Kirill Yuryevich Eskov is a Russian writer and paleontologist. Eskov graduated from the Department of Biology of Moscow State University in 1979. In 1986 he defended a dissertation for the Candidate of Biological Sciences at the A. N. Severtsov Institute of Animal Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the theme being "Spiders of Northern Siberia", his main scientific interests as a biologist are the spiders of Siberia and the Russian Far East and, as a paleontologist, the Paleozoic and Cenozoic eras. As of 2008 he is the Senior Researcher at the Laboratory of Arthropods of the Paleontological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences and vice-president of the Eurasian Arachnological Society, he has worked at the institute since 1988. As of 2002 he had 86 scientific publications. Eskov discovered several new genera of spiders. Among seven discovered by him in 1988 is Kikimora palustris Eskov, 1988 It belongs to the Linyphiidae family, is found in Russia and Finland, the name translates from Latin as "marsh Kikimora".
Kikimora is a female spirit in Slavic mythology and the Russian equivalent of the phrase, "кикимора болотная", is well known in Russian common language. He is the author of the book "History of the Earth and its lifeforms", intended as a cutting edge biology textbook for high schools; as a fiction writer he published several books, one of the most famous being The Last Ringbearer, an alternative retelling of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, as told from the point of view of Sauron's forces, based on the proverb: "History is written by the victors." The book was "published to acclaim in his homeland in 1999. Translations of the book have appeared in other European nations, but fear of the vigilant and litigious Tolkien estate has heretofore prevented its publication in English." In late 2010, however, an English translation approved by Eskov was posted on LiveJournal, made available under non-commercial license. Critics have called The Last Ringbearer "a well-written, energetic adventure yarn that offers an intriguing gloss on what some critics have described as the overly simplistic morality of Tolkien's masterpiece."Among his other books is The Gospel of Afranius, a dramatic portrayal of Jesus.
In the novel he attempts to construct a demythologised account of the events of the Gospels. Eskov, K. Y.. "Seven new monotypic genera of spiders of the family Linyphiidae from Siberia". Zool. Zh. 67: 678–690. Eskov, K. Y.. "Several new linyphiid spider genera from the Russian Far East". Arthropoda Selecta. 2: 43–60. The Back Story to the Last Ring-bearer, by Dr. Kirill Eskov Translator's blog Kirill Eskov's blog Short biography at the Paleontological Institute List of publications on his personal page at the Laboratory Critique His books in the Lib.ru
J. R. R. Tolkien's influences
While creative, the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien was influenced by a number of sources. Tolkien was inspired by his academic fields of philology and early Germanic literature poetry and mythology, as well as a wide range of other beliefs and experiences; the Lord of the Rings is a sequel to The Hobbit and so shares influences with it. At the same time, it is a novel, much greater in scale and scope and so encompasses many other influences as well. Tolkien once described The Lord of the Rings to his friend, the English Jesuit Father Robert Murray, as "a fundamentally religious and Catholic work, unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision." Many theological themes underlie the narrative, including the battle of good versus evil, the triumph of humility over pride, the activity of grace, as seen with Frodo's pity toward Gollum. In addition the epic includes the themes of death and immortality and pity, salvation, self-sacrifice, free will, fellowship and healing. Tolkien mentions the Lord's Prayer the line "And lead us not into temptation but deliver us from evil" in connection with Frodo's struggles against the power of the One Ring.
Tolkien has said "Of course God is in The Lord of the Rings. The period was pre-Christian, but it was a monotheistic world" and when questioned, the One God of Middle-earth, Tolkien replied "The one, of course! The book is about the world that God created – the actual world of this planet." Tolkien was influenced by Norse mythology. During his education at King Edward's School in Birmingham, the young Tolkien read and translated from the Old Norse on his own time. One of his first Norse purchases was the Völsunga saga, it is known that while a student, Tolkien read the only available English translation of the Völsunga saga, that by William Morris of the Victorian Arts and Crafts Movement and Icelandic scholar Eiríkur Magnússon. The Old Norse Völsunga saga and the Old High German Nibelungenlied were coeval texts made with the use of the same ancient sources. Both of them provided some of the basis for Richard Wagner's opera series, Der Ring des Nibelungen, featuring in particular a magical golden ring and a broken sword reforged.
