The Kingston Trio is an American folk and pop music group that helped launch the folk revival of the late 1950s to late 1960s. The group started as a San Francisco Bay Area nightclub act with an original lineup of Dave Guard, Bob Shane, Nick Reynolds, it rose to international popularity, fueled by unprecedented sales of LP records, helped alter the direction of popular music in the U. S; the Kingston Trio was one of the most prominent groups of the era's pop-folk boom that started in 1958 with the release of their first album and its hit recording of "Tom Dooley", which sold over three million copies as a single. The Trio released nineteen albums that made Billboard's Top 100, fourteen of which ranked in the top 10, five of which hit the number 1 spot. Four of the group's LPs charted among the 10 top-selling albums for five weeks in November and December 1959, a record unmatched for more than 50 years, the group still ranks in the all-time lists of many of Billboard's cumulative charts, including those for most weeks with a number 1 album, most total weeks charting an album, most number 1 albums, most consecutive number 1 albums, most top ten albums.
In 1961, the Trio was described as "the most envied, the most imitated, the most successful singing group, folk or otherwise, in all show business" and "the undisputed kings of the folksinging rage by every yardstick". The Trio's massive record sales in its early days made acoustic folk music commercially viable, paving the way for singer-songwriter, folk rock, Americana artists who followed in their wake; the Kingston Trio continues to tour as of 2020 with musicians who licensed the name and trademark in 2017. Dave Guard and Bob Shane had been friends since junior high school at the Punahou School in Honolulu, Hawaii where both had learned to play ukulele in required music classes, they had developed an interest in and admiration for native Hawaiian slack key guitarists like Gabby Pahinui. While in Punahou's secondary school, Shane taught first himself and Guard the rudiments of the six-string guitar, the two began performing at parties and in school shows doing an eclectic mix of Tahitian and calypso songs.
After graduating from high school in 1952, Guard enrolled at Stanford University while Shane matriculated at nearby Menlo College. At Menlo, Shane became friends with Nick Reynolds, a native San Diegan with an extensive knowledge of folk and calypso songs—in part from his guitar-playing father, a career officer in the U. S. Navy. Reynolds was able to create and sing tenor harmonies, a skill derived in part from family singalongs, could play both guitar and bongo and conga drums. Shane and Reynolds performed at fraternity parties and luaus for a time, Shane introduced Reynolds to Guard; the three began performing at campus and neighborhood hangouts, sometimes as a trio but with an aggregation of friends that could swell their ranks to as many as six or seven, according to Reynolds. They billed themselves under the name of "Dave Guard and the Calypsonians". None of the three at that time had any serious aspirations to enter professional show business and Shane returned to Hawaii following his graduation in late 1956 to work in the family sporting goods business.
Still in the Bay Area and Reynolds had organized themselves somewhat more formally into an entity named "The Kingston Quartet" with friends bassist Joe Gannon and vocalist Barbara Bogue, though as before they were joined in their performances by other friends. At one engagement at Redwood City's Cracked Pot beer garden, they met a young San Francisco publicist named Frank Werber, who had heard of them from a local entertainment reporter. Werber liked the group's raw energy but did not consider them refined enough to want to represent them as an agent or manager at that point, though he left his telephone number with Guard; some weeks Guard and Reynolds invited Werber to a performance of the group at the Italian Village Restaurant in San Francisco, where Werber was so impressed by the group's progress that he agreed to manage them provided they replace Gannon, in whose professional potential Werber had no faith. Bogue left with Gannon, Guard and Werber invited Shane to rejoin the now more formally organized band.
Shane, performing part-time as a solo act at night in Honolulu assented and returned to the mainland in early March 1957. The four drew up a contract as equal partners in Werber's office in San Francisco, deciding first on the name "Kingston Trio" because it evoked, through its association with Kingston, the calypso music popular at the time, second on the uniform of three-quarter-length sleeved vertically striped shirts that the group hoped would help their target audience of college students to identify with them. Werber imposed a stern training regimen on Guard and Reynolds, rehearsing them for six to eight hours a day for several months, sending them to prominent San Francisco vocal coach Judy Davis to help them learn to preserve their voices, working on the group's prepared but spontaneous banter between songs. At the same time, the group was developing a varied and eclectic repertoire of calypso and foreign language songs, suggested by all three of the musicians though arranged by Guard with some harmonies created by Reynolds.
