Gloria Anna Holden was an English-born American film actress, best known for her role as Dracula's Daughter. Born in England, Gloria Holden emigrated to the United States as a child with her parents, Charles Laurence Sutherland and Eska, her mother was German. She attended school in Wayne and studied at New York's American Academy of Dramatic Arts. Holden's early stage work included small parts in plays such as The Royal Family, in which she spoke four lines playing a nurse, she was an understudy to Mary Ellis in Children of Darkness, had a minor role in That Ferguson Family. She succeeded Lilly Cahill in As Husbands Go at the John Golden Theatre on Broadway, in June 1931. In August 1932, Holden was part of the cast of Manhattan Melody at the Longacre Theatre; the Lawrence Hazard play, adapted by L. Lawrence Weber featured Helen Lowell, Minnie Dupree and William Corbett as players, she was the leading lady in Survivor, written by D. L. James. Holden was among the cast members in a Myron Fagan play.
She may be best remembered for two roles in her long career, that of Mme. Zola in The Life of Emile Zola, her "exotic" depiction of the title role in Dracula's Daughter, her performance in the latter influenced the writings of horror novelist Anne Rice, Dracula's Daughter is directly mentioned in Rice's novel The Queen of the Damned. In July 1937, Holden was assigned to play the character of Marian Morgan in The Man Without a Country; the Technicolor short co-starred John Litel and was nominated for a Short Subject Academy Award. Other films in which she appeared include: Holden played a non-singing Julie La Verne on the 1940 Lux Radio Theatre adaptation of Show Boat, based on the 1936 film version. Holden married Harold A. Winston on December 17, 1932. In 1944, she married William Hoyt, to whom she remained married until her death, they had one son, William Christopher Hoyt, born in 1948 and killed in an automobile accident in 1970, listed as a homicide. Gloria Holden died of a myocardial infarction in 1991, aged 87.
Harold Winston, credited with helping discover actor William Holden, named him in honor of Gloria Holden. A version of how William Holden obtained his stage name is based on a statement by George Ross of Billboard magazine. George Ross stated: "William Holden, the lad just signed for the coveted lead in "Golden Boy", used to be Bill Beadle, and here is. On the Columbia lot is an assistant director and scout named Harold Winston. Not long ago he was divorced from the actress, Gloria Holden, but carried the torch after the marital rift. Winston was one of those who discovered the "Golden Boy" newcomer and who renamed him—in honor of his former spouse!..." The New York Times, "In The Summer Spotlight", June 14, 1931, p. X3. New York Times, "Theatrical Notes", August 27, 1932, p. 13. New York Times, "16 New Plays Open In Byways Tonight", August 14, 1933, p. 18. New York Times, "Theatrical Notes", January 27, 1934, p. 8. New York Times, "Listing The Week's New Shows", July 21, 1935, p. X1. Zanesville Signal, "Liberty Horror Film", June 23, 1936, p. 11.
Los Angeles Times, "New Film Productions Started In Last Week". February 2, 1936, p. C1. Los Angeles Times, "The Pageant of The Film World", July 14, 1937, p. 13. Los Angeles Times, "Around And About In Hollywood", October 4, 1937, p. A9 Los Angeles Times, "Town Called Hollywood", August 21, 1938, p. C1. Los Angeles Times, "Troupe Treks To Modesto Location", November 11, 1938, p. 10. Los Angeles Times, "Jap Treachery Background of Screen Drama", September 11, 1943, p. 7. Gloria Holden on IMDb Gloria Holden filmography, nytimes.com Gloria Holden at Find a Grave
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry; the award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Supporting Actress winner. At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony held in 1937, Walter Brennan was the first winner of this award for his role in Come and Get It. Winners in both supporting acting categories were awarded plaques instead of statuettes. Beginning with the 16th ceremony held in 1944, winners received full-sized statuettes. Nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS. Since its inception, the award has been given to 74 actors. Brennan has received the most awards in this category with three awards. Brennan, Jeff Bridges, Robert Duvall, Arthur Kennedy, Jack Nicholson, Claude Rains were nominated on four occasions, more than any other actor.