In the Völsunga saga, these items are Andvarinaut and Gram, they correspond broadly to the One Ring and the sword Narsil. The Volsunga Saga gives various names found in Tolkien. Tolkien wrote a book entitled The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún, in which he discusses the saga in relation to the myth of Sigurd and Gudrún; the figure of Gandalf is influenced by the Norse deity Odin in his incarnation as "The Wanderer", an old man with one eye, a long white beard, a wide brimmed hat, a staff. Tolkien, in a 1946 letter, nearly a decade after the character was invented, wrote that he thought of Gandalf as an "Odinic wanderer". Much like Odin, Gandalf promotes justice, knowledge and insight; the Balrog and the collapse of the Bridge of Khazad-dûm in Moria, is a direct parallel of the fire jötunn Surtr and the foretold destruction of Asgard's bridge in Norse myth. Tolkien's Elves and Dwarves are by and large based on the elves and dwarfs of Germanic mythology Two sources that contain accounts of elves and dwarfs that were of interest to Tolkien were the Prose Edda and the Elder or Poetic Edda.
The descriptions of elves and dwarves in these works are ambiguous and contradictory, however. Within the contents of the Völuspá in stanza 9, the creation of Dwarves predates Man, the formula Tolkien uses for Middle-earth; the names of Gandalf and the dwarves in The Hobbit were taken from the "Dvergatal" section of Völuspá in the Poetic Edda and the "Gylfaginning" section of the Prose Edda. Tolkien was a Professor of Old English/Anglo-Saxon and Middle English language and literature, this literature Beowulf, influenced his own writings; as Tolley tells us in his Old English Influences on The Lord of the Rings, the ideas of heroism and masculinity that inform the character of Beowulf, can be seen in Aragorn. Both Aragorn and Beowulf have questionable family lines, both take on kingship only for the good of the people. Other themes, such as the conversation in The Hobbit between Bilbo Baggins and Smaug the dragon, as well as the antagonism created by the mere mention of gold and the concept of riddles, are reflected in Beowulf.
Tolkien based the people of Rohan, the Rohirrim, on the historical Anglo-Saxons, giving them Anglo-Saxon names and poetry. The Anglo-Saxon poem, "The Wanderer," is paraphrased by Aragorn as an example of Rohirric verse. Another major influence on Tolkien is riddle poetry from Anglo-Saxon England; some of the oldest surviving Old English manuscripts contain riddle poems, such as the Leiden Riddle in the Leiden MS. The contest between Bilbo and Gollum is a good example of this. Finnish mythology and more the Finnish national epic Kalevala were acknowledged by Tolkien as an influence on Middle-earth. In a manner similar to The Lord of the Rings, the Kalevala centres around a magical item of great power, the Sampo, which bestows great fortune on its owner, but never makes clear its exact nature. Like the One Ring, the Sampo is fought over by forces of good and evil, is lost to the world as it is destroyed towards the end of the story. In another parallel, the work's wizard character, Väinämöinen, is similar to Gandalf in his immortal origins and wise nature, both works end with the wizard character departing on a ship to lands beyond the mortal world.
Tolkien based elements of his Elvish language Quenya on Finnish. The extent of Celtic influence is debatable. Tolkien wrote that he gave the Elvish langua
The Final Solution or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question was a Nazi plan for the genocide of Jews during World War II. The "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" was the official code name for the murder of all Jews within reach, not restricted to the European continent; this policy of deliberate and systematic genocide starting across German-occupied Europe was formulated in procedural and geo-political terms by Nazi leadership in January 1942 at the Wannsee Conference held near Berlin, culminated in the Holocaust, which saw the killing of 90% of Polish Jews, two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. The nature and timing of the decisions that led to the Final Solution is an intensely researched and debated aspect of the Holocaust; the program evolved during the first 25 months of war leading to the attempt at "murdering every last Jew in the German grasp". Most historians agree, wrote Christopher Browning, that the Final Solution cannot be attributed to a single decision made at one particular point in time.
"It is accepted the decision-making process was prolonged and incremental." In 1940, following the Fall of France, Adolf Eichmann devised the Madagascar Plan to move Europe's Jewish population to the French colony, but the plan was abandoned for logistical reasons a naval blockade. There were preliminary plans to deport Jews to Palestine and Siberia. In 1941, wrote Raul Hilberg, in the first phase of the mass murder of Jews, the mobile killing units began to pursue their victims across occupied eastern territories; the term "Final Solution" was a euphemism used by the Nazis to refer to their plan for the annihilation of the Jewish people. Historians have shown that the usual tendency of the German leadership was to be guarded when discussing the Final Solution. Euphemisms were, in Mark Roseman's words, "their normal mode of communicating about murder". From gaining power in January 1933 until the outbreak of war in September 1939, the Nazi persecution of the Jews in Germany was focused on intimidation, expropriating their money and property, encouraging them to emigrate.
