Print syndication distributes news articles, political cartoons, comic strips and other features to newspapers and websites. The syndicates offer reprint rights and grant permissions to other parties for republishing content of which they own and/or represent copyrights. Other terms for the service include a newspaper syndicate, a press syndicate, a feature syndicate; the syndicate is an agency that offers features from notable journalists and authorities as well as reliable and established cartoonists. It fills a need among smaller weekly and daily newspapers for material that helps them compete with large urban papers, at a much lesser cost than if the client were to purchase the material themselves. Syndicates sell their material to one client in each territory. Typical syndicated features are advice columns, humor columns, editorial opinion, critic's reviews, gossip columns; some syndicates specialize in one type such as comic strips. A comic strip syndicate functions as an agent for cartoonists and comic strip creators, placing the cartoons and strips in as many newspapers as possible on behalf of the artist.
In some cases, the work will be owned by the syndicate as opposed to the creator. A syndicate can annually receive thousands of submissions from which only two or three might be selected for representation; the leading strip syndicates include Andrews McMeel Syndication, King Features Syndicate, Creators Syndicate, with the Tribune Content Agency and The Washington Post Writers Group in the running. Syndication of editorial cartoons has an important impact on the form, since cartoons about local issues or politicians are not of interest to the national market. Therefore, an artist who contracts with a syndicate will either be one who focuses her work on national and global issues, or will shift focus accordingly. An early version of syndication was practiced in the Journal of Occurrences, a series of newspaper articles published by an anonymous group of "patriots" in 1768–1769 in the New York Journal and Packet and other newspapers, chronicling the occupation of Boston by the British Army. According to historian Elmo Scott Watson, true print syndication began in 1841 with a two-page supplement produced by New York Sun publisher Moses Yale Beach and sold to a score of newspapers in the U.
S. northeast. By the end of the Civil War, three syndicates were on operation, selling news items and short fiction pieces. By 1881, Associated Press correspondent Henry Villard was self-syndicating material to the Chicago Tribune, the Cincinnati Commercial, the New York Herald. A few years the New York Sun's Charles A. Dana formed a syndicate to sell the short stories of Bret Harte and Henry James; the first full-fledged American newspaper syndicate was the McClure Newspaper Syndicate, launched in 1884 by publisher S. S. McClure, it was the first successful company of its kind, turning the marketing of columns, book serials, comic strips, into a large industry. Syndication took off in 1896 when the competitors the New York World and the New York Journal began producing Sunday comic pages; the daily comic strip came into practice in 1907, revolutionizing and expanding the syndication business. Syndicates began providing client newspaper with proof sheets of black-and-white line art for the reproduction of strips."By 1984, 300 syndicates were distributing 10,000 features with combined sales of $100 million a year.
With the 1960s advent of the underground press, associations like the Underground Press Syndicate, the Association of Alternative Newsmedia, worked together to syndicate material — including weekly comic strips — for each other's publications. Prominent contemporary syndication services include: Andrews McMeel Syndication Family Features Editorial Syndicate Guardian News Service Hearst Entertainment & Syndication News UK The New York Times News Service Project Syndicate Syndications Today Telegraph Media Group Tribune Content Agency IFA-Amsterdam provides news and lifestyle content to publications. Cagle Cartoons offers newspaper editorial columns. 3DSyndication comprises syndication service from India, the India Today Group's Syndications Today, Times Syndication Service of India. List of comic strip syndicates List of syndicated columnists Broadcast syndication Web syndication Patent insides Direct market Blackbeard, Bill; the Smithsonian Collection of Newspaper Comics Horn, Maurice. The World Encyclopedia of Comics Robinson, Jerry.
