Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad is a freight hauling railroad that operates 8,500 locomotives over 32,100 route-miles in 23 states west of Chicago and New Orleans. The Union Pacific Railroad system is the second largest in the United States after the BNSF Railway and is one of the world's largest transportation companies; the Union Pacific Railroad is the principal operating company of the Union Pacific Corporation. Union Pacific is known for pioneering multiple innovative locomotives the most powerful of their era; these include members of the Challenger-type, the Northern-type, as well as the famous Big Boy steam locomotives. Union Pacific ordered the first streamliner, the largest fleet of turbine-electric locomotives in the world, still owns the largest operational diesel locomotive; the Union Pacific legacy began in 1862 with the original company, called the Union Pacific Rail Road, part of the First Transcontinental Railroad project known as the Overland Route. The railroad would subsequently be reorganized thrice: as the Union Pacific Railway, as the Union Pacific "Railroad", as a renamed Southern Pacific Transportation Company.
The current Union Pacific corporation began in 1969 as the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, itself created in a reorganization of a railroad whose legacy dated to 1865. Over the years it would grow to include the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad and the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, in addition to its eponymous railroad; the 1998 Union Pacific-Southern Pacific merger was not UP's first: Union Pacific had merged with Missouri Pacific Railroad, the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company, the Western Pacific Railroad and the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. However, because the merger with Southern Pacific changed the scope of the Union Pacific railroad, this article will refer to the unmerged system as Union Pacific, the merged system as Union Pacific. Union Pacific's main competitor is the BNSF Railway, the nation's largest freight railroad by volume, which primarily services the Continental U. S. west of the Mississippi River. Together, the two railroads have a duopoly on all transcontinental freight rail lines in the U.
S. The original company, the Union Pacific Rail Road was incorporated on July 1, 1862, under an act of Congress entitled Pacific Railroad Act of 1862; the act was approved by President Abraham Lincoln, it provided for the construction of railroads from the Missouri River to the Pacific as a war measure for the preservation of the Union. It was constructed westward from Council Bluffs, Iowa to meet the Central Pacific Railroad line, constructed eastward from Sacramento, CA; the combined Union Pacific-Central Pacific line became known as the First Transcontinental Railroad and the Overland Route. The line was constructed by Irish labor who had learned their craft during the recent Civil War. Under the guidance of its dominant stockholder Dr. Thomas Clark Durant, the namesake of the city of Durant, the first rails were laid in Omaha; the two lines were joined together at Promontory Summit, Utah, 53 miles west of Ogden on May 10, 1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America.
Subsequently, the UP purchased three Mormon-built roads: the Utah Central Railroad extending south from Ogden to Salt Lake City, the Utah Southern Railroad extending south from Salt Lake City into the Utah Valley, the Utah Northern Railroad extending north from Ogden into Idaho. The original UP was entangled in the Crédit Mobilier scandal, exposed in 1872; as detailed by The Sun, Union Pacific's largest construction company, Crédit Mobilier, had overcharged Union Pacific. In order to convince the federal government to accept the increased costs, Crédit Mobilier had bribed congressmen. Although the UP corporation itself was not guilty of any misdeeds, prominent UP board members had been involved in the scheme; the ensuing financial crisis of 1873 led to a credit crunch, but not bankruptcy. As boom followed bust, the Union Pacific continued to expand; the original company was purchased by a new company on January 24, 1880, with dominant stockholder Jay Gould. Gould owned the Kansas Pacific, sought to merge it with UP.