According to the Nazi Party policy statement, the Jews and Gypsies, were the only "alien people in Europe". In 1936, the Bureau of Romani Affairs in Munich was taken over by Interpol and renamed The Center for Combating the Gypsy Menace. Introduced at the end of 1937, the "final solution of the Gypsy Question" entailed round-ups and incarceration of Romani in concentration camps built at, until this point in time, Buchenwald, Flossenbürg, Natzweiler, Ravensbruck and Westerbork. After the Anschluss with Austria in 1938, special offices were established in Vienna and Berlin to "facilitate" Jewish emigration, without covert plans for their forthcoming annihilation; the outbreak of war and the invasion of Poland brought a population of 3.5 million Polish Jews under the control of the Nazi and Soviet security forces, marked the start of a far more savage persecution, including mass killings. In the German-occupied zone of Poland, Jews were forced into hundreds of makeshift ghettos, pending other arrangements.
Two years with the launch of Operation Barbarossa against the USSR in late June 1941, the German top echelon began to pursue Hitler's new anti-Semitic plan to eradicate, rather than expel, Jews. Hitler's earlier ideas about forcible removal of Jews from the German-controlled territories in order to achieve Lebensraum were abandoned after the failure of the air campaign against Britain, initiating a naval blockade of Germany. Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler became the chief architect of a new plan, which came to be called The Final Solution to the Jewish Question. On 31 July 1941, Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring wrote to Reinhard Heydrich, instructing Heydrich to submit concrete proposals for the implementation of the new projected goal. Broadly speaking, the extermination of Jews was carried out in two major operations. With the onset of Operation Barbarossa, launched from occupied Poland in June 1941, mobile killing units of the SS and Orpo were dispatched to Soviet controlled territories of eastern Poland and further into the Soviet republics for the express purpose of killing all Jews, both Polish and Soviet.
During the massive chase after the fleeing Red Army, Himmler himself visited Białystok in the beginning of July 1941, requested that, "as a matter of principle, any Jew" behind the German-Soviet frontier "was to be regarded as a partisan". His new orders gave the SS and police leaders full authority for the mass murder behind the front-lines. By August 1941, all Jewish men and children were shot. In the second phase of annihilation, the Jewish inhabitants of central and south-eastern Europe were transported by Holocaust trains to camps with newly-built gassing facilities. Raul Hilberg wrote: "In essence, the killers of the occupied USSR moved to the victims, whereas outside this arena, the victims were brought to the killers; the two operations constitute an evolution not only chronologically, but in complexity." Massacres of about one million Jews occurred before plans for the Final Solution were implemented in 1942, but it was only with the decision to annihilate the entire Jewish population that extermination camps such as Auschwitz II Birkenau and Treblinka were fitted with permanent gas chambers to kill large numbers of Jews in a short period of time.
The plans to exterminate all the Jews of Europe was formalized at the Wannsee Conference, held at an SS g
Gandalf is a fictional character and a protagonist in J. R. R. Tolkien's novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, he is a wizard, member of the Istari order, as well as leader of the Fellowship of the Ring and the army of the West. In The Lord of the Rings, he is known as Gandalf the Grey, but returns from death as Gandalf the White. Although known as Gandalf, the character has a number of names in Tolkien's writings. Gandalf himself says, "Many are my names in many countries. Mithrandir among the Elves, Tharkûn to the Dwarves, Olórin I was in my youth in the West, forgotten, in the South Incánus, in the North Gandalf. In Norse the name means staff-elf; this is reflected in his name Tharkûn, "said to mean'Staff-man' " in Khuzdul, one of Tolkien's invented languages. In Middle-earth the colour of a Wizard's cloak distinguishes him from other Wizards. For most of his manifestation as a wizard, Gandalf's cloak is famously grey, from this derive a number of his appellations: hence Gandalf the Grey, Greyhame.