As of the 2019 ceremony, Mahershala Ali is the most recent winner in this category for his role as Don Shirley in Green Book. In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, correspond to the year of film release in Los Angeles County. All Academy Award acting nominees BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Supporting Actor Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role Crouse, Richard. Reel Winners: Movie Award Trivia. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-574-3. Kinn, Gail.
Alfred Dreyfus was a French Jewish artillery officer whose trial and conviction in 1894 on charges of treason became one of the most tense political dramas in modern French history with a wide echo in all Europe. Known today as the Dreyfus affair, the incident ended with Dreyfus's complete exoneration. Born in Mulhouse, Alsace in 1859, Dreyfus was the youngest of nine children born to Raphaël and Jeannette Dreyfus. Raphaël Dreyfus was a prosperous, self-made Jewish textile manufacturer who had started as a peddler. Alfred was 10 years old when the Franco-Prussian War broke out in the summer of 1870, his family moved to Paris following the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany after the war; the childhood experience of seeing his family uprooted by the war with Germany prompted Dreyfus to decide on a career in the military. Following his 18th birthday in October 1877, he enrolled in the elite École Polytechnique military school in Paris, where he received military training and an education in the sciences.
In 1880, he was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in the French army. From 1880 to 1882, he attended the artillery school at Fontainebleau to receive more specialized training as an artillery officer. On graduation he was assigned to the Thirty-first Artillery Regiment, in garrison at Le Mans. Dreyfus was subsequently transferred to a mounted artillery battery attached to the First Cavalry Division, promoted to lieutenant in 1885. In 1889, he was made adjutant to the director of the Établissement de Bourges, a government arsenal, promoted to captain. On 18 April 1891, the 31-year-old Dreyfus married 20-year-old Lucie Eugénie Hadamard, they had two children and Jeanne. Three days after the wedding, Dreyfus learned that he had been admitted to the École Supérieure de Guerre or War College. Two years he graduated ninth in his class with honorable mention and was designated as a trainee in the French Army's General Staff headquarters, where he would be the only Jewish officer, his father Raphaël died on 13 December 1893.
At the War College examination in 1892, his friends had expected him to do well. However, one of the members of the panel, General Bonnefond, felt that "Jews were not desired" on the staff, gave Dreyfus poor marks for cote d'amour. Bonnefond's assessment lowered Dreyfus's overall grade. Learning of this injustice, the two officers lodged a protest with the director of the school, General Lebelin de Dionne, who expressed his regret for what had occurred, but said he was powerless to take any steps in the matter; the protest would count against Dreyfus. The French army of the period was open to entry and advancement by talent, with an estimated 300 Jewish officers, of whom ten were generals. However, within the Fourth Bureau of the General Staff, General Bonnefond's prejudices appear to have been shared by some of the new trainee's superiors; the personal assessments received by Dreyfus during 1893/94 acknowledged his high intelligence, but were critical of aspects of his personality. In 1894, the French Army's counter-intelligence section, led by Lieutenant Colonel Jean Sandherr, became aware that information regarding new artillery parts was being passed to the Germans by a placed spy, most on the General Staff.
Suspicion fell upon Dreyfus, arrested for treason on 15 October 1894. On 5 January 1895, Dreyfus was summarily convicted in a secret court martial, publicly stripped of his army rank, sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island in French Guiana. Following French military custom of the time, Dreyfus was formally degraded by having the rank insignia and braid cut from his uniform and his sword broken, all in the courtyard of the École Militaire before silent ranks of soldiers, while a large crowd of onlookers shouted abuse from behind railings. Dreyfus cried out: "I swear that I am innocent. I remain worthy of serving in the Army. Long live France! Long live the Army!"In August 1896, the new chief of French military intelligence, Lieutenant Colonel Georges Picquart, reported to his superiors that he had found evidence to the effect that the real traitor was a Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy. Picquart was silenced by being transferred to the southern desert of Tunisia in November 1896; when reports of an army cover-up and Dreyfus's possible innocence were leaked to the press, a heated debate ensued about anti-Semitism and France's identity as a Catholic nation or a republic founded on equal rights for all citizens.