Thusly was the original "Union Pacific Rail Road" transformed into "Union Pacific Railway."Extending towards the Pacific Northwest, Union Pacific built or purchased local lines that gave it access to Portland, Oregon. Towards Colorado, it built the Union Pacific and Gulf Railway: both narrow gauge trackage into the heart of the Rockies and a standard gauge line that ran south from Denver, across New Mexico, into Texas; the Union Pacific Railway would declare bankruptcy during the Panic of 1893. Again, a new Union Pacific "Railroad" was formed and Union Pacific "Railway" merged into the new corporation. In the early 20th century, Union Pacific's focus shifted from expansion to internal improvement. Recognizing that farmers in the Central and Salinas Valleys of California grew produce far in excess of local markets, Union Pacific worked with its rival Southern Pacific to develop a rail-based transport system, not vulnerable to spoilage; these efforts came culminated in the 1906 founding of
D. W. Griffith
David Wark Griffith was an American director and producer who pioneered modern cinematic techniques. He is remembered for The Birth of a Intolerance; the Birth of a Nation made use of advanced camera and narrative techniques, its popularity set the stage for the dominance of the feature-length film in the United States. The film has sparked significant controversy surrounding racism in the United States, focusing on its negative depiction of black people and the glorification of the Ku Klux Klan. Today, it is both acclaimed for its radical technique and condemned for its inherently racist philosophy; the film was subject to boycotts by the NAACP. Intolerance was an answer to his critics. Several of Griffith's films were successful, including Broken Blossoms, Way Down East, Orphans of the Storm, but his high costs for production and roadshow made his ventures commercial failures, he made 500 films by the time of his final feature The Struggle. Griffith is one of the founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and among the most important figures in the history of film.
He popularized the use of the close-up shot. Griffith was born on a farm in Oldham County, the son of Mary Perkins and Jacob Wark "Roaring Jake" Griffith a Confederate Army colonel in the American Civil War, elected as a Kentucky state legislator. Griffith was raised a Methodist, he attended a one-room schoolhouse where he was taught by his older sister Mattie, his father died when he was ten, the family struggled with poverty. When Griffith was 14, his mother abandoned the farm and moved the family to Louisville, where she opened a boarding house, it failed shortly after. Griffith left high school to help support the family, taking a job in a dry goods store and in a bookstore, he began his creative career as an actor in touring companies. Meanwhile, he was learning how to become a playwright, but had little success—only one of his plays was accepted for a performance, he traveled to New York City in 1907 in an attempt to sell a script to Edison Studios producer Edwin Porter. He decided to become an actor and appeared in many films as an extra.
In 1908, Griffith accepted a role as a stage extra in Professional Jealousy for the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, where he met cameraman Billy Bitzer, his career in the film industry changed forever. In 1908, Biograph's main director Wallace McCutcheon, Sr. grew ill, his son Wallace McCutcheon, Jr. took his place. McCutcheon, Jr. did not bring the studio success. He directed a total of 48 shorts for the company that year, his short In Old California was the first film shot in California. Four years he produced and directed his first feature film Judith of Bethulia, one of the earliest to be produced in the US. Biograph believed. According to Lillian Gish, the company thought that "a movie that long would hurt eyes". Griffith left Biograph because of company resistance to his cost overruns on the film, he joined the Mutual Film Corporation. There, he co-produced The Life of General Villa, a biographical action–drama film starring Pancho Villa as himself, shot on location in México during a civil war.
He formed a studio with Majestic Studio manager Harry Aitken which became known as Reliance-Majestic Studios and was renamed Fine Arts Studio. His new production company became an autonomous production unit partner in Triangle Film Corporation along with Thomas H. Ince and Keystone Studios' Mack Sennett; the Triangle Film Corporation was headed by Aitken, released from the Mutual Film Corporation, his brother Roy. Griffith directed and produced The Clansman through Reliance-Majestic Studios in 1915, which became known as The Birth of a Nation and is considered one of the first feature length American films; the film was a success, but it aroused much controversy due to its depiction of slavery, the Ku Klux Klan, race relations in the American Civil War and the reconstruction era of the United States. It was based on Jr.'s 1905 novel The Clansman. This view of the era was popular at the time and was endorsed for decades by historians of the Dunning School, although it met with strong criticism from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and other groups.
The NAACP attempted to stop showings of the film. They were successful in some cities, but it was shown and became the most successful box office attraction of its time, it is considered among the first "blockbuster" motion pictures and broke all box office records, established until then. "They lost track of the money it made", Lillian Gish remarked in a Kevin Brownlow interview. Audiences in some major northern cities rioted over the film's racial content, filled with action and violence. Griffith's indignation at efforts to censor or ban the film motivated him to produce Intolerance the following year, in which he portrayed the effects of intolerance in four different historical periods: the Fall of Babylon.
Evelyn Venable was an American actress. In addition to starring in several films in the 1930s and 1940s, she was the voice and model for the Blue Fairy in Walt Disney's Pinocchio, she was the original model for the personification of Columbia in the Columbia Pictures logo. For her work in motion pictures, Venable has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1500 Vine Street. Evelyn Venable was born on Saturday, October 18, 1913, in Cincinnati, the only child of Emerson and Dolores Venable, she graduated from Walnut Hills High School, where her father and grandfather William Henry Venable taught English. She performed in several plays at Walnut Hills, such as Juliet in Romeo and Juliet, the Dream Child in Dear Brutus and Rosalind in As You Like It, she attended Vassar College for a short time before returning to the University of Cincinnati. She performed in Walter Hampden's touring productions, including Roxane in Cyrano de Bergerac and Ophelia in Hamlet. During a performance in Los Angeles, she was offered several film contracts.
After turning down the offers, she signed a contract with Paramount in 1932. Her contract was unique in that she would not have to cut her hair, pose for leg art, or perform in bit parts. A long-believed apocryphal story sprang up that she was forbidden by her father to engage in any kissing scenes in her films, although this proved to be false, e.g. in Streamline Express, she indeed does not have any kissing scenes in her most memorable films, not in Death Takes a Holiday, in which she falls in love with Fredric March, or The Little Colonel, in which she plays Shirley Temple's mother. She played the lead or second lead in a series of films in the 1930s, was the original model for the Columbia Pictures logo, she met cinematographer Hal Mohr on the set of the Will Rogers film David Harum. They married on December 7, 1934, had two daughters and Rosalia. Venable provided the voice of "The Blue Fairy" for the 1940 Walt Disney animated film Pinocchio. In 1943, Evelyn Venable retired from acting, she resumed her studies at UCLA and became a faculty member there, teaching ancient Greek and Latin and organizing the production of Greek plays within the Classics department.
Her husband, Hal Mohr, died on May 10, 1974. She died of cancer in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, on Monday, November 15, 1993, at the age of 80. Evelyn Venable on IMDb
Shirley Temple Black was an American actress, dancer and diplomat, Hollywood's number one box-office draw as a child actress from 1935 to 1938. As an adult, she was named United States ambassador to Ghana and to Czechoslovakia, served as Chief of Protocol of the United States. Temple began her film career at the age of three in 1932. Two years she achieved international fame in Bright Eyes, a feature film designed for her talents, she received a special Juvenile Academy Award in February 1935 for her outstanding contribution as a juvenile performer in motion pictures during 1934. Film hits such as Curly Top and Heidi followed year after year during the mid-to-late 1930s. Temple capitalized on licensed merchandise, her box-office popularity waned. She appeared in 14 films from the ages of 14 to 21. Temple retired from film in 1950 at the age of 22. In 1958, Temple returned to show business with a two-season television anthology series of fairy tale adaptations, she made guest appearances on television shows in the early 1960s and filmed a sitcom pilot, never released.
She sat on the boards of corporations and organizations including The Walt Disney Company, Del Monte Foods, the National Wildlife Federation. She began her diplomatic career in 1969, when she was appointed to represent the United States at a session of the United Nations General Assembly, where she worked at the U. S Mission under Ambassador Charles W. Yost. In 1988, she published Child Star. Temple was the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including the Kennedy Center Honors and a Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award, she is 18th on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest female American screen legends of Classic Hollywood cinema. Shirley Temple was born on April 23, 1928, in Santa Monica, the third child of homemaker Gertrude Amelia Temple and bank employee George Francis Temple; the family was of Dutch and German ancestry. She had two brothers: John Stanley, George Francis, Jr; the family moved to Los Angeles. Her mother encouraged her singing and acting talents, in September 1931 enrolled her in Meglin's Dance School in Los Angeles.
At about this time, Shirley's mother began styling her daughter's hair in ringlets. While at the dance school, she was spotted by Charles Lamont, a casting director for Educational Pictures. Temple hid behind the piano. Lamont took a liking to Temple, invited her to audition. Educational Pictures was going to launch its Baby Burlesks, multiple short films satirizing recent film and political events by using preschool children in every role. Baby Burlesks is a series of one-reelers, another series of two-reelers called Frolics of Youth followed with Temple playing Mary Lou Rogers, a youngster in a contemporary suburban family. To underwrite production costs at Educational Pictures and her child co-stars modeled for breakfast cereals and other products, she was lent to Tower Productions for a small role in her first feature film in 1932 and, in 1933, to Universal and Warner Bros. Pictures for various parts. After Educational Pictures declared bankruptcy in 1933, her father managed to purchase her contract for just $25.
Fox Film songwriter Jay Gorney was walking out of the viewing of Temple's last Frolics of Youth picture when he saw her dancing in the movie theater lobby. Recognizing her from the screen, he arranged for her to have a screen test for the movie Stand Up and Cheer! Temple arrived for the audition on December 7, 1933; the role was a breakthrough performance for Temple. Her charm was evident to Fox executives, she was ushered into corporate offices immediately after finishing Baby Take a Bow, a song-and-dance number she did with James Dunn. On December 21, 1933, her contract was extended to a year at the same $150/week with a seven-year option and her mother Gertrude was hired on at $25/week as her hairdresser and personal coach. Released in May 1934, Stand Up and Cheer! became Shirley's breakthrough film. Within months, she became the symbol of wholesome family entertainment. In June, her success continued. After the success of her first three movies, Shirley's parents realized that their daughter was not being paid enough money.
Her image began to appear on numerous commercial products without her legal authorization and without compensation. To get control over the corporate unlicensed use of her image and to negotiate with Fox, Temple's parents hired lawyer Loyd Wright to represent them. On July 18, 1934, the contractual salary was raised to $1,000 a week and her mother's salary was raised to $250 a week, with an additional $15,000 bonus for each movie finished. Temple's original contract for $150 per week is equivalent to $2,750 in 2015, adjusted for inflation. However, the economic value of $150 during the Great Depression was equal to $18,500; the subsequent salary increase to $1,000 weekly had the economic value of $123,000 and the bonus of $15,000 per movie was equivalent to $1.85 million in a decade when a quarter could buy a meal. Cease and desist letters were sent out to many companies and the process was begun for awarding corporate licenses. On December 28, 1934, Bright Eyes was released; the movie was the first feature film crafted for Temple's talents and the first where her name appeared eponymously over the ti
David Butler (director)
David Butler was an American actor, film director, film producer and television director. Butler was born in California, his mother was an actress and his father was a theater stage manager. His first acting roles were playing extras in stage plays, he appeared in two D. W. Griffith films, The Girl Who Stayed Home and The Greatest Thing in Life, he appeared in the 1927 Academy-Award winning film 7th Heaven. The same year, Butler made his directorial debut with a comedy for Fox. During Butler's nine-year tenure at Fox, he directed over thirty films, including four Shirley Temple vehicles. Butler's last film for Fox, won Walter Brennan an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Butler worked with Bing Crosby in Road If I Had My Way, he directed many films starring Doris Day, among them It's a Great Feeling, Tea for Two, By the Light of the Silvery Moon, Lullaby of Broadway, April in Paris, Calamity Jane. During the late'50s and 1960s, Butler directed television episodes for Leave It to Beaver and Wagon Train.
For his contributions to the film industry, Butler was inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960 with a motion pictures star located at 6561 Hollywood Boulevard. David Butler on IMDb David Butler at AllMovie David Butler at Find a Grave David Butler at Virtual History
Arthur Miller (cinematographer)
Arthur Charles Miller, A. S. C. was an American cinematographer. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Cinematography six times, winning three times: for How Green Was My Valley in 1941, The Song of Bernadette in 1944, Anna and the King of Siam in 1947, he was born in New York. He began his movie career at the age of 13. According to a 1970 interview with Leonard Maltin, he stated. One day, he was returning home from delivering some horses and was sitting on a horse when a man offered him a job in motion pictures because he could ride bareback. Miller recalled, "The first day we went out to a golf course in Brooklyn, I rode this horse all over, got chased, all." He found himself working as an assistant to filmmaker Fred J. Balshofer; the two remained lifelong friends and in 1967 co-wrote the book about the early days of film titled One Reel a Week. Miller joined Pathé Frères and, although only 19 years old, became the cinematographer for the 1914 adventure serial The Perils of Pauline. In 1918, he and his brother Bill founded the Motion Picture Industry Union.
He moved to Hollywood and had a lengthy tenure at Paramount from the late teens throughout the 1920s. In 1932, Miller signed a long-term contract with Fox Film Corporation to be the cinematographer for every Shirley Temple film, he retired in 1951 for health reasons, but remained active in the industry as president of the American Society of Cinematographers. He died in Los Angeles, California, in 1970 and was interred in the Hollywood Memorial Park Cemetery. In August 1973, his widow Mae Miller and Donald Crisp attended the dedication of the Arthur Miller Memorial Fountain and Arbor at the Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital in Woodland Hills. * - according to silentera.com Arthur C. Miller on IMDb Miller profile at the Internet Encyclopedia of Cinematographers
Fox Movietone Follies of 1929
Fox Movietone Follies of 1929 known as Movietone Follies of 1929 and The William Fox Movietone Follies of 1929, is a black-and-white and color American musical film released by Fox Film Corporation. George Shelby, a southern boy, comes to the city to dissuade Lila, his sweetheart, from embarking on a stage career and buys out the controlling interest in the revue so that he can fire her. On the opening night, she goes onstage when the prima donna of the show becomes temperamental, she proves to be a big hit. At this development, George is able to sell the show back to the producer, who had lacked confidence in his investment and planned to take advantage of the youth's inexperience. John Breeden as George Shelby Lola Lane as Lila Beaumont DeWitt Jennings as Jay Darrell Sharon Lynn as Ann Foster Arthur Stone as Al Leaton Stepin Fetchit as Swifty Warren Hymer as Martin Archie Gottler as Stage Manager Arthur Kay as Orchestra leader Mario Dominici as Le Maire All songs were written by Con Conrad, Archie Gottler and Sidney D. Mitchell.
"Walking With Susie" "Why Can't I Be Like You?" "Legs" "Breakaway" "That's You Baby" "Look What You've Done To Me" "Big City Blues" "Pearl of Old Japan" Filming locations for Fox Movietone Follies of 1929 included Havana, New York City, Palm Beach, Florida. The film had Multicolor sequences in its original release, as well as being filmed in the experimental Grandeur wide-screen process, it is now considered a lost film, as all film prints known to exist were destroyed in fires at the Fox storage facility in New Jersey in 1937. The sequel, New Movietone Follies of 1930 has Multicolor sequences and exists in the UCLA Film and Television Archive. List of early color feature films List of lost films 1937 Fox vault fire Surviving Vitaphone soundtrack disk at SoundCloud Fox Movietone Follies of 1929 on IMDb New York Times OV Guide Variety