Mithrandir is a name in Sindarin, the translation of which gives rise to further names for Gandalf: the Grey Pilgrim and the Grey Wanderer. Midway through The Lord of the Rings, Gandalf is promoted to the head of the order of Wizards, is thus named Gandalf the White instead of Gandalf the Grey; this change in status introduces yet another name for the wizard: the White Rider. However after this transformation, characters who speak Elvish still refer to the wizard as Mithrandir. At times in The Lord of the Rings, other characters address Gandalf by nicknames disparaging: hence Stormcrow, Láthspell, Grey Fool. Láthspell means'Ill-news' in Old English. Tolkien discusses Gandalf in his essay on the Istari, he describes Gandalf as the last of the wizards to appear in Middle-earth, one who: "seemed the least, less tall than the others, in looks more aged, grey-haired and grey-clad, leaning on a staff". Yet the Elf Círdan who met him on arrival considered him "the greatest spirit and the wisest" and gave him the Elven Ring of Power called Narya, the Ring of Fire, containing a "red" stone for his aid and comfort.
Tolkien explicitly links Gandalf to the element fire in the same essay: Warm and eager was his spirit, for he was the Enemy of Sauron, opposing the fire that devours and wastes with the fire that kindles, succours in wanhope and distress. Merry he could be, kindly to the young and simple, yet quick at times to sharp speech and the rebuking of folly, he journeyed tirelessly on foot, leaning on a staff, so he was called among Men of the North Gandalf'the Elf of the Wand'. For they deemed him to be of Elven-kind, since he would at times work wonders among them, loving the beauty of fire, yet it is said that in the ending of the task for which he came he suffered and was slain, being sent back from death for a brief while was clothed in white, became a radiant flame. As one of the Maiar, Gandalf would have participated in the Music of the Ainur at the creation of the world; however he does not attain any prominence. In Valinor, Gandalf was known as Olórin; as recounted in the "Valaquenta" in The Silmarillion, he was one of the Maiar of Valinor of the people of the Vala Manwë.
He was closely associated with two other Valar: Irmo, in whose gardens he lived, Nienna, the patron of mercy, who gave him tutelage. When the Valar decided to send the order of the Wizards to Middle-earth in order to counsel and assist all those who opposed Sauron, Olórin was proposed by Manwë. Olórin begged to be excused as he feared Sauron and lacked the strength to face him, but Manwë replied that, all the more reason for him to go; as one of the Maiar, Gandalf was not a mortal Man but an angelic being. As one of those spirits, Olórin was in service to the Creator and the Creator's'Secret Fire'. Along with the other Maiar who entered into the world as the five Wizards, he took on the specific form of an aged old man as a sign of his humility; the role of the wizards was to advise and counsel but never to attempt to match Sauron's strength with his own, the kings and lords of Middle-earth would be more receptive to the advice of a humble old man than a more glorious form giving them direct commands.
The Istari arrived in Middle-earth separately, around T. A. 1000. He seemed the oldest and least in stature of them, but Círdan the Shipwright felt that he had the highest inner greatness on their first meeting in the Havens, gave him Narya, the Ring of Fire. Saruman, the chief Wizard learned of the gift and resented it. Gandalf hid the ring well, it was not known until he left with the other ring-bearers at the end of the Third Age that he, not Círdan, was the holder of the third of the Elven-rings. Gandalf's relationship with Saruman, the head of their Order, was strained; the Wizards were commanded to aid Men and Dwarves, but only through counsel.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry written by J. R. R. Tolkien and published in 1962; the book contains 16 poems, two of which feature Tom Bombadil, a character encountered by Frodo Baggins in The Fellowship of the Ring. The rest of the poems are an assortment of bestiary fairy tale rhyme. Three of the poems appear in The Lord of the Rings as well; the book is part of Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium. The volume includes The Sea-Bell, subtitled Frodos Dreme, which W. H. Auden considered Tolkien's best poem, it is a piece of metrical and rhythmical complexity that recounts a journey to a strange land beyond the sea. Drawing on medieval'dream vision' poetry and Irish'immram' poems the piece is markedly melancholic and the final note is one of alienation and disillusion; the book was illustrated by Pauline Baynes and by Roger Garland. The book, like the first edition of The Fellowship of the Ring, is presented as if it is an actual translation from the Red Book of Westmarch, contains some background information on the world of Middle-earth, not found elsewhere: e.g. the name of the tower at Dol Amroth and the names of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.
