André Breton was a French writer and anti-fascist. He is known best as the co-founder, principal theorist and chief apologist of Surrealism, his writings include the first Surrealist Manifesto of 1924, in which he defined surrealism as "pure psychic automatism". Born to a family of modest means in Tinchebray in Normandy, Breton attended medical school, where he developed a particular interest in mental illness, his education was interrupted when he was drafted for World War I. During World War I he worked in a neurological ward in Nantes, where he met the devotee of Alfred Jarry, Jacques Vaché, whose anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition influenced Breton considerably. Vaché committed suicide when aged 24, his war-time letters to Breton and others were published in a volume entitled Lettres de guerre, for which Breton wrote four introductory essays. Breton married his first wife, Simone Kahn, on 15 September 1921; the couple relocated to rue Fontaine No. 42 in Paris on 1 January 1922.
The apartment on rue Fontaine became home to Breton's collection of more than 5,300 items: modern paintings, sculptures, books, art catalogs, journals and works of popular and Oceanic art. He was an atheist. Breton launched the review Littérature with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault, he associated with Dadaist Tristan Tzara. In 1924, he was instrumental in the founding of the Bureau of Surrealist Research. In Les Champs Magnétiques, a collaboration with Soupault, he implemented the principle of automatic writing, he published the Surrealist Manifesto in 1924, was editor of the magazine La Révolution surréaliste from that year on. A group of writers became associated with him: Soupault, Louis Aragon, Paul Éluard, René Crevel, Michel Leiris, Benjamin Péret, Antonin Artaud and Robert Desnos. Anxious to combine the themes of personal transformation found in the works of Arthur Rimbaud with the politics of Karl Marx, Breton joined the French Communist Party in 1927, from which he was expelled in 1933.
Nadja, a novel about his encounter with an imaginative woman who became mentally ill, was published in 1928. Breton celebrated the concept of Mad Love, many women joined the surrealist group over the years. Toyen was a good friend. During this time, he survived by the sale of paintings from his art gallery. In 1930, Un Cadavre, a pamphlet, was written and released by several members of the surrealist movement who were insulted by Breton or had otherwise disbelieved in his leadership; the pamphlet criticized Breton's influence over the movement. It marked. In 1935, there was a conflict between Breton and the Soviet writer and journalist Ilya Ehrenburg during the first International Congress of Writers for the Defense of Culture, which opened in Paris in June. Breton had been insulted by Ehrenburg—along with all fellow surrealists—in a pamphlet which said, among other things, that surrealists were "pederasts". Breton slapped Ehrenburg several times on the street, which resulted in surrealists being expelled from the Congress.
René Crevel, who according to Salvador Dalí was "the only serious communist among surrealists", was isolated from Breton and other surrealists, who were unhappy with Crevel because of his bisexuality and annoyed with communists in general. In 1938, Breton accepted a cultural commission from the French government to travel to Mexico. After a conference at the National Autonomous University of Mexico about surrealism, Breton stated after getting lost in Mexico City "I don't know why I came here. Mexico is the most surrealist country in the world". However, visiting Mexico provided the opportunity to meet Leon Trotsky. Breton and other surrealists traveled via a long boat ride from Patzcuaro to the town of Erongarícuaro. Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo were among the visitors to the hidden community of intellectuals and artists. Together and Trotsky wrote the Manifesto for an Independent Revolutionary Art calling for "complete freedom of art", becoming difficult with the world situation of the time.
In 1942, Breton collaborated with artist Wifredo Lam on the publication of Breton's poem "Fata Morgana", illustrated by Lam. Breton was again in the medical corps of the French Army at the start of World War II; the Vichy government banned his writings as "the negation of the national revolution" and Breton escaped, with the help of the American Varian Fry and Harry Bingham, to the United States and the Caribbean during 1941. Breton got to know Martinican writer Aimé Césaire, composed the introduction to the 1947 edition of Césaire's Cahier d'un retour au pays natal. During his exile in New York City he met Elisa Bindhoff, the Chilean woman who would become his third wife. In 1944, he and Elisa traveled to the Gaspé Peninsula in Québec, where he wrote Arcane 17, a book which expresses his fears of World War II, describes the marvels of the Rocher Percé and the extreme northeastern part of North America, celebrates his new romance with Elisa. During André Breton's visit to Haiti in 1945-46, the French surrealist leader sought to connect surrealist politics and automatist practices with the legacies of the Haitian Revolution and the ritual practices of Vodou possession.
Recent developments in Haitian painting were central to his efforts, as can be seen from a comment that Breton left in the visitors' book at the Centre d'Art in Port-au-Prince: "Haitian painting will drink the blood of the phoenix. And, with the epaulets of [J
50 Song Memoir
50 Song Memoir is the eleventh studio album by American indie pop band The Magnetic Fields, released on March 10, 2017. 50 Song Memoir is an autobiographical concept album that chronicles the first fifty years of lyricist Stephin Merritt's life, with one song for each year that he has lived. Stephin Merritt began recording on his fiftieth birthday on February 9, 2015; the album was produced by Merritt with additional production by Charles Newman. Merritt sings on all fifty tracks; the staged live shows in support of 50 Song Memoir are directed by José Zayas. The Magnetic Fields have been expanded to include an additional three musicians for the tour, with each of the seven playing seven different instruments. On the tour the band play the entirety of 50 Song Memoir in two halves across two nights at each venue. 50 Song Memoir is available in five-L. P. and five-C. D. editions that include an interview by Daniel Handler and facsimile handwritten lyrics by Stephin Merritt, as a bound book. Upon release, the album received near universal acclaim, with the average critical score being an 86 out of 100 according to review aggregator website Metacritic.
All tracks written by Stephin Merritt. The Magnetic Fields Stephin Merritt – lead vocals, keyboards, synthesizers, dulcimer, xylophone, percussion Claudia Gonson – background vocals, piano Sam Davol – cello, musical saw John Woo – guitar Shirley Simms – background vocalsAdditional personnel Thomas Bartlett – mellotron, omnichord, piano, Moog synthesizer, optigan Christopher Ewen – synthesizers, angklung, omnichord Pinky Weitzman – viola, Stroh violin, musical saw Daniel Handler – background vocals, vibraphone, Hammond organ, celeste Johny Blood – tuba, mouthpiece Brad Gordon – trombone, pocket trumpet Randy Walker – background vocals Anthony Kaczynski – background vocals Otto Handler – spoken word
Minehead is a coastal town and civil parish in Somerset, England. It lies on the south bank of the Bristol Channel, 21 miles north-west of the county town of Taunton, 12 miles from the border with the county of Devon and in proximity of the Exmoor National Park; the parish of Minehead has a population of 11,981 making it the most populous town in the West Somerset local government district, which in turn, is the worst area in the country for social mobility. This figure includes Alcombe and Woodcombe, suburban villages which have been subsumed into Minehead. There is evidence of human occupation in the area since Iron Ages. Before the Norman conquest it was held by Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia and after it by William de Moyon and his descendants, who administered the area from Dunster Castle, sold to Sir George Luttrell and his family. There was a small port at Minehead by 1380, which grew into a major trading centre during the medieval period. Most trade transferred to larger ports during the 20th century, but pleasure steamers did call at the port.
Major rebuilding took place in the Lower or Middle town area following a fire in 1791 and the fortunes of the town revived with the growth in sea bathing, by 1851 was becoming a retirement centre. There was a marked increase in building during the early years of the 20th century, which resulted in the wide main shopping avenue and adjacent roads with Edwardian style architecture; the town's flood defences were improved. Minehead is governed by a town council, created in 1983 and has been part of the West Somerset local government district since 1974. In addition to the parish church of St. Michael on the Hill in Minehead, the separate parish church of St Michael the Archangel is situated in Church Street, Alcombe. Alcombe is home to the Spiritualist Church in Grove Place. Since 1991, Minehead has been twinned with Saint-Berthevin, a small town close to the regional centre of Laval in the Mayenne département of France. Blenheim Gardens, Minehead’s largest park, was opened in 1925; the town is the home of a Butlins Holiday Park which increases Minehead's seasonal tourist population by several thousand.
There is a variety of schools and religious and sporting facilities including sailing and wind surfing and golf. One popular ancient local tradition involves the Hobby Horse, or Obby Oss, which takes to the streets for four days on the eve of the first of May each year, with accompanying musicians and rival horses; the town is the starting point of the South West Coast Path National Trail, the nation's longest long-distance countryside walking trail. The Minehead Railway was opened in 1874 and closed in 1971 but has since been reopened as the West Somerset Railway; the town sits at the foot of a steeply rising outcrop of Exmoor known as North Hill, the original name of the town was mynydd, which means mountain in Welsh. It has been written as Mynheafdon, Maneheve and Menedun, which contain elements of Welsh and Old English words for hill. Bronze Age barrows at Selworthy Beacon and an Iron Age enclosure at Furzebury Brake, west of the town show evidence of prehistoric occupation of the area, although there is possible evidence in the intertidal area, where the remains of a submerged forest still exist.
Minehead was part of the hundred of Carhampton. It is mentioned as a manor belonging to William de Moyon in the Domesday Book in 1086, although it had been held by Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia. William de Mohun of Dunster, 1st Earl of Somerset and his descendants administered the area from Dunster Castle, sold to Sir George Luttrell and his family. There was a small port at Minehead by 1380, but it was not until 1420 that money given by Lady Margaret Luttrell enabled improvements to be made and a jetty built. During the reign of Elizabeth I, the town had its own Port Officer similar to the position at Bristol. Vessels in the 15th century included the Trinite which traded between Ireland and Bristol, others carrying salt and other cargo from La Rochelle in France. Other products included local cloth which were traded for coal from South Wales. In 1559 a Charter of Incorporation, established a free Borough and Parliamentary representation, but was made conditional on improvements being made to the port.
The harbour fell into disrepair so that in 1604 James I withdrew the town's charter. Control reverted to the Luttrells and a new harbour was built, at a cost of £5,000, further out to sea than the original, at the mouth of the Bratton Stream, it incorporated a pier, dating from 1616, was built to replace that at Dunster, silting up. Trade was with Wales for cattle, wool, butter and coal; these are commemorated in the town arms which include a sailing ship. Privateers based at Minehead were involved in the war with Spain and France during 1625–1630 and again during the War of the Spanish Succession from 1702–1713; the first cranes were installed after further improvements to the port in 1714. The Mermaid, one of the oldest business premises in the town, has been, at various times, a ship chandler's, a nineteenth-century "department store" and in more recent years a tearoom; the building was the home of Minehead’s famous Whistling Ghost – Old Mother Leakey, who died in 1634. The ghost became notorious by "whistling up a storm" whenever one of her son’s ships neared port.
The level of anxiety in the town became so great that, in 1636, the Bishop of Bath and Wells presided over a Royal Commission to inquire into the matter. The commission reported that the witnesses were unreliable and when its findings were signed by Archbishop Laud and
Philippe Soupault was a French writer and poet, novelist and political activist. He was active in Dadaism and founded the Surrealist movement with André Breton. Soupault initiated the periodical Littérature together with the writers Breton and Louis Aragon in Paris in 1919, for many, marks the beginnings of Surrealism; the first book of automatic writing, Les Champs magnétiques, was co-authored by Breton. In 1927 Soupault, with the help of his wife Marie-Louise, translated William Blake's Songs of Innocence and Experience into French; the next year, Soupault authored a monograph on Blake, arguing the poet was a "genius" whose work anticipated the Surrealist movement in literature. In 1933 at a reception at the Russian Embassy in Paris, he met Ré Richter and they decided to do some travel reportage together. Ré Richter’s photographs, taken with her 6x6 Rolleiflex, were to be published alongside Philippe Souault’s literary texts. In the years thereafter, the two of them continued in the same vein, travelling to Germany, England and Tunisia.
They married in 1937. The couple separated after the end of the war, he directed Radio Tunis from 1937 to 1940. He fled to Algiers. After imprisonment by the Nazis during World War II, Soupault traveled to the United States, teaching at Swarthmore College but returned subsequently to France in October 1945, his works include such large volumes of poetry as Aquarium and Rose des vents and the novel Les Dernières Nuits de Paris. In 1957 he wrote the libretto for Germaine Tailleferre's opera La Petite Sirène, based on Hans Christian Andersen's tale "The Little Mermaid"; the work was broadcast by French Radio National in 1959. In 1990, the year Soupault died, Serbian rock band Bjesovi recorded their version of his poem Georgia in Serbian. Soupault's short story "Death of Nick Carter" was translated by Robin Walz in 2007, published in issue 24 of the McSweeney's Quarterly. In 2016, City Lights Bookstore published a book of his essays entitled Lost Profiles: Memoirs of Cubism and Surrealism as translated by Alan Bernheimer.
Aquarium Rose des vents Les Champs magnétiques, L’Invitation au suicide Westwego Le Bon Apôtre Les Frères Durandeau Georgia Le Nègre Les Dernières Nuits de Paris. Le Grand Homme Les Moribonds Il y a un océan Odes à Londres bombardée Le Temps des assassins Odes L’Arme secrète Message de l'île déserte Chansons Sans phrases Profils perdus Lost Profiles: Memoirs of Cubism and Surrealism. Translated from the French by Alan Bernheimer, 2016 ISBN 9780872867277 Arc-en-ciel Mémoires de l’oubli Poèmes retrouvés Media related to Philippe Soupault at Wikimedia Commons
69 Love Songs
69 Love Songs is the sixth studio album by American indie pop band the Magnetic Fields, released on September 7, 1999 by Merge Records. As its title indicates, 69 Love Songs is a three-volume concept album composed of 69 love songs, all written by Magnetic Fields frontman Stephin Merritt; the album was conceived as a music revue. Stephin Merritt was sitting in a gay piano bar in Manhattan, listening to the pianist's interpretations of Stephen Sondheim songs, when he decided he ought to get into theatre music because he felt he had an aptitude for it. "I decided. I realized how long that would be. So I settled on sixty-nine. I'd have a theatrical revue with four drag queens, and whoever the audience liked best at the end of the night would get paid." He found inspiration in Charles Ives' 114 Songs, about which he had read earlier in the day: "songs of all kinds, what a monument it was, I thought, well, I could do something like that." Band member Claudia Gonson has claimed that Merrit wrote most of the songs hanging around in bars in New York City.
On seven occasions the Magnetic Fields performed all 69 love songs, over two nights. Several of the lavish orchestrations are more arranged when performed live, due to limited performers and/or equipment. Merritt has said "69 Love Songs is not remotely an album about love. It's an album about love songs, which are far away from anything to do with love." The album features songs in many different genres, including country, synth pop, free jazz and mournful love ballads. All the songs deal with love in one form or another, but in an ironic or off-beat fashion, such as "Yeah! Oh, Yeah!" that tells the story of a husband murdering his wife. The songs of 69 Love Songs features lyrics with both heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual points of view, such as "When My Boy Walks Down the Street" or "Underwear"; the album was released in the United States by Merge on September 7, 1999, as a box set with Merritt interview booklet, as three separate individual volumes—catalogue numbers MRG166, MRG167, MRG168, MRG169.
On May 29, 2000, the album was released by Circus in Europe and Australia without the booklet insert. It was reissued in the United Kingdom through Domino as REWIGCD18. On April 20, 2010 Merge released a limited edition 6x10" vinyl version limited to 1000 copies. 69 Love Songs received widespread acclaim from music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 88, indicating "universal acclaim". Betty Clarke of The Guardian hailed it as "an album of such tenderness and bloody-minded diversity, it'll have you throwing away your preconceptions and wondering how you survived a broken heart without it." Douglas Wolk of Spin called the album Stephin Merritt's "masterwork" and stated that "pop hasn't seen a lyricist of Merritt's kind and caliber since Cole Porter", praising his unique takes on standard love song clichés. Nick Mirov of Pitchfork wrote that Merritt "has proven himself as an exceptional songwriter, making quantum leaps in quality as well as quantity on 69 Love Songs."
Robert Christgau, writing in The Village Voice, stated that despite his personal dislike of cynicism and reluctance to "link it to creative exuberance", the album's "cavalcade of witty ditties—one-dimensional by design, intellectual when it feels like it, addicted to cheap rhymes, cheaper tunes, token arrangements, sung by nonentities whose vocal disabilities keep their fondness for pop theoretical—upends my preconceptions the way high art's sposed to."69 Love Songs was voted second place in The Village Voice's annual Pazz & Jop critics' poll for 1999, behind Moby's Play. The poll's creator Robert Christgau ranked it as the best album of the year on his "Dean's List". In 2012, it was ranked at number 465 in Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time; the following year, NME placed it at number 213 on their own list of all-time greatest albums. The album was included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die; as of 2015 according to Nielsen SoundScan. The three-volume boxed set has sold 83,000, with an additional 58,000 for volume one, 34,000 for volume two, 29,000 for volume three.
LD Beghtol's explication of 69 Love Songs was released on December 15, 2006 by Continuum International Publishing Group as part of their 33⅓ series of books on influential pop/rock albums. The book includes studio anecdotes, an extensive annotated lexicon of words and phrases culled from the album's lyrics, performance notes from the band and friends, full-album shows in New York and London, rare and unpublished images by chickfactor editor/photographress Gail O'Hara, other items such as a crossword puzzle created by TMF/Flare associate Jon DeRosa and a scathing list of academic cant words not otherwise used in Beghtol's book. Featured is a candid interview with the songwriter, styled as a surrealist radio play, in which Stephin Merritt answers questions about his Chihuahua Irving Berlin Merritt, his sex life, studio practices, other esoterica. "The Book of Love" was covered by Peter Gabriel. All tracks written by Stephin Merritt; the Magnetic FieldsStephin Merritt – vocals, Digitech vocalist, Roland harmonizer, ukulele, baritone ukulele, classical guitar, acoustic-electric 12-string guitar, lap steel, fado guitar, electric guitar, mandolin, marxophon
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County and part of the Boston metropolitan area. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are in Cambridge, as was Radcliffe College, a college for women until it merged with Harvard on October 1, 1999. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162; as of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester and Lowell. Cambridge was one of two seats of Middlesex County until the county government was abolished in Massachusetts in 1997. In December 1630, the site of what would become Cambridge was chosen because it was safely upriver from Boston Harbor, making it defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, her husband Simon were among the town's first settlers.
The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was referred to as "the newe towne". Official Massachusetts records show the name rendered as Newe Towne by 1632, as Newtowne by 1638. Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Governor John Winthrop, its first preacher was Thomas Hooker, who led many of its original inhabitants west in 1636 to found Hartford and the Connecticut Colony. The original village site is now within Harvard Square; the marketplace where farmers sold crops from surrounding towns at the edge of a salt marsh remains within a small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy and Winthrop Streets; the town comprised a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Cambridge Village in 1688, Cambridge Farms in 1712 or 1713, Little or South Cambridge and Menotomy or West Cambridge in 1807.
In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge to Boston were pursued and rejected. In 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers. According to Cotton Mather, Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court for its proximity to the popular and respected Puritan preacher Thomas Shepard. In May 1638, The settlement's name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Newtowne's ministers and Shepard, the college's first president, major benefactor, the first schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton were Cambridge alumni, as was the colony's governor John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. In 1650, Governor Thomas Dudley signed the charter creating the corporation that still governs Harvard College. Cambridge grew as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the colony's capital.
By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with most of the town comprising farms and estates. Most inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, made their livings from estates and trade, lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown". Coming north from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3, 1775, now reckoned the birthplace of the U. S. Army. Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge grew with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792 connecting Cambridge directly to Boston, so that it was no longer necessary to travel eight miles through the Boston Neck and Brookline to cross the Charles River.
A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution, it was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. The Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes—were popular and influential in their day. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike, the Middlesex Turnpike, what are today's Cambridge and Harvard Streets connected various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, the town was connected to the Boston & Maine Railroad, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring Somerville from the rural parts of Charlestown. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846 despite persistent tensions between East Cambridge and Old Cambridge stemming from differences in culture, sources of income, the national origins of the resident
Distortion (The Magnetic Fields album)
Distortion is the eighth studio album by American indie pop band The Magnetic Fields. It was released on January 2008 by record label Nonesuch; as the album's title implies, several of the musical performances featured are distorted by various means. In particular, the album's sound was influenced by the 1985 album Psychocandy by The Jesus and Mary Chain. Distortion was recorded at Mother West in New York City, it was co-produced by Charles Newman. No synthesizers were used to record the album. Distortion debuted at number 77 on the U. S. Billboard 200 chart. Distortion has been well received by critics, it holds a 79/100 rating at review aggregator website Metacritic. All tracks written by Stephin Merritt; the Magnetic FieldsStephin Merritt – vocals, production, mixing Claudia Gonson – drums, Farfisa organ, backing vocals, management Sam Davol – cello John Woo – lead guitar Shirley Simms – vocalsAdditional personnelDaniel Handler – accordion A. Klasinski, I. Pearle, R. Stevens – "orgiasts"TechnicalCharles Newman – production, mixing Tom Rogers – mixing, additional mastering Robert Stevens – engineering assistance Jeff Lipton – mastering Evan Gaffney Design – sleeve design Marcelo Krasilcic – sleeve photography Michael English – logo design Distortion at Discogs