The first major break for the Kingston Trio came in late June 1957 when comedian Phyllis Diller canceled a week-long engagement at The Purple Onion club in San Francisco. When Werber persuaded the club's owner to give the untested Trio a chance, Guard sent out five hundred postcards to everyone that the three musicians knew in the Bay Area and
Bloodchild and Other Stories is the only collection of science fiction stories and essays written by American writer Octavia E. Butler; each story and essay features an afterword by Butler. "Bloodchild", the title story, won the Hugo Award and Nebula Award. Published in 1995, the 2005 expanded edition contains two additional stories: "Amnesty" and "The Book of Martha". Winner of the 1984 Nebula Award for Best Novelette and the 1985 Hugo Award for Best Novelette. Winner of the 1985 Locus Award for Best Novelette and the 1985 Science Fiction Chronicle Award for Best Novelette. Published in Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine, 1984. "Bloodchild" describes the unusual bond between a race of insect-like lifeforms called the Tlic and a colony of humans who have escaped Earth and settled on the Tlic planet. When the Tlic realize that humans make excellent hosts for Tlic eggs, they establish the Preserve to protect the humans, in return require that every family choose a child for implantation. A human thus implanted.
The first chapter titled "Bloodchild" is narrated by Gan, a young boy chosen before birth to carry the eggs of a female Tlic named T’Gatoi. Gan and his sisters perceive being a host as a privilege. Gan's own opinion changes when he is forced to help T'Gatoi perform an emergency cesarean section on a pregnant male N'Tlic named Bram Lomas, abandoned by his Tlic, is being eaten alive by his hatched larvae. Gan uses an illegal rifle to kill an Achti, a large animal kept on the Preserve, to provide nonhuman sustenance for the larvae. After witnessing the graphic surgery, Gan has second thoughts about being a host and entertains suicide rather than impregnation, he questions T'Gatoi about the relationship between the Tlic. T'Gatoi, who must begin lay her first eggs that night, asks Gan if she should impregnate Gan's sister instead. However, Gan consents to impregnation on the condition that T'Gatoi allows the family to keep the illegal gun; as T'Gatoi impregnates Gan, she lovingly promises him that she will take care of him and will never abandon him.
In several interviews as well as in her afterword to "Bloodchild," Butler explains the different situations that led her to write the story. To begin with, she wanted to "write out" her fear of her body being invaded by a parasitic insect the botfly, she wanted to write about a human male becoming pregnant. This is why, she insists again and again, critics read "Bloodchild" wrongly when they argue it is about slavery. Lastly, she wanted to write a story about "paying the rent"—of how a realistic depiction of human immigration into space would not just repeat the colonialist tropes of traditional science fiction but rather require some kind of quid pro quo or "accommodation" from the part of humanity. Imposition of female experience on a male narrator Critic Jane Donawerth observes that " n this short story...the conventional adolescent male narrator/hero is punished by rape, reproductive exploitation by the dominant race, anticipation of a painful caesarean birth--and he is expected to like it, as women in many cultures have been expected to comply with their oppression."
The narrator takes on the role of black female slaves in the United States, who were "forced to carry the offspring of an alien race." Kristen Lillvis further argues that this reference to historical reproductive slavery allows the male narrator to have "access to the power of maternal love" that follows the "tradition of nonphallic maternal authority that developed out of black women’s experiences during slavery." Symbiosis, Bio-political, Assimilation María Ferrández San Miguel, author of Appropriated Bodies: Trauma and the Posthuman in Octavia Butler's "Bloodchild" and James Tiptree, Jr.'s "The Girl Who Was Plugged In." Connects the relationship between Gan and the other Terrans with the Tlics as continuous traumatic stress. Ferrández references a 2013 article from the Journal of Peace Psychology about CTS research background development by mental health professionals in the 1980s who studied the effect of apartheid in South Africa; the Terrans' habitation in the Preserve convinces the Terrans that there is a realistic permeating threat of peril.
