United Nations Command
The United Nations Command is the unified command structure for the multinational military forces, established in 1950, supporting South Korea during and after the Korean War. The United Nations Command and the Chinese-North Korean Command signed the Korean Armistice Agreement on 27 July 1953, ending the heavy fighting; the armistice agreement established the Military Armistice Commission, consisting of representatives of the two signatories, to supervise the implementation of the armistice terms, the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission to monitor the armistice's restrictions on the parties' reinforcing or rearming themselves. The North Korean-Chinese MAC was replaced by Panmunjom representatives under exclusive North Korean management. Regular meetings have been stopped, although duty officers of the Joint Security Area from each side met regularly. On November 6, 2018, it was announced that the UNC would transfer primary guard duties of the now demilitarized Joint Security Area to both North and South Korea.
The resolutions suggested the forces under the UNC were "United Nations forces", the United Nations itself could be considered a belligerent in the war. However, in practice the United Nations exercised no control over the combat forces; these were controlled by the United States, which supplied more men than any other of the nations which came to the war. Most observers concluded that the forces under the UNC were not in law United Nations troops, the acts of the UNC were not the acts of the United Nations; the UNC can be regarded as an alliance of national armies, operating under the collective right of self-defense. United Nations Security Council Resolution 84 authorized the use of the United Nations flag concurrently with the flags of the participating UNC nations. In 1994, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali wrote in a letter to the North Korean Foreign Minister that: the Security Council did not establish the unified command as a subsidiary organ under its control, but recommended the creation of such a command, specifying that it be under the authority of the United States.
Therefore the dissolution of the unified command does not fall within the responsibility of any United Nations organ but is a matter within the competence of the Government of the United States. After troops of North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 82 calling on North Korea to cease hostilities and withdraw to the 38th parallel. On June 27, 1950, it adopted Resolution 83, recommending that members of the United Nations provide assistance to the Republic of Korea "to repel the armed attack and to restore international peace and security to the area"; the first non-Korean and non-US unit to see combat was No. 77 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force, which began escort and ground attack sorties from Iwakuni, Japan on 2 July 1950. On 29 June 1950, the New Zealand government ordered two Loch class frigates – Tutira and Pukaki to prepare to make for Korean waters, for the whole of the war, at least two NZ vessels would be on station in the theater.
On 3 July and Pukaki left Devonport Naval Base, Auckland. They joined other Commonwealth forces at Japan, on 2 August. United Nations Security Council Resolution 84, adopted on July 7, 1950, recommended that members providing military forces and other assistance to South Korea "make such forces and other assistance available to a unified command under the United States of America". President Syngman Rhee of the Republic of Korea assigned operational command of ROK ground and air forces to General MacArthur as Commander-in-Chief UN Command in a letter of July 15, 1950: In view of the common military effort of the United Nations on behalf of the Republic of Korea, in which all military forces, land and air, of all the United Nations fighting in or near Korea have been placed under your operational command, in which you have been designated Supreme Commander United Nations Forces, I am happy to assign to you command authority over all land and air forces of the Republic of Korea during the period of the continuation of the present state of hostilities, such command to be exercised either by you or by such military commander or commanders to whom you may delegate the exercise of this authority within Korea or in adjacent seas.
On August 29, 1950, the British Commonwealth's 27th Infantry Brigade arrived at Busan to join UNC ground forces, which until included only ROK and U. S. forces. The 27th Brigade moved into the Naktong River line west of Daegu. Units from other countries of the UN followed: Belgian United Nations Command, Colombia, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Philippines, South Africa and the Turkish Brigade. Denmark, India and Sweden provided medical units. Italy provided a hospital though it was not a UN member. Iran provided medical assistance from the Iranian military's medical service. On 1 September 1950 the United Nations Command had a strength of 180,000 in Korea: 92,000 were South Koreans, the balance being Americans and the 1,600-man British 27th Infantry Brigade. During the three years of the Korean War, military forces of these nations were allied as members of the UNC. Peak strength for the UNC was 932,964 on July 27, 1953, the day the Armistice Agreement was signed: Combat forces South Korea – 590,911 United States – 302,483 Australia – 17,000 United Kingdom – 14,198 Thailand – 6,326 Canada – 6,146 Turkey – 5,453 Philippine
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
The Manchurian Candidate
The Manchurian Candidate is a novel by Richard Condon, first published in 1959. It is a political thriller about the son of a prominent U. S. political family, brainwashed into being an unwitting assassin for a Communist conspiracy. The novel has been adapted twice into a feature film of the same title, in 1962 and again in 2004; the 1962 film is faithful to the book. Major Bennett Marco, Sergeant Raymond Shaw, the rest of their infantry platoon are captured by an elite Soviet commando unit during the Korean War in 1952, they are taken to Manchuria, brainwashed into believing Shaw saved their lives in combat – for which Shaw is subsequently awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Years after the war, now back in the United States working as an intelligence officer, begins suffering a recurring nightmare. In the dreams that Major Marco was experiencing, the platoon were all together surrounded by what appeared to be sweet little old ladies, a part of their brainwashing; the platoon was seated together and one of the ladies tells Sergeant Shaw to murder two of his comrades from his platoon.
The backdrop with the old ladies changes back and forth between them and Chinese and Soviet intelligence officials. When Marco learns that another soldier from the platoon has been suffering the same nightmare, he investigates why this is happening; when Marco discovers that there are other members of the platoon experiencing the same nightmare, he sets out to solve the mystery. Major Marco looks up Sergeant Raymond Shaw and discovers that Raymond's new manservant is someone that he recognizes from Korea, they proceed to start fighting in Raymond's house and both get bloodied significantly. Marco is arrested, when Shaw sees that it's his old Major, they rekindle their relationship. Both find love interests. Jocelyn Jordan is the daughter of Senator Thomas Jordan, a neighbor of Raymond Shaw's. Senator Jordan and Raymond's mother don't like each other, it is revealed that the Communists have been using Shaw as a sleeper agent who, activated by a posthypnotic trigger forgets the assignments he carries out and therefore can never betray himself either purposely or inadvertently.
In Shaw's case, the suggestion that he play solitaire is the trigger. Seeing the "Queen of Diamonds" playing card transforms him into an assassin who will kill anyone at whom he is directed. Shaw's KGB handler is Eleanor. Married to McCarthy-esque Senator Johnny Iselin, Eleanor has convinced the Communist powers to help her install her husband as president and allow them to control the American government through him. By observing Shaw, Marco discovers the trigger shortly before the national convention of Iselin's political party, he uses the Queen of Diamonds card to draw out Eleanor's plan: after she obtains the vice presidential nomination for Iselin, Shaw is to shoot the presidential candidate so that Iselin can succeed him. Blaming the killing on the Communists will enable Iselin to assume dictatorial powers. Marco reprograms Shaw. At the convention, Shaw instead kills his mother and Senator Iselin. Marco is the first person to reach Shaw's sniper nest, getting there just before Shaw turns the gun on himself.
In 1998, software developer C. J. Silverio noted that several long passages of the novel seemed to be adapted from Robert Graves' 1934 novel I, Claudius. Forensic linguist John Olsson judged that "There can be no disputing that Richard Condon plagiarized from Robert Graves." Olsson went on to state that "As plagiarists go, Condon is quite creative, he does not confine himself to one source and is prepared to throw other ingredients into the pot." Jonathan Lethem, in his influential essay The Ecstasy of Influence: A Plagiarism, has identified The Manchurian Candidate as one of a number of "cherished texts that become troubling to their admirers after the discovery of their'plagiarized' elements," which make it "apparent that appropriation, quotation and sublimated collaboration consist of a kind of sine qua non of the creative act, cutting across all forms and genres in the realm of cultural production." The book has been adapted twice into a feature film of the same title. The Manchurian Candidate is considered a classic of the political thriller genre.
It was directed by John Frankenheimer and starred Laurence Harvey as Shaw, Frank Sinatra as Marco, Angela Lansbury as Eleanor in an Academy Award-nominated performance. The Manchurian Candidate was directed by Jonathan Demme, starred Liev Schreiber as Shaw, Denzel Washington as Marco, Meryl Streep as Eleanor, it was well received by critics, moderately successful at the box office. The film updated the conflict to the Persian Gulf War in 1991, emphasized the science fiction aspects of the story by setting the action in a dystopian near-future, had a U. S. corporation as the perpetrator of the brainwashing and conspiracy instead of foreign Communist groups, dropped the Johnny Iselin character in favor of making both Shaw and his mother elected politicians. Both adaptations discard several elements of the book; the book spends more time describing the brainwashers and the facility in Manchuria where the Americans were held. The head of the project grants Raymond a "gift". In the novel, Mrs. Iselin and her son travel abroad, where she uses him to kill vari
The Manchurian Candidate (2004 film)
The Manchurian Candidate is a 2004 American political thriller film directed by Jonathan Demme. The film, based on Richard Condon's 1959 novel of the same name and a re-working of the previous 1962 film, stars Denzel Washington as Bennett Marco, a tenacious, virtuous soldier. S. Representative from New York, manipulated into becoming a vice-presidential candidate. S. Senator Tom Jordan, a challenger for vice president. S. Senator and the manipulative, ruthless mother of Raymond Shaw. Major Ben Marco is a war veteran who commanded a famous U. S. Army raid during the Persian Gulf War. For his role in that mission, Sergeant Raymond Shaw was awarded the Medal of Honor for single-handedly defeating the enemy and rescuing all but two of his men. Shaw has gone on to become a famous U. S. Congressman and, thanks to the influence of his mother, Virginia Senator Eleanor Prentiss Shaw, is nominated as the Vice-Presidential candidate over the favorite Connecticut Senator Tom Jordan. Shaw is withdrawn, but he opens up only to his mother and his childhood sweetheart, Tom Jordan's daughter Jocelyn.
One of Marco's former NCOs, Corporal Al Melvin, contacts him and says that he experiences confusing memories and "dreams" about their lost Army unit. He is mentally ill, but he shows Marco some images he has drawn from his dreams. Marco begins to have dreams about being captured on that raid and brainwashed by scientists led by a mysterious South African man, of himself and Shaw murdering their fellow soldiers. Marco begins investigating what happened during the war, travels to New York. A woman named Eugenie, an outgoing supermarket clerk with whom Marco interacts sits with him on the train and offers him a place to stay; as Marco investigates, he discovers an implant in his back and, soon thereafter, one in Shaw's after a confrontation at campaign headquarters. After having the one taken from Shaw analyzed, Marco realizes that it is a nanotechnological experiment connected with Manchurian Global, a powerful private equity firm with major political connections. Marco researches Manchurian and recognizes the South African man as Dr. Atticus Noyle, a former Manchurian geneticist-turned-mercenary, from one of his nightmares.
Marco brings his findings to the attention of Jordan, although he doesn't believe the story, confronts the Shaws and suggests that Raymond bow out of the campaign. Instead, Eleanor "activates" Raymond and orders him to kill Jordan. Jocelyn is killed when she tries to stop an entranced Raymond. Eugenie reveals herself to be with the FBI, monitoring the conspiracy for years, they found an implant in Melvin, who died like all of Shaw and Marco's squadmates under mysterious circumstances. They arrange a meeting between Shaw to convince Shaw of his condition; the meeting takes place just as Governor Arthur and Shaw win the White House, Shaw receives a phone call from Eleanor for Marco. Eleanor, linked with Manchurian, uses trigger words to control Marco's mind, giving him commands to assassinate the President-elect so that Shaw can become President. Eleanor admits to Shaw that she voluntarily gave him to the brainwashers for the good of the country. However, the trauma of Jocelyn's death gives Shaw the strength to resist the mind control.
At the climactic moment, Shaw deliberately places himself between the President-elect. As Eugenie rushes through the celebration crowd trying to find Marco, Shaw looks up at the vent where Marco is and gives a nod of clearance to kill him. Shaw dances with his mother and steers them both into the marked position, where Marco kills both of them with a single shot from his rifle. Marco prepares to kill himself, but Eugenie, who saw Shaw's nod and stops him; the FBI decides to protect Marco's innocence by framing a deceased Manchurian Global contractor as the shooter. The Manchurian executives watch their entire conspiracy revealed on television, but make no attempt to flee, knowing the truth's exposure has left them nowhere to run. In the last scene, Eugenie takes Marco to the compound where he was conditioned, which by now the FBI has found. Marco proceeds to drop Shaw's Medal of Honor into the sea. Cameos Tina Sinatra was a co-producer of the film, her father Frank Sinatra portrayed Marco in the original 1962 film and owned that film's legal distribution rights into the late 1980s, never re-releasing it during that time.
In the original, nationally released during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the premise was based on communists taking control. The remake does not follow the original film's plot details on several occasions; the film grossed $65,955,630 in North America and $30,150,334 in other territories, totaling $96,105,964 worldwide. The film received positive reviews from critics. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an 80% approval rating, based on 207 reviews, with an average rating of 7.11/10. The site's consensus reads, "While not the classic its predecessor is, this update is well-acted and conjures a chilling resonance". Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 top reviews from mainstream critics, calculated an average score of 76, based on 41 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle wrote of Streep: "No one can talk about the acting in The Manchurian Candidate without rhapsodizing about Streep (in the role
Laurence Harvey was a Lithuanian-born British Jewish actor. In a career that spanned a quarter of a century, Harvey appeared in stage and television productions in the United Kingdom and the United States, his performance in Room at the Top resulted in an Academy Award nomination. That success was followed by the role of William Barret Travis in The Alamo, as the brainwashed Raymond Shaw in The Manchurian Candidate. Harvey's civil birth name was Laruschka Mischa Skikne, his Hebrew name was Zvi Mosheh. He was born in Joniškis, the youngest of three sons of Ella and Ber Skikne, Lithuanian Jewish parents; when he was five years old, his family travelled with the family of Riva Segal and her two sons and Charles Segal on the ship, the SS Adolph Woermann to South Africa, where he was known as Harry Skikne. Harvey grew up in Johannesburg, was in his teens when he served with the entertainment unit of the South African Army during the Second World War; as the Mystery Guest on USA TV show What's My Line screened May 1, 1960, he states he arrived in South Africa in 1934 and moved to the UK in 1946.
After moving to London, he enrolled in the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, but left RADA after three months, began to perform on stage and film. Harvey made his cinema debut in the British film House of Darkness, but its distributor British Lion thought someone named Larry Skikne was not commercially viable. Accounts vary as to. One version has it that it was the idea of talent agent Gordon Harbord who decided Laurence would be an appropriate first name. In choosing a British-sounding last name, Harbord thought of two British retail institutions, Harvey Nichols and Harrods. Another is that Skikne was travelling on a London bus with Sid James who exclaimed during their journey: "It's either Laurence Nichols or Laurence Harvey." Harvey's own account differed over time. Associated British Picture Corporation offered him a two-year contract, which Harvey accepted, he appeared in supporting roles in several of their lower-budget films such as Man on the Run and The Dancing Years. For International Motion Pictures he was in The Man from Yesterday.
He had a small role in the Hollywood financed The Black Rose, starring Tyrone Power and Orson Welles Associated British gave him his first lead, appearing alongside Eric Portman in the Egypt-set police film, Cairo Road. Harvey starred in leading roles for two movies with Lewis Gilbert, Scarlet Thread and There Is Another Sun. For Ealing he made I Believe in You he starred in a low budget thriller, A Killer Walks. Harvey's career gained a boost. James Woolf in particular was a big admirer of Harvey, he had an uncredited role in the comedy Innocents in Paris, in a Hollywood film, Knights of the Round Table. Romulus have him a good part in a thriller directed by The Good Die Young, he was given the romantic male lead in another Hollywood spectacular, King Richard and the Crusaders, supporting Rex Harrison and George Sanders. It was a box office disappointment; that year he played Romeo in Renato Castellani's adaptation of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, narrated by John Gielgud. He was now established as an emerging British star.
According to a contemporary interview, he turned down an offer to appear in Helen of Troy to act at Stratford-upon-Avon. Romulus came to the rescue again when Harvey was cast as the writer Christopher Isherwood in I Am A Camera, with Julie Harris as Sally Bowles, he appeared on American television and on Broadway, making his Broadway debut in 1955 in the play Island of Goats, a flop that closed after one week, though his performance won him a 1956 Theatre World Award. Harvey appeared twice more on Broadway, in 1957 with Julie Harris, Pamela Brown and Colleen Dewhurst in William Wycherley's The Country Wife, as Shakespeare's Henry V in 1959, as part of the Old Vic company, which featured a young Judi Dench as Katherine, the daughter of the King of France. Zoltan Korda used him as one of the soldiers in Storm Over the Nile, a remake of The Four Feathers, playing the part taken by Ralph Richardson in the 1939 version, it was popular in Britain. After the Ball was a biopic of Vesta Tilley, in which Harvey played Walter de Frece.
The Truth About Women was a comedy. Harvey's breakthrough to international stardom came after he was cast by director Jack Clayton as the social climber Joe Lampton in Room at the Top, produced by British film producer brothers John and James Woolf of Romulus Films. For his performance, Harvey received a BAFTA Award nomination and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Simone Signoret and Heather Sears co-starred as Lampton's married lover and eventual wife respectively, it was the third most popular movie at the British box office in 1959 and a hit in the USA. Harvey followed it with a musical, Expresso Bongo, a film best remembered for introducing Cliff Richard. Room at the Top led to Hollywood offers starting with John Wayne's epic The Alamo. Harvey was John Wayne's personal choice to play Alamo commandant William Barret Travis, he had been impressed by Harvey's talent and ability to project the aristocratic demeanor Wayne believed Travis possessed. Harvey and Wayne would express their mutual admiration and satisfaction at having worked together.
The Alamo was
James Gregory (actor)
James Gregory was an American character actor known for his deep, gravelly voice and playing brash roles such as the McCarthy-like Sen. John Iselin in The Manchurian Candidate, the audacious General Ursus in Beneath the Planet of the Apes, crusty Inspector Frank Luger in the television sitcom Barney Miller. Gregory was born in the Bronx in New York City, raised in New Rochelle, just north of New York City. In high school he was president of the Drama Club, he worked on Wall Street as a runner in 1929 and thought of being a stockbroker, but, by 1935, had become a professional actor instead. In 1939, he made his Broadway debut in a production of Key Largo and worked in about twenty-five more Broadway productions over the next sixteen years, he served three years in the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps during World War II. His early acting work included Army training films, he played the irascible Naval Commander C. R. Ritchie in the movie P. T. 109 that chronicled the U. S. Naval experience of Lt. John F. Kennedy.
Gregory was the lead in The Lawless Years, a 1920s crime drama which aired forty-five episodes on NBC. In the series, which ran from 1959–61, he played NYPD Detective Barney Ruditsky. After his appearance as the McCarthyistic Senator Iselin in The Manchurian Candidate, Gregory starred in the film PT 109 with Cliff Robertson, he played Dean Martin's spy boss MacDonald, in the Matt Helm film series. In the pilot movie for the Hawaii Five-O, Gregory became the first actor to portray State Department official Jonathan Kaye, a recurring character on the series. Gregory was a semi-regular on the TV series Barney Miller as Deputy Inspector Frank Luger, his final acting credit was in a 1986 episode of Mr. Belvedere. Gregory died of natural causes in Sedona, Arizona in 2002, aged 90, he and his wife, Anne Miltner, are interred at the Sedona Community Cemetery. Official website James Gregory at Memory Alpha James Gregory on IMDb James Gregory at the Internet Broadway Database James Gregory at Find a Grave
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o