There is some fictional background information of those poems, linking them to Hobbit folklore and literature and to their actual writers. The book uses the letter "K" instead of "C" for the /k/ sound in Sindarin, a spelling variant Tolkien used many times in his writings; the Adventures of Tom Bombadil Bombadil Goes Boating Errantry Princess Mee The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late* The Man in the Moon Came Down Too Soon The Stone Troll* Perry-the-Winkle The Mewlips Oliphaunt* Fastitocalon Cat Shadow-bride The Hoard The Sea-Bell The Last Ship*Poems featured in The Lord of the Rings The Adventures of Tom Bombadil was first published as a stand-alone book in 1962. Some editions, such as the Unwin Paperbacks edition and Poems and Stories, erroneously state that it was first published in'1961'. Tolkien's letters confirm. Beginning with The Tolkien Reader in 1966, it was included in a number of anthologies of Tolkien's shorter works; this trend continued after his death with Tales from the Perilous Realm.
In 2014 Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond edited a new stand-alone edition, which includes for each poem detailed commentary, original versions and their sources. Barrow-wight Farmer Maggot Goldberry Old Forest Old Man Willow The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
An electronic book known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops and smartphones. In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With print books, readers are browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online. With e-books, users can browse through titles online, when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book.
At the start of 2012 in the U. S. more e-books were published online. The main reasons for people buying e-books online are lower prices, increased comfort and a larger selection of titles. With e-books, "lectronic bookmarks make referencing easier, e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages." "Although fiction and non-fiction books come in e-book formats, technical material is suited for e-book delivery because it can be searched" for keywords. In addition, for programming books, code examples can be copied; the amount of e-book reading is increasing in the U. S.. This is increasing, because by 2014 50% of American adults had an e-reader or a tablet, compared to 30% owning such devices in 2013. E-books are referred to as "ebooks", "eBooks", "Ebooks", "e-Books", "e-journals", "e-editions" or as "digital books"; the devices that are designed for reading e-books are called "e-readers", "ebook device" or "eReaders". Some trace the idea of an e-reader that would enable a reader to view books on a screen to a 1930 manifesto by Bob Brown, written after watching his first "talkie".
He titled it The Readies, playing off the idea of the "talkie". In his book, Brown says movies have outmaneuvered the book by creating the "talkies" and, as a result, reading should find a new medium: “A simple reading machine which I can carry or move around, attach to any old electric light plug and read hundred-thousand-word novels in 10 minutes if I want to, I want to.” Brown's notion, was much more focused on reforming orthography and vocabulary, than on medium: introducing huge numbers of portmanteau symbols to replace normal words, punctuation to simulate action or movement. E-readers never followed a model at all like Brown's. Brown predicted the miniaturization and portability of e-readers. In an article, Jennifer Schuessler writes, "The machine, Brown argued, would allow readers to adjust the type size, avoid paper cuts and save trees, all while hastening the day when words could be'recorded directly on the palpitating ether.'" He felt the e-reader should bring a new life to reading.
Schuessler relates it to a DJ spinning bits of old songs to create a beat or an new song as opposed to just a remix of a familiar song. The inventor of the first e-book is not agreed upon; some notable candidates include the following: In 1949, Ángela Ruiz Robles, a teacher from Ferrol, patented the Enciclopedia Mecánica, or the Mechanical Encyclopedia, a mechanical device which operated on compressed air where text and graphics were contained on spools that users would load onto rotating spindles. Her idea was to create a device which would decrease the number of books that her pupils carried to school; the final device would include audio recordings, a magnifying glass, a calculator and an electric light for night reading. Her device was never put into production but one of her prototypes is kept in the National Museum of Science and Technology in La Coruna, Spain; the first e-book may be the Index Thomisticus, a annotated electronic index to the works of Thomas Aquinas, prepared by Roberto Busa, S.
J. beginning in 1949 and completed in the 1970s. Although stored on a single computer, a distributable CD-ROM version appeared in 1989. However, this work is sometimes omitted. In 2005, the Index was published online. Alternatively, some historians consider electronic books to have started in the early 1960s, with the NLS project headed by Doug Engelbart at Stanford Research Institute, the Hypertext Editing System and FRESS projects headed by Andries van Dam at Brown University. FRESS documents were structure-oriented rather than line-oriented. All these systems provided extensive hyperlinking and other capabilities. Van Dam is thought to have coined the term "electronic book", it was established enough to use in an article title by 1985. FRESS was used for reading extensive primary texts on