Esterhazy was found not guilty before fleeing to England. Following a passionate campaign by Dreyfus's supporters, including leading artists and intellectuals such as Émile Zola, he was given a second trial in 1899 and again declared guilty of treason despite the evidence in favor of his innocence. However, due to public opinion, Dreyfus was offered and accepted a pardon by President Émile Loubet in 1899 and released from prison. Had Dreyfus refused the pardon, he would have been returned to Devil's Island, a fate he could no longer cope with, it is nothing for me without my honor. For two years, until July 1906, he lived in a state of house-arrest with one of his sisters at Carpentras, at Cologny. On 12 July 1906, Dreyfus was exonerated by a military commission; the day after his exoneration
The penal colony of Cayenne known as Devil's Island, was a French penal colony that operated in the 19th and 20th century in the Salvation's Islands of French Guiana. Opened in 1852, the Devil's Island system received convicts deported from all parts of the Second French Empire, was infamous for its harsh treatment of detainees, with a death rate of 75% at their worst, until it was closed down in 1953. Devil's Island was notorious for being used for the internal exile of French political prisoners, with the most famous being Captain Alfred Dreyfus; the prison system stretched over several locations, on the mainland and in the off-shore Salvation's Islands. Île Royale was the reception centre for the general population of the penal colony. Saint-Joseph Island was the Reclusion, where inmates were sent to be punished by solitary confinement in silence and darkness for escapes or offences committed in the penal colony. Devil's Island was for political prisoners. In the 19th century, the most famous such prisoner was Captain Alfred Dreyfus.
In addition to the prisons on each of the three islands in the Salut island group, the French constructed three related prison facilities on the South American mainland, just across the straits at Kourou. Prisoners convicted of felonies in the 17th and 18th centuries were sentenced to serve as oarsmen in the French Mediterranean galley fleet. Given the harsh conditions, this was a death sentence. Following the decommissioning of the Mediterranean galley fleet in 1666, the majority of prisoners were paired together in chains aboard galley hulks moored in French harbours until the bagnes rotted and sank; the prisoners were moved to live on the adjacent pontoons. Prisoners relied on charity or their families for food and clothing, they were required to work 12 hours a day in the docks, earning 10-15 centimes, which they could spend on food and wine. Other prisoners were housed in prisons onshore, where conditions were so bad that many prisoners would "beg" to be transferred to the hulks. By the early 19th century, the French urban population had increased from under six million to over 16 million, with a commensurate increase in crime.
In 1832 legislation was passed mandating the state's provision of basic necessities to prisoners. Recidivism of up to 75% had become a major problem. In the 1840s, the state set up internal agricultural penal colonies as a place to receive prisoners, thereby removing them from urban environments and giving them employment. Prisoners were sentenced under doublage by which, on completion of their sentence, they were required to work as employees at the penal colony for an additional period equal to their original sentence; the French Navy, tasked with managing the prison hulks, complained about the cost of guarding the hulks and the disruption they caused to the shipyards. Following his coup in 1851, Emperor Napoleon III ordered that the hulks be permanently closed and that civil law convicts be transferred overseas to colonies. Debate over where the convicts would be sent was prolonged. Algeria was ruled out by the Navy. France had failed since 1604 to colonize French Guiana; the last attempt at colonization was in 1763, 75% of the 12,000 colonists, sent there died in their first year.
By the 1850s, the declining number of survivors were on the brink of extinction. In 1852, Napoleon called for volunteer prisoners from the hulks to transfer to the new Bagne de Cayenne at French Guiana. Two categories of prisoners were eligible for transportation: transportés, those civil-law prisoners sentenced under doublage, déportés, prisoners convicted of political crimes, such as espionage or conspiracy; the hulks continued to be used, housing an average of 5,400 prisoners at a time, until they were closed around the turn of the century. The agricultural penal colonies continued to be used for juveniles until the last was closed in 1939; the islands were part of a penal colony from 1852 onwards for criminals of France, who were convicted by juries rather than magistrates. The main part of the penal colony was a labor camp that stretched along the border with Dutch Guiana; this penal colony was controversial as it had a reputation for brutality. Prisoner-on-prisoner violence was common. Only a small minority of broken survivors returned to France to tell.