This fear of danger enacts a symbiotic relationship between the two species. "Bloodchild" As a Love Story Readers put their own objectives and ideas into their interpreted texts. Readers incorporate the read information with themes learned from prior scholarship. In the case of forced symbiosis, the most common association from scholarship is the topic of slavery. According to Matt Brauer in "A Critical Examination of Octavia Butler's'Bloodchild'" the slave narrative is eisegesis. Readers may interpret the oppression of a superior being over a weaker faction with slavery. Winner of the 1987 Science Fiction Chronicle Reader Award, nominated for the 1987 Nebula Award for Best Novelette, The Evening and the Morning and the Night explores a world where a genetic disease has caused the appearance of a new social caste. Decades after the introduction of a successful cancer cure, it is revealed that the children of its users develop "Duryea-Gode Disease," a dangerous genetic disorder that causes "drift," a dissociative state characterized by violent psychosis and self-harm.
The onset of symptoms is inevitable but can be delayed by restricting one's self t
A note is a string of text placed at the bottom of a page in a book or document or at the end of a chapter, volume or the whole text. The note can provide an author's comments on the main text or citations of a reference work in support of the text. Footnotes are notes at the foot of the page while endnotes are collected under a separate heading at the end of a chapter, volume, or entire work. Unlike footnotes, endnotes have the advantage of not affecting the layout of the main text, but may cause inconvenience to readers who have to move back and forth between the main text and the endnotes. In some editions of the Bible, notes are placed in a narrow column in the middle of each page between two columns of biblical text. In English, a footnote or endnote is flagged by a superscripted number following that portion of the text the note references, each such footnote being numbered sequentially. A number between brackets or parentheses is used instead, thus:, which can be superscripted. Typographical devices such as the asterisk or dagger may be used to point to notes.
Other symbols, including the #, Δ, ◊, ↓, ☞, have been used. In documents like timetables, many different symbols and numbers may be used to refer the reader to particular notes. In CJK languages, written with Chinese characters, the symbol ※ is used for notes and highlighting, analogously to the asterisk in English. Notes are most used as an alternative to long explanations, comments or annotations that can be distracting to readers. Most literary style guidelines recommend limited use of foot and endnotes. However, publishers encourage note references in lieu of parenthetical references. Aside from use as a bibliographic element, notes are used for additional information, qualification or explanation that might be too digressive for the main text. Footnotes are utilized in academic institutions to support claims made in academic essays covering myriad topics. In particular, footnotes are the normal form of citation in historical journals; this is due, firstly, to the fact that the most important references are to archive sources or interviews which do not fit standard formats, secondly, to the fact that historians expect to see the exact nature of the evidence, being used at each stage.
The MLA requires the superscript numbers in the main text to be placed following the punctuation in the phrase or clause the note is in reference to. The exception to this rule occurs when a sentence contains a dash, in which case the superscript would precede it. Aside from their technical use, authors use notes for a variety of reasons: As signposts to direct the reader to information the author has provided or where further useful information is pertaining to the subject in the main text. To attribute a quote or viewpoint; as an alternative to parenthetical references. To escape the limitations imposed on the word count of various academic and legal texts which do not take into account notes. Aggressive use of this strategy can lead to a text affected by "foot and note disease"; the US Government Printing Office Style Manual devotes over 660 words to the topic of footnotes. NASA has guidance for footnote usage in its historical documents. Associate Justice Stephen Breyer of the Supreme Court of the United States is famous in the American legal community for his writing style, in which he never uses notes.
He prefers to keep all citations within the text. Richard A. Posner has written against the use of notes in judicial opinions. Bryan A. Garner, advocates using notes instead of inline citations. HTML, the predominant markup language for web pages, has no mechanism for marking up notes. Despite a number of different proposals over the years, repeated pleas from the user base, the working group has been unable to reach a consensus on it; because of this, MediaWiki, for example, has had to introduce its own <ref></ref> tag for citing references in notes, an idea which has since been implemented for generic use by the Nelson HTML preprocessor. It might be argued that the hyperlink eliminates the need for notes, being the web's way to refer to another document. However, it does not allow citing to offline sources and if the destination of the link changes, the link can become dead or irrelevant. A proposed solution is the use of a digital object identifier; the London printer Richard Jugge is credited as the inventor of the footnote, first used in the Bishops' Bible of 1568.
