The Lord of the Rings is an epic high-fantasy novel written by English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien; the story began as a sequel to Tolkien's 1937 fantasy novel The Hobbit, but developed into a much larger work. Written in stages between 1937 and 1949, The Lord of the Rings is one of the best-selling novels written, with over 150 million copies sold; the title of the novel refers to the story's main antagonist, the Dark Lord Sauron, who had in an earlier age created the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule all of Middle-earth. From quiet beginnings in the Shire, a hobbit land not unlike the English countryside, the story ranges across Middle-earth, following the course of the War of the Ring through the eyes of its characters, most notably the hobbits Frodo, Sam and Pippin. Although known to readers as a trilogy, the work was intended by Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set, the other to be The Silmarillion, but this idea was dismissed by his publisher.
For economic reasons, The Lord of the Rings was published in three volumes over the course of a year from 29 July 1954 to 20 October 1955. The three volumes were titled The Fellowship of The Two Towers and The Return of the King. Structurally, the novel is divided internally into six books, two per volume, with several appendices of background material included at the end; some editions combine the entire work into a single volume. The Lord of the Rings has since been translated into 38 languages. Tolkien's work has been the subject of extensive analysis of its origins. Although a major work in itself, the story was only the last movement of a larger epic Tolkien had worked on since 1917, in a process he described as mythopoeia. Influences on this earlier work, on the story of The Lord of the Rings, include philology, mythology and the author's distaste for the effects of industrialization, as well as earlier fantasy works and Tolkien's experiences in World War I; the Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great effect on modern fantasy.
The enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works, the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works. The Lord of the Rings has inspired, continues to inspire, music and television, video games, board games, subsequent literature. Award-winning adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio and film. In 2003, it was named Britain's best novel of all time in the BBC's The Big Read. In 2015, the BBC ranked The Lord of the Rings 26th on its list of the 100 greatest British novels.. The narrative follows on from The Hobbit, in which the hobbit Bilbo Baggins finds the Ring, in the possession of the creature Gollum; the story begins in the Shire, where Frodo Baggins inherits the Ring from Bilbo, his cousin and guardian. Neither hobbit is aware of the Ring's nature, but Gandalf the Grey, a wizard and an old friend of Bilbo, suspects it to be the Ring lost by Sauron, the Dark Lord, long ago.
Seventeen years after Gandalf confirms this is true, he tells Frodo the history of the Ring and counsels him to take it away from the Shire. Frodo sets out, accompanied by his gardener and friend, Samwise "Sam" Gamgee, two cousins, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" Took, they are nearly caught by the Nazgûl, but shake off their pursuers by cutting through the Old Forest. There they are aided by Tom Bombadil, a strange and merry fellow who lives with his wife Goldberry in the forest; the hobbits reach the town of Bree, where they encounter a Ranger named Strider, whom Gandalf had mentioned in a letter. Strider persuades the hobbits to take him on as their protector. Together, they leave Bree after another close escape from the Nazgûl. On the hill of Weathertop, they are again attacked by the Nazgûl, who wound Frodo with a cursed blade. Strider leads the hobbits towards the Elven refuge of Rivendell. Frodo falls deathly ill from the wound; the Nazgûl nearly capture him at the Ford of Bruinen, but flood waters summoned by Elrond, master of Rivendell, rise up and overwhelm them.
Frodo recovers in Rivendell under Elrond's care. The Council of Elrond discusses the history of the Ring. Strider is revealed to be Isildur's heir. Gandalf reports that the chief wizard Saruman has betrayed them and is now working to become a power in his own right; the Council decides that the Ring must be destroyed, but that can only be done by sending it to the fire of Mount Doom in Mordor, where it was forged. Frodo takes this task upon himself. Elrond, with the advice of Gandalf, chooses companions for him; the Company of the Ring are nine in number: Frodo, Merry, Aragorn, Gimli the Dwarf, Legolas the Elf, the Man Boromir, son of Denethor, the Ruling Steward of the land of Gondor. After a failed attempt to cross the Misty Mountains over the Redhorn Pass, the Company take the perilous path through the Mines of Moria, they learn of his colony of Dwarves. After surviving an attack, they are pursued by a Balrog, an ancient fire demon. Gandalf faces the Balrog, both of them fall into the abyss; the others escape and find refuge in the Elven forest of Lothlórien, where they are counselled by its rulers and Celeborn.
Anything is the seventh studio album by the Damned, released by MCA Records in 1986. On the album's release, it charted in the United Kingdom. 40, was certified as silver by the British Phonographic Industry. Four singles were released that all charted in the UK; the album received some positive press, but was called inferior to the group's previous work by AllMusic. The album began production in June 1986 in Puk Recording Studios in Denmark; the Damned's vocalist, Dave Vanian stated that the group were forced into the studio to record the album before they had prepared any new material for it. Drummer Rat Scabies mentioned that the group had demoed the song "In Dulce Decorum", but most of the songs were written in the studio. In July, the group took a break from recording to perform a 10th anniversary performance in London at the Town and Country Club and two in Finsbury Park, where the group performed some songs that would appear on Anything, were joined by Captain Sensible to perform "Smash It Up".
On returning to Denmark, the group recorded a cover of "Alone Again Or" which Scabies thought was written by Roman Jugg. The album concluded production in August. Following the recording sessions, the Damned toured Ireland and Britain in October and concluded the tour in Ireland in November; the group began having issues with technology on the tour and had to use an emulator to recreate some of their studio sound. Prior to the album's release, a single for "Anything" was released in November. Anything was released on MCA Records on 1 December 1986 in the United Kingdom. In the UK, the album charted for two weeks, peaking at No. 40. It was certified Silver by the British Phonographic Industry. After the release of the "Gigolo" single in January 1987, the Damned toured Europe until February, they toured in Australia in Japan in April. During a booking hiatus, the group returned to performing shows as the alter ego Naz Nomad and the Nightmares. "In Dulce Decorum" was released as the final single from the album in November 1987.
In the United States, MCA released "Anything", "In Dulce Decorum" and "Alone Again" as singles. MCA followed the release of Anything with a Damned compilation album titled Light at the End of the Tunnel in November 1987. MCA and The Damned parted ways the following year; the Ottawa Citizen gave the album a positive review, describing the album as "varied but not disjointed" and that the Damned had become a "superb pop band" that make a "better pop band of the'80s than it did a punk band of the'70s". The Vancouver Sun praised the album, stating that the Damned "have made the switch to mood music quite well rising to the level of the mighty Stranglers"; the review compared the album to music by Simple Minds, opining that the album was what they "want to sound like and atmospheric without getting all doomy and gloomy". A retrospective review from AllMusic was negative, awarding the album 2 stars and calling it the worst album of the original group's catalogue; the review pointed out "Restless" and "In Dulce Decorum" as meandering, noted that the tracks "Psychomania" and "Anything" were the only tracks that "generate anything approximating the energy of the Damned's best music".
When asked about the Phantasmagoria and Anything albums, Vanian said that "some of the production in retrospect could have been done a little better, but it was the'80's. Some of those songs were just as heartfelt as anything that had gone before despite the frills and ruffles". All tracks are written except where noted. All tracks are written by Roman Jugg, Rat Scabies, Bryn Merrick and Dave Vanian, except where noted
John Whitaker Maitland was the rector of Loughton, lord of the manor, owner of Loughton Hall. He was the third son of William Whitaker Maitland and High Sheriff of Essex, he was educated at Harrow School, Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Loughton Hall had been destroyed by fire in 1836, after Maitland received £30,000 from the City of London for enclosing parts of Epping Forest which he owned, he rebuilt in 1878, it was designed by William Eden Nesfield in a mock Jacobean style. He married daughter of Sir Digby Neave, 3rd Baronet and Hon. Mary Arundell, he is the grandfather of the politician Sir John Maitland through his son William Whitaker Maitland