This system was phased out and has been shut down since 1953. Since the late 20th century, the islands have been tourist destinations; the islands were featured in the book Papillon, published as a memoir by Henri Charrière, a former prisoner who escaped. Devil's Island and associated prisons became one of the most infamous prison systems in history. While the prison system was in use, inmates included political prisoners and the most hardened of thieves and murderers; the vast majority of
Carl Henry Vogt, known professionally as Louis Calhern, was an American stage and screen actor. For portraying Oliver Wendell Holmes in the film The Magnificent Yankee, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Calhern was born Carl Henry Vogt in Brooklyn, New York, in 1895, the son of Eugene Adolf Vogt and Hubertina Friese Vogt, both of whom immigrated to New York from Germany, he had a sister. His father was a tobacco dealer, his family left New York while he was in elementary school and moved to St. Louis, where he was raised. While playing high school football, a stage manager from a touring theatrical stock company noticed the tall, handsome youth, hired him as a bit player, his stage name is an amalgamation of his hometown of St. Louis and his first and middle names and Henry. Just before World War I, Calhern decided to return to New York to pursue an acting career, he began as a prop bit player with various touring and burlesque companies. He became a matinee idol by virtue of a play titled Cobra.
Calhern's Broadway credits include: Calhern's burgeoning career was interrupted by the First World War, he served in France in the 143rd Field Artillery of the United States Army. Calhern began working in silent films for director Lois Weber in the early 1920s. A contemporary newspaper article commented, "The new arrival in stardom is Louis Calhern, until Miss Weber engaged him to enact the leading male role in What's Worth While?, had been playing leads in the Morosco Stock company of Los Angeles."In 1923, Calhern left the movies to devote his career to the stage, but he would return to the screen eight years after the advent of sound pictures. He was cast as a character actor in films, while he continued to play leading roles on the stage, he reached his peak in the early 1950s as a Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer contract player. Among his many memorable screen portrayals were Ambassador Trentino in the Marx Brothers classic Duck Soup and three diverse roles that he appeared in at MGM in 1950: a singing role as Buffalo Bill in the film version of the musical Annie Get Your Gun, the double-crossing lawyer and sugar-daddy to Marilyn Monroe in John Huston's film noir classic The Asphalt Jungle, his Oscar-nominated performance as Oliver Wendell Holmes in The Magnificent Yankee.
He was praised for his portrayal of the title role in the John Houseman production of Julius Caesar in 1953, directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz. Calhern played the role of the devious George Caswell, the manipulative board member of Tredway Corporation in the 1954 production of Executive Suite. Calhern's other many film roles included the partner in crime to Spencer Tracy and Bette Davis in 20,000 Years in Sing Sing, the spy boss of Cary Grant in the Alfred Hitchcock suspense classic Notorious, a jaded and acerbic high school teacher in The Blackboard Jungle, his performance as Uncle Willie in High Society, a musical remake of The Philadelphia Story, turned out to be his final film. Calhern was married four times, to Ilka Chase from 1926 to 1927, Julia Hoyt from 1927 to 1932, Natalie Schafer from 1933 to 1942, Marianne Stewart from 1946 to 1955. All four marriages ended in divorce. Calhern suffered from alcoholism. According to Schafer, Calhern's inability to overcome his addiction ended their marriage.
While he was willing to consult doctors, she said Calhern refused to attend Alcoholics Anonymous because he was an atheist, he considered it a religious organization. He overcame his alcohol addiction in the late 1940s. Calhern died at age 61 of a sudden heart attack in Nara, while there to film The Teahouse of the August Moon, he was replaced in the film by Paul Ford, who had played Calhern's role in the original Broadway production. Calhern is interred at Hollywood Forever Cemetery. Louis Calhern on IMDb Louis Calhern at AllMovie Louis Calhern at the Internet Broadway Database
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi