The Magus (novel)
The Magus is a postmodern novel by British author John Fowles, telling the story of Nicholas Urfe, a young British graduate, teaching English on a small Greek island. Urfe becomes embroiled in the psychological illusions of a master trickster, which become dark and serious. Considered an example of metafiction, it was the first novel written by Fowles, but the third he published. In 1977 he published a revised edition. In 1999 The Magus was ranked on both lists of Modern Library 100 Best Novels, reaching number 93 on the editors' list, 71 on the readers' list. In 2003, the novel was listed at number 67 on the BBC's survey The Big Read; the Magus was the first novel John Fowles wrote, but his third to be published, after The Collector and The Aristos. He started writing it in the 1950s, under the original title of The Godgame, he based it on his experiences on the Greek island of Spetses, where he taught English for two years at the Anargyrios School. He worked on it for twelve years before its publication in 1965.
Despite gaining critical and commercial success, he continued to rework it, publishing a final revision in 1977. The story reflects the perspective of a young Oxford graduate and aspiring poet. After graduation, he works as a teacher at a small school, but becomes bored and decides to leave England. While looking for another job, Nicholas takes up with Alison Kelly, an Australian girl he met at a party in London, he still accepts a post teaching English at the Lord Byron School on the Greek island of Phraxos. After beginning his new post, he becomes bored, depressed and overwhelmed by the Mediterranean island. While habitually wandering around the island, he stumbles upon an estate and soon meets its owner, a wealthy Greek recluse, Maurice Conchis, they develop a sort of friendship, Conchis reveals that he may have collaborated with the Nazis during World War II. Nicholas is drawn into Conchis's psychological games, his paradoxical views on life, his mysterious persona, his eccentric masques. At first, Nicholas takes these posturings of Conchis, what the novel terms the "godgame", to be a joke, but they grow more elaborate and intense.
Nicholas loses his ability to determine what is artifice. Against his will and knowledge, he becomes a performer in the godgame. Nicholas realises that the re-enactments of the Nazi occupation, the absurd playlets after Sade, the obscene parodies of Greek myths are not about Conchis's life, but his own. Nicholas Urfe – The protagonist, a 25-year-old Englishman who goes to Greece to teach English and one day stumbles upon'the waiting room.' Alison Kelly – Nicholas' recent Australian girlfriend, whom he abandons to go to Greece. Maurice Conchis – Wealthy intellectual, a main player in the masques. Lily Montgomery / Julie Holmes / Vanessa Maxwell – Young woman, involved in the masques and with whom Nicholas falls in love. Joe – young black gypsy, involved in the masques. Maria – Conchis's maid. Demetriades – fellow teacher at the school. Lily de Seitas – Lily's mother. Rose de Seitas – Lily's identical twin sister. Benji de Seitas – the younger brother of the Seitas twins. Kemp – Unmarried woman who rents Nicholas a room in London.
Jojo – Young girl whom Nicholas pays to accompany him. De Deukans Gustav Nygaard Henrik Nygaard Anton Wimmel The book ends indeterminately. Fowles received many letters from readers wanting to know which of the two possible outcomes occur, he refused to answer the question conclusively, sometimes changing his answer to suit the reader. The novel ends quoting the refrain of the Pervigilium Veneris, an anonymous work of fourth-century Latin poetry, taken as indicating the possible preferred resolution of the ending's ambiguity. John Fowles wrote an article about his experiences in the island of Spetses and their influence on the book, he acknowledged some literary works as influences in his foreword to the 1977 revised edition of The Magus. These include Alain-Fournier's Le Grand Meaulnes, for showing a secret hidden world to be explored, Richard Jefferies' Bevis, for projecting a different world. In the revised edition, Fowles referred to a "Miss Havisham," a reference to a character in Charles Dickens's Great Expectations.'A major work of mounting tensions in which the human mind is the guinea-pig...
Mr Fowles has taken a big swing at a difficult subject and his hits...are on the bull's eye"A deliciously toothsome celebration of wanton story-telling... Before one quite realises what is happening, one finds oneself no less avid for meanings and no less starving amid a plethora of clues than is Nicholas himself"A splendidly sustained piece of mystification… such as could otherwise only have been devised by a literary team fielding the Marquis de Sade, Arthur Edward Waite, Sir James Frazer, Madame Blavatsky, C. G. Jung, Aleister Crowley and Franz Kafka; the novel in 1999 was featured on the Modern Library List of Best 20th-Century Novels: It ranked as No. 71 on the Readers' List and 93 on the Critics' List of the top 100 novels. In Jasper Fforde's comic detective novel, The Well of Lost Plots, The Magus wins the "Most Incomprehensible Plot" Award at the annual "Bookie" Awards, the awards programme that characters in literature give one another; the novel was adapted for film with a screenplay by Fowles, directed by Guy Green, released in 1968.
It starred Michael Caine as Nicholas Urfe, Anthony Quinn as Maurice Conchis, Anna Karina as Alison, Candice Bergen as Lily/Julie, Julian Glover as Anton. It was filmed in the island
The French Lieutenant's Woman
The French Lieutenant's Woman is a 1969 postmodern historical fiction novel by John Fowles. It was his third published novel, after The Collector and The Magus; the novel explores the fraught relationship of gentleman and amateur naturalist Charles Smithson and Sarah Woodruff, the former governess and independent woman with whom he falls in love. The novel builds on Fowles' authority in Victorian literature, both following and critiquing many of the conventions of period novels. Following publication, the library magazine American Libraries, described the novel as one of the "Notable Books of 1969". Subsequent to its initial popularity, publishers produced numerous editions and translated the novel into many languages; the novel remains popular, figuring in both academic conversations. In 2005, Time magazine chose the novel as one of the 100 best English-language novels published between 1923 and 2005. Part of the novel's reputation is based on its expression of postmodern literary concerns through thematic focus on metafiction, metahistory, Marxist criticism and feminism.
Stylistically and thematically, Linda Hutcheon describes the novel as an exemplar of a particular postmodern genre: "historiographic metafiction." Because of the contrast between the independent Sarah Woodruff and the more stereotypical male characters, the novel receives attention for its treatment of gender issues. However, despite claims by Fowles that it is a feminist novel, critics have debated whether it offers a sufficiently transformative perspective on women. Following popular success, the novel created a larger legacy: the novel has had numerous responses by academics and other writers, such as A. S. Byatt, through adaptation as film and dramatic play. In 1981, the novel was adapted as a film of the same name with script by the playwright Harold Pinter, directed by Karel Reisz and starring Meryl Streep and Jeremy Irons; the film received considerable critical acclaim and awards, including several BAFTAs and Golden Globes. The novel was adapted and produced as a British play in 2006.
Before Fowles published The French Lieutenant's Woman in 1969, he had established his literary reputation with his novels The Collector and The Magus. While writing The French Lieutenant's Woman, he was working on the screenplay for the film adaptation of The Magus. Moreover, The Collector had been adapted in a 1965 film that gained Fowles further popular attention. Fowles described his main inspiration for The French Lieutenant's Woman to be a persistent image of a'Victorian Woman,' who developed into the novel's titular character Sarah Woodruff. In a 1969 essay titled "Notes on an Unfinished Novel," Fowles reflects on his writing process, he said he had an image during the autumn of 1966 of "A woman stands at the end of a deserted quay and stares out to sea." He determined that she belonged to a "Victorian Age" and had "mysterious" and "vaguely romantic" qualities. He made a note at the time about the function of the novel, saying You are not trying to write something one of the Victorian novelists forgot to write.
And: Remember the etymology of the word. A novel is something new, it must have relevance to the writer's now - so don't pretend you live in 1867. In an appended comment, dated "October 27, 1967", he writes that he finished the first draft of the novel at about 140,000 words. Throughout the essay, Fowles describes multiple influences and issues important to the novel's development, including his debt to other authors such as Thomas Hardy. In the essay, he describes surprise that the female character Sarah had taken the primary role in the novel. Fowles described other influences shaping the characters development, noting that the characters and story of The French Lieutenant's Woman were loosely derived from Claire de Duras's 1823 novel Ourika, which features a tragic affair between an African woman and French military man. Fowles published a 1977 translation of Ourika into English. Set in the mid-nineteenth century, the narrator identifies the novel's protagonist as Sarah Woodruff, the Woman of the title known as "Tragedy" and as "The French Lieutenant's Whore".
She lives in the coastal town of Lyme Regis as a disgraced woman abandoned by a French ship's officer named Varguennes who had returned to France and married. She spends some of her limited free time on a stone jetty where she stares out to sea. One day, Charles Smithson, an orphaned gentleman, Ernestina Freeman, his fiancée and a daughter of a wealthy tradesman, see Sarah walking along the cliffside. Ernestina tells Charles something of Sarah's story, he becomes curious about her. Though continuing to court Ernestina, Charles has several more encounters with Sarah, meeting her clandestinely three times. During these meetings, Sarah tells Charles of her history, asks for his emotional and social support. During the same period, he learns of the possible loss of place as heir to his elderly uncle, who has become engaged to a woman young enough to bear a child. Meanwhile, Charles's servant Sam falls in love with the maid of Ernestina's aunt. In fact, Charles advises her to leave Lyme for Exeter.
Returning from a journey to warn Ernestina's father about his uncertain inheritance, Charles stops in Exeter as if to visit Sarah. From there, the narrator, who intervenes throughout the novel and becomes a character in it, offers three different ways in which the novel could end: First ending: Charles does not visit Sarah, but returns to Lyme to reaffirm his love for Ernestina
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the
A cult following comprises a group of fans who are dedicated to a work of culture referred to as a cult classic. A film, musical artist, television series or video game, among other things, is said to have a cult following when it has a small but passionate fanbase. A common component of cult followings is the emotional attachment the fans have to the object of the cult following identifying themselves and other fans as members of a community. Cult followings are commonly associated with niche markets. Cult media are associated with underground culture, are considered too eccentric or subversive to be appreciated by the general public or to be commercially successful. Many cult fans express a certain irony about their devotion. Sometimes, these cult followings cross the border to camp followings. Fans may become involved in a subculture of fandom, either via conventions, online communities or through activities such as writing series-related fiction, costume creation, replica prop and model building, or creating their own audio or video productions from the formats and characters.
There is not always a clear difference between mainstream media. Series such as Star Trek, Star Wars, Doctor Who, Harry Potter, The Lord of the Rings, Game of Thrones, Rocky Horror, Ethel & Ernest, The Dark Knight, Mean Girls attract mass audiences but have core groups of fanatical followers. Professors Xavier Mendik and Ernest Mathijs, authors of 100 Cult Films, argue that the devoted following among these films make them cult classics. In many cases, films that have cult followings may have been financial flops during their theatrical box office run, received mixed or negative reviews by mainstream media, but still be considered a major success by small core groups or communities of fans devoted to such films; some cults are only popular within a certain subculture. The film Woodstock is loved within the hippie subculture, while Hocus Pocus holds cult status among American women born in the 1980s. Certain mainstream icons can become cult icons in a different context for certain people. Reefer Madness was intended to warn youth against the use of marijuana, but because of its ridiculous plot, overwhelming amount of factual errors and cheap look, it is now watched by audiences of marijuana-smokers and has gained a cult following.
Quentin Tarantino's films borrow stylistically from classic cult films, but are appreciated by a large audience, therefore lie somewhere between cult and mainstream. Certain cult phenomena can grow to such proportions. Many cancelled television series see new life in a fan following. One notable example is Arrested Development, cancelled after three seasons and, because of the large fanbase, returned for a 15-episode season, released on Netflix on May 26, 2013. Futurama is another notable series, put on permanent hiatus after its initial 72-episode run. Strong DVD sales and consistent ratings on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim block led to four direct-to-DVD films which, in turn, led to the revival of the series in 2010 on Comedy Central following Adult Swim's expiration of the broadcast rights. Space Ghost Coast to Coast had a cult following throughout its eleven season run on television, help pave the wave of other shows of similar style, which had cult followings Aqua Teen Hunger Force. Star Trek: The Original Series is notable in that it was cancelled after three seasons but gained a cult following through broadcast syndication and spawned a successful media franchise.
Another cancelled series that has attained cult status is the NBC teen dramedy Freaks and Geeks which had an 18-episode run. Another series, cancelled but gained a second life with cult status is the FOX teen medical dramedy Red Band Society which had a 13-episode run. Other examples include Firefly, Community, Joan of Arcadia, Twin Peaks, Veronica Mars, Pushing Daisies, Young Justice and The Adventures of Pete & Pete, which had short lives, yet achieved large fanbases. In a BBC review of Farscape episode "Throne for a Loss", Richard Manning said "Farscape is now a cult series because it's being shown out of sequence"; the episode in question was shown as the second episode, after the premiere. Series considered cult classics include the long-running BBC series Doctor Who, The Prisoner and the Australian soap opera Prisoner: Cell Block H; some video games attract cult followings, which can influence the design of video games. An example of a cult video game is Ico, an initial commercial flop which gained a large following for its unique gameplay and minimalist aesthetics, was noted as influencing the design of Brothers: A Tale of Two Sons and Rime, among other games.
Other games which have cult followings include EarthBound, a commercial flop that resulted in the creation of a "cottage industry" selling memorabilia to the EarthBound fandom, Yume Nikki, a surreal free-to-play Japanese horror game. Another game with a large cult following is Crash Twinsanity, considered by fans to be the best Crash Bandicoot game post-Naughty Dog era despite only average critic reviews. In particular, it is well known as the turning point in theming for the series. Sleeper hit Underground music Jancik, Wayn
Antonio Rodolfo Quinn Oaxaca, known as Anthony Quinn, was a Mexican-born American actor, painter and film director. He starred in numerous critically acclaimed and commercially successful films, including La Strada, The Guns of Navarone, Zorba the Greek, Guns for San Sebastian, Lawrence of Arabia, The Shoes of the Fisherman, The Message, Lion of the Desert, Last Action Hero and A Walk in the Clouds, he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor twice: for Viva Zapata! in 1952 and Lust for Life in 1956. Quinn was born Antonio Rodolfo Quinn Oaxaca on April 21, 1915, in Chihuahua, during the Mexican Revolution to Manuela "Nellie" and Francisco "Frank" Quinn, a Mexican mother and an Irish immigrant father from County Cork. Frank Quinn rode with Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa later moved to the East Los Angeles neighborhood of City Terrace and became an assistant cameraman at a movie studio. In Quinn's autobiography, The Original Sin: A Self-portrait by Anthony Quinn, he denied being the son of an "Irish adventurer" and attributed that tale to Hollywood publicists.
When he was six years old, Quinn attended a Catholic church. At age eleven, however, he joined the Pentecostals in the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel. For a time he played in the church's band and was an apprentice preacher with the renowned evangelist. "I have known most of the great actresses of my time, not one of them could touch her", Quinn once said of the spellbinding McPherson, whom he credited with inspiring Zorba's gesture of the outstretched hand. Quinn grew up first in El Paso, in East Los Angeles and in the Echo Park area of Los Angeles, California, he attended Hammel Street Elementary School, Belvedere Junior High School, Polytechnic High School and Belmont High School in Los Angeles, with future baseball player and General Hospital star John Beradino, but left before graduating. Tucson High School in Arizona, many years awarded him an honorary high school diploma; as a young man, Quinn boxed professionally to earn money studied art and architecture under Frank Lloyd Wright, at Wright's Arizona residence and his Wisconsin studio, Taliesin.
The two men became friends. When Quinn mentioned that he was drawn to acting, Wright encouraged him. Quinn didn't know what to do. Wright replied, "Take it, you'll never make that much with me." During a 1999 interview on the show Private Screenings with Robert Osborne, Quinn said the contract was for only $300 per week. After a short time performing on the stage, Quinn launched his film career performing character roles in the 1936 films The Plainsman as a Cheyenne Indian after Custer's defeat with Gary Cooper and The Milky Way, he played "ethnic" villains in Paramount films such as Dangerous to Know and Road to Morocco, played a more sympathetic Crazy Horse in They Died with Their Boots On with Errol Flynn. By 1947, he had appeared in more than fifty films and had played Indians, Mafia dons, Hawaiian chiefs, Filipino freedom-fighters, Chinese guerrillas, Arab sheiks, but was still not a major star, he returned to the theater. In 1947, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States, he came back to Hollywood in the early 1950s.
He was cast in a series of B-adventures such as Mask of the Avenger. His big break came from playing opposite Marlon Brando in Elia Kazan's Viva Zapata!. Quinn's performance as Zapata's brother won Quinn an Oscar while Brando lost the Oscar for Best Actor to Gary Cooper in High Noon. Quinn was the first Mexican-American to win an Academy Award, he appeared in several Italian films starting in 1953, turning in one of his best performances as a dim-witted and volatile strongman in Federico Fellini's La Strada opposite Giulietta Masina. Quinn won his second Oscar for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of painter Paul Gauguin in Vincente Minnelli's Lust for Life; the following year, he received an Oscar nomination for Best Actor for his part in George Cukor's Wild Is the Wind. He starred in the film The Savage Innocents as Inuk, an Eskimo who finds himself caught between two clashing cultures; as the decade ended, Quinn allowed his age to show and began his transformation into a major character actor.
His physique filled out, his hair grayed, his once smooth, swarthy face weathered and became more rugged. He played a Greek resistance fighter in The Guns of Navarone, an aging boxer in Requiem for a Heavyweight, the Bedouin shaikh Auda abu Tayi in Lawrence of Arabia, he played the title role in the 1961 film Barabbas, based on a novel by Pär Lagerkvist. The success of Zorba the Greek in 1964 resulted in another Oscar nomination for Best Actor. Other films included The 25th Hour, The Magus, La Bataille de San Sebastian and The Shoes of the Fisherman. In 1969, he starred in The Secret of Santa Vittoria with Anna Magnani, he appeared on Broadway to great acclaim in Becket, as King Henry II to Laurence Olivier's Thomas Becket in 1960. An erroneous story arose in years that during the run Quinn and Olivier switched roles and Quinn played Becket to Olivier's King. In fact, Quinn left the production for a film, never having played Becket, director Peter Glenville suggested a road tour with Olivier as Henry.
Olivier agreed and Arthur Kennedy took on the role of Becket for the tour and brief return to Broadway. In 1971, after the success of a TV movie named The Cit
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land, surrounded by water. Small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines. An island may be described despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; some places may retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is not considered an island.
There are two main types of islands in the sea: oceanic. There are artificial islands; the word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland. However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English ieg is a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, related to Latin aqua. Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size that distinguishes islands from continents, or from islets. There is a difference between continents in terms of geology. Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate. By contrast, islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust, or belong to a continental plate containing a larger landmass. Continental islands are bodies of land.
Examples are Borneo, Sumatra, Sakhalin and Hainan off Asia. A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, some of the Seychelles. Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity; this includes: barrier islands, which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived. Islets are small islands. Oceanic islands are islands; the vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface.
Examples are Saint Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific. One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc; these islands arise from volcanoes. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean; the only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands. Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs. There are two examples: Iceland, the world's second largest volcanic island, Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic. A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts.
Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, formed in 1963. An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island; the reef forms a new island. Atolls are ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands
Phaedros Stassinos was a Greek-Cypriot actor whose international stage name was Paul Stassino. He was born in Cyprus, at Platres, grew up in Limassol, but spent most of his acting career in Britain, he moved to the UK at the age of 18 to study at the Law School. Because of his great passion to be an actor, without telling his family, he got a scholarship to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, he appeared in British TV dramas such as Danger Man and The Saint. He appeared in Coronation Street in 1968, as Hungarian demolition contractor Miklos Zadic who had a brief relationship with Emily Nugent, his best known performance was when he played two parts, Major François Derval and Angelo Palazzi, in the James Bond film Thunderball. Other roles include "Le Pirate" in That Riviera Touch, the first officer of the Colombian ship Paloma in Tiger Bay. In 1972 he moved to Athens, where he worked as a director in the casino in Athens, because of his great love for his island, he moved to his birthplace in Cyprus where he worked in the Public Theatre in Nicosia as an actor and as a director, where after he retired he moved to his beloved Limassol.
He was buried in the cemetery of Limassol Sfalagiotisa. He was married twice and had three children Julian Stassino, Alex Stassino, Elvi Stassinou. Paul Stassino on IMDb Paul Stassino at Fandango Obituary