The Comics: An Illustrated History of Comic Strip Art Vaughn, Susan. "Career Make-Over. The Los Angeles Times. Times Syndication Service Content licensing and syndication wing of The Times Group. 3DSyndication: Syndication Service from India Cagle Cartoons, Inc. Family Features Editorial Syndicate Guardian News Service IFA-Amsterdam News International Syndication The New York Times News Service NI Syndication Times Syndication Service of India Tribune Content Agency Universal Press Syndicate
Comic Strip Classics
The Comic Strip Classics series of commemorative postage stamps was issued by the US Postal Service on October 1, 1995 to honor the centennial of the newspaper comic strip. The twenty stamps all are listed in the Scott catalogue as No. 3000 for a pane and 3000a through 3000t for the individual stamps. Restricted to strips created before 1950, the series featured drawings of comic strip characters with their logos; the stamps were arranged in five tiers with four stamps to a tier. The featured strips are listed here in the sequence as published: The Yellow Kid The Katzenjammer Kids Little Nemo in Slumberland Bringing Up Father Krazy Kat Rube Goldberg’s Inventions Toonerville Folks Gasoline Alley Barney Google Little Orphan Annie Popeye Blondie Dick Tracy Alley Oop Nancy Flash Gordon Li'l Abner Terry and the Pirates Prince Valiant Brenda Starr, Reporter Stamp Sheet
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
William Denby Hanna was an American animator, producer, voice actor, cartoon artist, musician whose film and television cartoon characters entertained millions of people for much of the 20th century. After working odd jobs in the first months of the Great Depression, Hanna joined the Harman and Ising animation studio in 1930. During the 1930s, Hanna gained skill and prominence while working on cartoons such as Captain and the Kids. In 1937, while working at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Hanna met Joseph Barbera; the two men began a collaboration, at first best known for producing Tom and Jerry. In 1957, they co-founded Hanna-Barbera, which became the most successful television animation studio in the business, creating and/or producing programs such as The Flintstones, The Huckleberry Hound Show, The Jetsons, Scooby-Doo, The Smurfs, Yogi Bear. In 1967, Hanna-Barbera was sold to Taft Broadcasting for $12 million, but Hanna and Barbera remained heads of the company until 1991. At that time, the studio was sold to Turner Broadcasting System, which in turn was merged with Time Warner in 1996.
Hanna and Barbera won seven Academy Awards and eight Emmy Awards. Their cartoons have become cultural icons, their cartoon characters have appeared in other media such as films and toys. Hanna-Barbera's shows had a worldwide audience of over 300 million people in their 1960s heyday, have been translated into more than 28 languages. William Hanna was born to William John and Avice Joyce Hanna on July 14, 1910 in Melrose, New Mexico, he was the third of the only son. Hanna claimed there was sibling rivalry in their home. Hanna described his family as "a red-blooded, Irish-American family", his father was a construction superintendent for railroads as well as water and sewer systems throughout the western regions of America, requiring the family to move frequently. When Hanna was three years old, the family moved to Baker City, where his father worked on the Balm Creek Dam, it was here. The family moved to Logan, before moving to San Pedro, California, in 1917. During the next two years they moved several times before settling in Watts, California, in 1919.
In 1922, while living in Watts, he joined Scouting. He attended Compton High School from 1925 through 1928, where he played the saxophone in a dance band, his passion for music carried over into his career. Hanna remained active in Scouting throughout his life; as an adult, he served as a Scoutmaster and was recognized by the Boy Scouts of America with their Distinguished Eagle Scout Award in 1985. Despite his numerous career-related awards, Hanna was most proud of this Distinguished Eagle Scout Award, his interests included sailing and singing in a barbershop quartet. Hanna studied both journalism and structural engineering at Compton City College, but had to drop out of college with the onset of the Great Depression. On August 7, 1936, Hanna married Violet Blanch Wogatzke, they had a marriage lasting over 64 years, until his death; the marriage produced two children, David William and Bonnie Jean, seven grandchildren. In 1996, with assistance from Los Angeles writer Tom Ito, published his autobiography—Joe Barbera had published his two years earlier.
After dropping out of college, Hanna worked as a construction engineer and helped build the Pantages Theatre in Hollywood. He found another at a car wash, his sister's boyfriend encouraged him to apply for a job at Pacific Title and Art, which produced title cards for motion pictures. While working there, Hanna's talent for drawing became evident, in 1930 he joined the Harman and Ising animation studio, which had created the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series. Despite a lack of formal training, Hanna soon became head of their paint department. Besides inking and painting, Hanna wrote songs and lyrics. For the first several years of Hanna's employment, the studio partnered with Pacific Title and Art's Leon Schlesinger, who released the Harman-Ising output through Warner Bros; when Hugh Harman and Rudolph Ising chose to break with Schlesinger and begin producing cartoons independently for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1933, Hanna was one of the employees who followed them. Hanna was given the opportunity to direct his first cartoon in 1936.