Early printings of the Douay Bible used two spaced colons to indicate a marginal note. At times, notes have been used for their comical effect, or as a literary device. James Joyce's Finnegans Wake uses footnotes along with left and right marginal notes in Book II Chapter 2; the three types of notes represent comments from the three siblings doing their homework: Shem and Issy. J. G. Ballard's "Notes Towards a Mental Breakdown," is one sentence and a series of elaborate footnotes to each one of the words. Mark Z. Danielewski's House of Leaves uses what are arguably some of the most extensive and intricate footnotes in literature. Throughout the novel, footnotes are used to tell several different
The Office of the Attorney General is an agency of the Oklahoma state government, headed by the Attorney General of Oklahoma. The OAG is responsible for supervising the administration of justice across the State, providing legal assistance to the State government, prosecuting violators of State law; the 17th Attorney General of Oklahoma was Scott Pruitt, who assumed that post on January 10, 2011. On December 7, 2016, President-elect Donald Trump selected Pruitt to be his nominee as the next Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. Pruitt was confirmed by the United States Senate as EPA Administrator on February 17, 2017, with Governor Mary Fallin being able to appoint his successor Mike Hunter as Attorney General on February 20, 2017; the office of the Attorney General is divided into several units: Attorney General First Assistant Attorney General Civil Division Consumer Protection Unit - Provides mediation services to consumers to help resolve complaints against businesses. The Division can provide information about complaints that have been filed against businesses, provide publications to help you make good decisions in the marketplace.
The Division brings law enforcement actions against businesses that harm large numbers of Oklahoma consumers through unfair and deceptive practices. Environmental Protection Unit - Division active in every area of environmental and natural resources law. Unit personnel protect the state's air, land and natural resources from pollution by investigating allegations of pollution and aggressively seeking remedies in both criminal and civil courts; the unit provides legal advice and representation to state environmental agencies and chairs the Environmental Crimes Task Force, a collection of state and local agencies united for the purpose of coordinating investigations and assuring efficient use of resources. General Counsel Unit - A major function of the Attorney General is to assists public officials in the performance of their duties, seeking to provide the best legal advice possible for the good of the State and its citizens. Most Attorney General Opinions are written by members of the General Counsel Unit.
These opinions are binding on state agencies unless overturned by a ruling from a court of competent jurisdiction. General Counsel Attorneys review Interlocal Agreements and examine and pass on any security issued by a county, township or other political subdivision. General Counsel Attorneys assist their clients in interpreting and following the Open Records Act and the Open Meeting Act and may assist in investigating and presenting a case against a particular professional licensee, or act as a hearing advisor to the licensure board during discipline proceedings. In addition to several specialized duties, the General Counsel Unit provides day-to-day legal advice for state agencies and commissions. For many entities, the assistant attorney general is the sole provider of legal advice and services. For others, the assistant attorney general is a liaison available in addition to the agency's in-house counsel. Litigation Section - The civil trial division for the Office of the Attorney General and main function of the office.
This section defends and prosecutes civil matters for the state and its agencies and employees. Litigation on behalf of the state is supported in every county, the Oklahoma Supreme Court, every federal district court in the state, the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals, the U. S. Supreme Court and in other states and foreign jurisdictions; the Office of the Attorney General defends state employees when sued for civil rights actions taken during their official duties. A majority of the more complicated and costly trials come from allegations surrounding the hiring and promotion of state employees; the Litigation Section has the responsibility to handle and direct the major class action litigation filed against institutions, including the challenges to the juvenile justice system. The unit represents state judicial officers, District Attorneys and the executive branch of state government when sued in both their official and individual capacities; the Litigation Section is responsible for tracking the hiring of private attorneys by other state agencies and reporting the costs to state agencies for services provided by private attorneys.
