pauline Kael and Dilys Powell and smoothed Boorman's way into the film industry. Boorman was drawn to Hollywood for the opportunity to make larger-scale cinema and in Point Blank, based on a Richard Stark novel, brought a stranger's vision to the decaying fortress of Alcatraz and the proto-hippy world of west coast America. Lee Marvin gave the then-unknown director his full support, telling MGM he deferred all his approvals on the project to Boorman. After Point Blank, Boorman re-teamed with Lee Marvin and Toshiro Mifune for the robinsonade of Hell in the Pacific, which tells a fable story of two representative soldiers stranded together on an island. Returning to the United Kingdom, he made Leo the Last; this film exhibited the influence of Federico Fellini and starred Fellini regular Marcello Mastroianni, won him a Best Director award at Cannes. Boorman achieved much greater resonance with Deliverance, the ordeal of four urban men, played by Jon Voight, Burt Reynolds, Ronny Cox and Ned Beatty, who encounter danger from an unexpected quarter while whitewater rafting through the Appalachian backwoods.
The film became Boorman's first true box office success. At the beginning of the 1970s, Boorman was planning to film The Lord of the Rings and corresponded about his plans with the author, J. R. R. Tolkien; the production proved too costly, though some elements and themes can be seen in Excalibur. A wide variety of films followed. Zardoz, starring Sean Connery, was a post-apocalyptic science fiction piece, set in the 23rd century. According to the director's film commentary, the "Zardoz world" was on a collision course with an "effete" eternal society, which it accomplished, in the story must reconcile with a more natural human nature. Boorman was selected as director for Exorcist II: The Heretic, a move that surprised the industry given his dislike of the original film. Boorman declared: "Not only did I not want to do the original film, I told the head of Warner Brothers John Calley I'd be happy if he didn't produce the film too." The original script by Broadway playwright William Goodhart was intellectual and ambitious, based around the metaphysical nature of the battle between good and evil, the writings of Catholic theologian Pierre Teilhard De Chardin, "I found It compelling.
It was based on Chardin's intoxicating Idea that biological evolution was the first step In God's plan, starting with inert rock, culminating In humankind." Despite Boorman's continued rewriting throughout shooting, the film was rendered incomprehensible. The film, released in June 1977, was a critical and box office disaster. Boorman was denounced by author William Peter Blatty, the author of the original novel The Exorcist, William Friedkin, director of the first Exorcist film. Boorman admitted that his approach to the film was a mistake; the Heretic is considered not just the worst film of The Exorcist series, but one of the worst films of all time. Excalibur, a long-held dream project of Boorman's, is a retelling of the Arthurian legend, based on Le Morte D'Arthur. Boorman cast actors Nicol Williamson and Helen Mirren against their protests, as the two disliked each other intensely, but Boorman felt their mutual antagonism would enhance their characterizations of the characters they were playing.
The production was based in the Republic of Ireland. For the film he employed all of his children as actors and crew and several of Boorman's films have been'family business' productions; the film, one of the first to be produced by Orion Films, was a moderate success. Hope and Glory is his most autobiographical movie to date, a retelling of his childhood in London during The Blitz. Produced by Goldcrest Films, with Hollywood financing the film, it proved a box office hit in the US, receiving numerous Oscar, BAFTA and Golden Globe nominations. However, his 1990 US-produced comedy about a dysfunctional family, Where the Heart Is, was a major flop; the Emerald Forest saw Boorman cast his actor son Charley Boorman as an eco-warrior, in a rainforest adventure that included commercially required elements – action and near-nudity – with authentic anthropological detail. Rospo Pallenberg's original screenplay was adapte