The following year, MGM decided to terminate their partnership with Harman-Ising and bring production in-house. Hanna was among the first people. During 1938–1939, he served as a senior director on MGM's Captain and the Kids series, based upon the comic strip of the same name; the series did not do well. Hanna's desk at MGM was opposite that of Joseph Barbera, who had worked at Terrytoons; the two realized they would make a good team. By 1939 they had solidified a partnership. Hanna and Barbera worked alongside animation director Tex Avery, who had created Daffy Duck and Bugs Bunny for Warner Bros. and directed Droopy cartoons at MGM. In 1940, Hanna and Barbera jointly directed Puss Gets the Boot, nominated for an Academy Award for Best Short Subject; the studio wanted a diversified cartoon portfolio, so despite the success of P
Charles H. Winner, better known as Doc Winner, was an American cartoonist, notable for his comic strips Tubby and Elmer, plus his contributions to Thimble Theatre, Barney Google and other King Features strips. Born in Perryville, Winner had seven brothers and two sisters, the children of Barbara and John Winner, a roofing contractor, his drawing skills soon led him to nearby Pittsburgh, as he recalled: I fooled around a lot in school with art, covering the blackboard and all my books with sketches, at 17, I went to art school in Pittsburgh, where I attended night classes for three years while working daily as a clerk in a tea and coffee store and in the offices of the Pennsylvania Railroad. He drew sports cartoons for two years at the Pittsburgh Post, succeeding Billy DeBeck, became that newspaper's political cartoonist in 1910, relocating to the Harrisburg Patriot in 1914 and the Newark Star-Eagle in 1917. In 1923, he began his kid strip Tubby for United Feature Syndicate, as chronicled by comic strip historian Allan Holtz: Doc Winner had a long career in newspaper comics, the bulk of it spent picking up the pieces on strips that had lost their original creators...
The strip was offered by United Feature Syndicate back in the days when they were a tiny outfit with just a few offerings. On, of course, United Features would take over all the Pulitzer and Metropolitan strips and become a major name in the syndication business. Tubby ran from March 19, 1923, to June 5, 1926, according to my best information, the stock of dailies was sold to reprint syndicates, so you'll find the strip popping up as well. Winner's next job, starting just a few months was to take over Just Boy from A. C. Fera, Winner pretty turned that strip into a continuation of Tubby. Elmer, the main character of Just Boy, became all but indistinguishable from the title character of this strip. Following the strip size of the period, Tubby was drawn 19 inches wide. Winner's strip Elmer, which ran from 1926 to 1956, was based on the friends of his youth, as he recalled, "A great many of the stunts they do are ones we either did or tried to do when we were kids." In the late 1930s, Winner had his own Sunday page with Elmer positioned beneath Winner's Alexander Smart, Esq. and his Daffy Doodles topper.
Starting in the King Features bullpen in 1918, Winner worked with King Features for the next 38 years. At the time of E. C. Segar's illness and death, he was a ghost artist on Thimble Theatre during 1938 and 1939, continuing on some of the strip's Sunday pages in 1940, his Daffy Doodles and Elmer were reprinted in Ace Comics during the 1940s, Elmer was seen again in Harvey's Family Funnies #6. Dell's Large Feature Comic reprinted his Thimble Theatre in 1941 and 1943. Elmer and His Dog was a 1935 Big Little Book. In the last years of his life, Winner drew The Katzenjammer Kids. Winner lived with his wife, the former Agnes Reid, two daughters in Upper Montclair, New Jersey, he died of cancer in 1956, he was 71
Max and Moritz
Max and Moritz: A Story of Seven Boyish Pranks is a German language illustrated story in verse. This inventive, blackly humorous tale, told in rhymed couplets, was written and illustrated by Wilhelm Busch and published in 1865, it is among the early works of Busch it features many substantial, effectually aesthetic and formal regularities and basic patterns of Busch's works. Many familiar with comic strip history consider it to have been the direct inspiration for the Katzenjammer Kids and Quick & Flupke; the German title satirizes the German custom of giving a subtitle to the name of dramas in the form of "Ein Drama in... Akten", which became dictum in colloquial usage for any event with an unpleasant or dramatic course, e.g. "Bundespräsidentenwahl - Drama in drei Akten". Busch's classic tale of the terrible duo has since become a proud part of the culture in German-speaking countries. Today, parents read these tales to their not-yet-literate children. To this day in Germany and Switzerland, a certain familiarity with the story and its rhymes is still presumed, as it is referenced in mass communication.
The two leering faces are synonymous with mischief, appear logo-like in advertising and graffiti. During World War 1, the Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen, named his dog Moritz, giving the name Max to another animal given to his friend. Max and Moritz is the first published original foreign children’s book in Japan, translated into rōmaji by Shinjirō Shibutani and Kaname Oyaizu in 1887 as Wanpaku monogatari. Max and Moritz became the forerunners to the comic strip; the story inspired Rudolph Dirks to create The Katzenjammer Kids. After World War 2, German-U. S. Composer Richard Mohaupt created together with choreographer Alfredo Bortoluzzi the dance burlesque Max und Moritz, which premiered at Badisches Staatstheater Karlsruhe on December 18, 1949. There have been several English translations of the original German verses over the years, but all have maintained the original trochaic tetrameter: Ah, how oft we read or hear of Boys we stand in fear of! For example, take these stories Of two youths, named Max and Moritz, instead of early turning Their young minds to useful learning, Often leered with horrid features At their lessons and their teachers.
Look now at the empty head: he Is for mischief always ready. Teasing creatures - climbing fences, Stealing apples and quinces, Is, of course, a deal more pleasant, And far easier for the present, Than to sit in schools or churches, Fixed like roosters on their perches But O dear, O dear, O deary, When the end comes sad and dreary!'Tis a dreadful thing to tell That on Max and Moritz fell! All they did this book rehearses, Both in verses; the boys tie several crusts of bread together with thread, lay this trap in the chicken yard of Bolte, an old widow, causing all the chickens to become fatally entangled. This prank is remarkably similar to the eighth history of the classic German prankster tales of Till Eulenspiegel; as the widow cooks her chickens, the boys sneak onto her roof. When she leaves her kitchen momentarily, the boys steal the chickens using a fishing pole down the chimney; the widow finds the hearth empty and beats the dog. The boys torment a well-liked tailor who has a fast stream flowing in front of his house.
They saw through the planks of his wooden bridge, making a precarious gap taunt him by making goat noises, until he runs outside. The bridge breaks. Although Till removes the planks of the bridge instead of sawing them there are some similarities to Till Eulenspiegel. While their devout teacher, Lämpel, is busy at church, the boys invade his home and fill his favorite pipe with gunpowder; when he lights the pipe, the blast knocks him unconscious, blackens his skin and burns away all his hair. But: "Time that comes will quick repair; the boys collect bags full of May bugs. Uncle is nearly asleep. Horrified, he goes into a frenzy; the boys invade a closed bakery to steal some Easter sweets. Attempting to steal pretzels, they fall into a vat of dough; the baker returns, catches the breaded pair, bakes them. But they survive, escape by gnawing through their crusts. Hiding out in the grain storage area of a farmer, the boys slit some grain sacks. Carrying away one of the sacks, farmer Mecke notices the problem.
He puts the boys in the sack instead takes it to the mill. The boys are ground to bits and devoured by the miller’s ducks. No one expresses regret. Max und Moritz was adapted into a ballet by Alfredo Bortuluzzi. In 1956 Norbert Schultze adapted it into Max und Moritz. Spuk mit Max und Moritz, by Hermann Diehl, Ferdinand Diehl and Paul Diehl Max und Moritz, by Halas and Batchelor Max und Moritz Max and Moritz Die fromme Helene Max und Moritz Reloaded Der Fall Max und Moritz, 1988 by Jörg M. Günther, a satirical treatment in which the various misdeeds in the story - both by the protagonists and their s
Filmation Associates was an American production company that produced animation and live-action programming for television from 1963 to 1989. Located in Reseda, the animation studio was founded in 1962. Filmation's founders and principal producers were Lou Scheimer, Hal Sutherland, Norm Prescott. Lou Scheimer and Filmation's main director Hal Sutherland met in 1957 while working at Larry Harmon Pictures on the made-for-TV Bozo and Popeye cartoons. Larry Harmon closed the studio by 1961. Scheimer and Sutherland went to work at a small company called True Line, one of whose owners was Marcus Lipsky, who owned Reddi-wip whipped cream. SIB Productions, a Japanese firm with U. S. offices in Chicago, approached them about producing a cartoon called Rod Rocket. The two agreed to take on the work and took on a project for Family Films, owned by the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, for ten short animated films based on the life of Christ. Paramount Pictures soon purchased SIB Productions, True Line's staff increased, including the arrival of former radio disc jockey Norm Prescott, who became a partner in the firm.
He had been working on the animated feature Pinocchio in Outer Space, produced by Belvision Studios. They left True Line, Scheimer began working on commercials, including for Gillette and others, which began what became Filmation, he met lawyer Ira Epstein, who had worked for Harmon but had left the firm, now put together the new corporation with Scheimer and Sutherland. It became Filmation Associates as of September 1962, so named because "We were working on film, but doing animation". Both Rod Rocket and the Life of Christ series credited "Filmation Associates" with "Production Design" in addition to Scheimer and Sutherland as directors.. Norm Prescott brought in Filmation's first major project, Journey Back to Oz, an animated sequel to the MGM film The Wizard of Oz. Begun in 1962, voice recording, most of the music scoring and animation had been completed when financial challenges caused the project to be put on hold for nearly eight years. In the meantime, during the interim, the new Filmation studio turned their attention to a more successful medium, network television.
For the next few years they made television commercials and some other projects for other companies and made an unsuccessful pilot film for a Marx Brothers cartoon series. They tried to develop an original series named The Adventures of Stanley Stoutheart about a boy and a dog, but they were never able to sell it and closed down; this premiered on September 10, 1966, was followed by several of the other DC superheroes, in 1968, the first Archie Show. Both series helped Filmation's popularity to increase into the 1970s, when it scored big with several of its series; the Filmation studio was purchased by the TelePrompTer Corporation in 1969. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through its Group W Productions division, acquired Filmation along with its purchase of TelePrompTer's cable and entertainment properties in 1981. Filmation's last production was the feature film Happily Ever After, released to theaters five years in 1993. At the time of the closing, two new animated series and Bravo, were beginning production.
In 1989, Westinghouse sold Filmation to an investment consortium led by the L'Oréal cosmetics company, Paravision International. Before that sale was complete, Westinghouse shuttered the film studio on February 3, 1989, which left L'Oreal with only the Filmation library; this happened a day before a new law went into practice requiring companies to give employees 60 days notice before a mass termination. Since the studio's intellectual property assets have changed hands on a number of occasions; the in-house productions, which form a majority of the Filmation back catalog, were sold to Hallmark Cards in 1995, are managed by its Hallmark Entertainment subsidiary. However, since the rest of Filmation's output was based on characters licensed from other companies, such titles were under the control of other studios. In March 2004, ownership of the Filmation in-house library, under the ownership of Hallmark, was sold to Entertainment Rights. Entertainment Rights has since made the revelation that when Hallmark converted all of its Filmation series to digital format in the 1990s, only PAL-format copies were made, with the original film prints discarded.
This was due to Hallmark's unstated short-sighted policy of only distributing Filmation series outside of the United States. As a result, many of Entertainment Rights' DVD releases were based on the international versions; because they were taken from PAL-based transfers, without correction, these releases exhibit the so-called 576i speedup effect in which the soundtrack plays 4% too fast, which results in the pitch being a half-step higher than it was (see PAL and