Public Utilities Unit - Unit represents and protects the interests of the state’s utility customers in rate-related proceedings. The unit participates in utility-related task forces. Criminal Division Criminal Appeals Section - As in civil matter, the Attorney General represents the state in the criminal appeals process to ensure that the decisions rendered by judges and juries are upheld in the appellate courts; the unit works to uphold the convictions of the guilty and ensures that the punishment imposed by judges and juries are carried out. Unit attorneys provide quality responses that aid the court in ruling on issues of law and in the development of new legal precedents. Multicounty Grand Jury Unit - The Multicounty Grand Jury Unit investigates and prosecutes cases ranging from homicide to narcotics violations; the unit administers all aspects of the Multicounty Grand Jury. Patient Abuse and Medicaid Fraud Control Unit - This Unit investigates and prosecutes Medicaid fraud and provider abuse and financial exploitation in Medicaid facilities.
RateMyTeachers.com is a review site used to rate K-12 and college teachers and schools. Participants are asked to rate their teachers on a scale of 1 to 5 in the categories of easiness, helpfulness and clarity, with the latter two factoring into an "overall quality" score. Individuals can write brief comments on their experiences with the teachers; as of April 2010, over eleven million teachers had been rated on the website. RMT was launched in 2001 by Mister Message, LLC and sold to former owner Patrick Nagle. RateMyTeachers.com services websites in the United States, United Kingdom, Ireland and New Zealand. RateMyTeachers.com was governed by a public community of volunteers who were granted the power to add and delete teacher listings and teacher ratings. The public community was replaced in 2017 by a private moderation community; the private moderation community was tasked to manually re-review every rating and teacher added to RMT since 2001. The private moderation community reviewed over 100,000 ratings a day.
However, the site got rid of all reviews due to a law in Europe that doesn't allow names to be displayed without permission of the individual. This new law led to a complete remodeling of the site. RateMyTeachers no longer allows students to write comments on the teachers, but they instead format reviews for comments on the class. RateMyTeachers.com is controversial in certain circles and many have questioned its approach. The site is open to the general public with no requirement to reveal their first or last name when commenting; this has led some to worry that those surfing the Internet can leave libellous comments without any repercussions to their own reputation. In 2007, the Queensland College of Teachers called for the shutdown of the page "until it can be established that it provides a credible service". In 2003, the New York State United Teachers sought a court injunction to shut down the site, though the request was denied on free speech grounds. In April 2007 the British education secretary Alan Johnson said that the online harassment of teachers performed by sites such as RateMyTeachers.com needs to stop.
This caused articles on RateMyTeachers by international press. RateMyTeachers.com
Jonathan Bayard Smith was an American merchant from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He served as a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress in 1777 and 1778. Smith was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation. Jonathan Smith was the son of a successful mercantile businessman, Samuel Smith, of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, who had moved to Philadelphia. Smith joined his father in business. Smith became an early advocate for American Independence. Smith became a member of the local Committee of Safety, in 1775 was made its secretary, he was elected a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1777, serving from April 4 of that year until November 1778. While in Congress, Smith endorsed the Articles of Confederation for Pennsylvania, but his role as a civic leader seems more important. Having advocated taking up arms he joined the militia, becoming a lieutenant colonel of John Bayard's regiment. After his congressional career, Smith returned his attention to business, but remained active in civic affairs.
He became a great promoter of education, in 1779 was one of the founders and a trustee of the "University of the State of Pennsylvania". In 1795, when it merged with two other schools to become the University of Pennsylvania, Smith became a trustee of the new school, serving until his death, he served as a trustee for his alma mater, for thirty years. Smith served in other civic organizations, he became an alderman in Philadelphia, a grand master of the Masons, a member of the American Philosophical Society. Smith died at his residence in Philadelphia in 1812, was buried in the Second Presbyterian Church Graveyard. In 1867, his remains were reinterred to Mount Vernon Cemetery. University of Pennsylvania archives United States Congress. "Jonathan Bayard Smith". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress