Electorate of Saxony
The Electorate of Saxony was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356. Upon the extinction of the House of Ascania, it was feoffed to the Margraves of Meissen from the Wettin dynasty in 1423, who moved the ducal residence up the river Elbe to Dresden. After the Empire's dissolution in 1806, the Wettin Electors raised Saxony to a territorially reduced kingdom. After the dissolution of the medieval Duchy of Saxony, the name Saxony was first applied to a small territory midway along the river Elbe, around the city of Wittenberg, which had belonged to the March of Lusatia. Around 1157 it was held by the first Margrave of Brandenburg; when Emperor Frederick Barbarossa deposed the Saxon duke, Henry the Lion in 1180, the Wittenberg lands belonged to Albert's youngest son, Count Bernhard of Anhalt, who assumed the Saxon ducal title. Bernard's eldest son, Albert I, ceded the territory known as, Anhalt to his younger brother, retaining the ducal title and attched to this territory the lordship of Lauenburg.
His sons divided the territory into the duchies of Saxe-Lauenburg. Both lines claimed the Saxon electoral dignity or privilege, which led to confusion during the 1314 election of the Wittelsbach duke, Louis of Bavaria as King of the Romans against his Habsburg rival, Duke Frederick the Fair of Austria, as both candidates received one vote each from each of the two rival Ascanian branches. Louis was succeeded by Charles of Bohemia. After his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor in 1355, Charles issued the Golden Bull of 1356, the fundamental law of the Empire settling the method of electing the German King by seven Prince-electors; the rival Wittelsbach and Habsburg dynasties got nothing, instead the Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg, Archmarshal of the Empire, received the right to elect the King of the Romans and the prospective Emperor, together with six other elector Princes of the Empire. Thus, the country, though small in area, gained influence far beyond its extent; the electoral privilege contained the obligation of male primogeniture.
That is, only the eldest son could succeed as ruler. It therefore forbade the division of the territory among several heirs, in order to prevent the disintegration of the country; the importance of this stipulation is shown by the history of most of the fragmented German principalities which were not constituted as electorates. The Ascanian line of Saxe-Wittenberg became extinct with the death of Elector Albert III in 1422, after which Emperor Sigismund granted the country and electoral privilege upon Margrave Frederick IV of Meissen, a loyal supporter in the Hussite Wars; the late Albert's Ascanian relative, Duke Eric V of Saxe-Lauenburg protested in vain. Frederick, one of the seven Prince-electors, was a member of the House of Wettin, which since 1089 had ruled over the adjacent Margravate of Meissen up the Elbe river - established under Emperor Otto I in 965 - and over the Landgravate of Thuringia since 1242. Thus, in 1423, Saxe-Wittenberg, the Margravate of Meissen and Thuringia were united under one ruler, as a unified territory became known as, Upper Saxony.
When Elector Frederick II died in 1464, his two surviving sons overrode the primogeniture principle and divided his territories by the Treaty of Leipzig on 26 August 1485. This resulted in the separated Wettin dynasty becoming the Ernestine and Albertine branches; the elder Ernest, founder of the Ernestine line, received large parts of the former Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg with the electoral privilege attached to it, the southern Landgravate of Thuringia. While the younger Albert, founder of the Albertine line, received northern Thuringia and the lands of the former Margravate of Meissen. Thus, although the Ernestine line had had greater authority until the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547, the electoral privilege and territory fell to the Albertine line, which also became a royal house when Saxony was proclaimed a kingdom in the 19th century; this partition was to decisively enfeeble the Wettin dynasty in relation to the rising House of Hohenzollern. It had achieved its own electoral privilege as Margraves of Brandenburg since 1415.
The Protestant movement of the 16th century spread under the protection of the Saxon rulers. Ernest's son, Elector Frederick the Wise established in 1502 the University at Wittenberg, where the Augustinian monk, Martin Luther, was appointed professor of philosophy in 1508. At the same time he became one of the preachers at the castle church in Wittenberg. On 31 October 1517, he enclosed in a protest letter to Albert of Brandenburg the Archbishop of Mainz, The Ninety-Five Theses against the sale of indulgences and other Catholic practices, an action that marked the start of what came to be called the Reformation. Although the Elector did not at first share the new attitude, he granted his protection to Luther anyway. Owing to this intervention, Pope Leo X decided against summoning Luther to Rome in 1518, the Elector secured for Luther Imperial safe-conduct to the Diet of Worms in 1521; when Luther was declared banned in the entire empire by Emperor Charles V, the Elector had him brought to live in Wartburg Castle on his Thuringian estate.
Lutheran doctrines spread first in Ernestine Saxony. In 1525, Frederick died never having left the Catholic Church, unless on his deathbed in 1525, but he was sympathetic towards Lutheranism by the time of his death, he was succeeded by John the Constant. John was a zealous Lutheran, he exercised full authority over the new chu
Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was noted for his inspirational leadership, grasp of strategy, unconventional tactics, which together resulted in a number of decisive British naval victories during the Napoleonic Wars, he was wounded several times in combat, losing the sight in one eye in Corsica at the age of 36, as well as most of one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife when 40 years of age. He was shot and killed at the age of 47 during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar near the Spanish port city of Cádiz in 1805. Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous Norfolk family and joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling, a high-ranking naval officer himself, he rose through the ranks and served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command at the age of 20 in 1778. He developed a reputation in the service through his personal valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of illness and unemployment after the end of the American War of Independence.
The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service, where he was active in the Mediterranean. He fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of HMS Captain at the Battle of Cape St Vincent. Shortly after the battle, Nelson took part in the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, where his attack was defeated and he was badly wounded, losing his right arm, was forced to return to England to recuperate; the following year, he won a decisive victory over the French at the Battle of the Nile and remained in the Mediterranean to support the Kingdom of Naples against a French invasion. In 1801, he was dispatched to the Baltic and won another victory, this time over the Danes at the Battle of Copenhagen, he subsequently commanded the blockade of the French and Spanish fleets at Toulon and, after their escape, chased them to the West Indies and back but failed to bring them to battle.
After a brief return to England, he took over the Cádiz blockade in 1805. On 21 October 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet came out of port, Nelson's fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar; the battle was Britain's greatest naval victory, but during the action, aboard HMS Victory, was fatally wounded by a French sharpshooter. His body was brought back to England. Nelson's death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britain's most heroic figures; the significance of the victory and his death during the battle led to his signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty", being quoted and referenced up to the modern day. Numerous monuments, including Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh, have been created in his memory and his legacy remains influential. Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, England, the sixth of eleven children of the Reverend Edmund Nelson and his wife Catherine Suckling, he was named after his godfather Horatio Walpole 2nd Baron Walpole, of Wolterton.
His mother, who died on 26 December 1767, when he was nine years old, was a great-niece of Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. She lived in the village of Barsham and married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Suffolk, in 1749. Nelson's aunt, Alice Nelson was the wife of Reverend Robert Rolfe, Rector of Hilborough and grandmother of Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe. Rolfe twice served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. Nelson attended Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, until he was 12 years old, attended King Edward VI’s Grammar School in Norwich, his naval career began on 1 January 1771, when he reported to the third-rate HMS Raisonnable as an ordinary seaman and coxswain under his maternal uncle, Captain Maurice Suckling, who commanded the vessel. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson began officer training. Early in his service, Nelson discovered that he suffered from seasickness, a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life.
HMS Raisonnable had been commissioned during a period of tension with Spain, but when this passed, Suckling was transferred to the Nore guardship HMS Triumph and Nelson was dispatched to serve aboard the West Indiamen Mary Ann of the merchant shipping firm of Hibbert and Horton, in order to gain experience at sea. He twice crossed the Atlantic, before returning to serve under his uncle as the commander of Suckling's longboat, which carried men and dispatches to and from the shore. Nelson learned of a planned expedition under the command of Constantine Phipps, intended to survey a passage in the Arctic by which it was hoped that India could be reached: the fabled North-East Passage. At his nephew's request, Suckling arranged for Nelson to join the expedition as coxswain to Commander Lutwidge aboard the converted bomb vessel HMS Carcass; the expedition reached within ten degrees of the North Pole, unable to find a way through the dense ice floes, was forced to turn back. By 1800 Lutwidge began to circulate a story that while the ship had been trapped in the ice, Nelson had seen and pursued a polar bear, before being ordered to return to the ship.
Lutwidge's version, in 1809, reported that Nelson and a companion had given chase to the bear, but on bei
Jonas Hanway, was an English traveller and philanthropist. He was born on the south coast of England. Whilst still a child, his father, a victualler and the family subsequently moved to London. In 1729, Jonas was apprenticed to a merchant in Lisbon. In 1743, after he had been in business for himself for some time in London, he became a partner with Mr Dingley, a merchant in St Petersburg, in this way was led to travel in Russia and Persia. Leaving St Petersburg on 10 September 1743, passing south by Moscow and Astrakhan, he embarked on the Caspian Sea on 22 November and arrived at Astrabad on 18 December. Here his goods were seized by Mohammed Hassan Beg, it was only after great privations that he reached the camp of Nadir Shah, under whose protection he recovered most of his property, his return journey was embarrassed by sickness, attacks from pirates, six weeks' quarantine. He again left the Russian capital on 9 July 1750 and travelled through Germany and the Netherlands to England; the rest of his life was spent in London, where the narrative of his travels soon made him a man of note, where he devoted himself to philanthropy and good citizenship.
In 1756, Hanway founded The Marine Society. He was buried in the crypt at St. Mary's Church, Hanwell. A monument to his memory, sculpted by John Francis Moore was erected in Westminster Abbey in 1786. Hanway was the first male Londoner, it is said, to carry an umbrella, he lived to triumph over all the hackney coachmen who tried to hoot and hustle him down, he attacked tipping, with some temporary success. His last efforts were on behalf of little chimney-sweeps, he advocated solitary confinement for prisoners and opposed naturalization of non-British Jews. Hanway created seventy-four printed works pamphlets. Of literary importance is the Historical Account of British Trade over the Caspian Sea, with a Journal of Travels, etc.. He's cited for his work with the Foundling Hospital his pamphlets detailing the earliest comparative "histories" of the foundation versus similar institutions abroad. On his life, see John Pugh, Remarkable Occurrences in the Life of Jonas Hanway. P. 342. 436, ii. 25. 416. The Lives of Celebrated Travellers, Volume 2 Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Hanway, Jonas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. P. 932. Roland Everett Jayne, Jonas Hanway: Philanthropist and Author, London: Epworth Press, J. Alfred Sharp, 1929. Works by or about Jonas Hanway in libraries
Battle of Trafalgar
The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars. Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson aboard HMS Victory defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under French Admiral Villeneuve; the battle took place in the Atlantic Ocean off the southwest coast of Spain, just west of Cape Trafalgar, near the town of Los Caños de Meca. The Franco-Spanish fleet lost the British lost none; the victory confirmed the naval supremacy Britain had established during the course of the eighteenth century and it was achieved in part through Nelson's departure from the prevailing naval tactical orthodoxy of the day. Conventional practice at the time was for opposing fleets to engage each other in single parallel lines, in order to facilitate signalling and disengagement, to maximise fields of fire and target areas. Nelson instead arranged his ships into two columns to sail perpendicularly into the enemy fleet's line.
During the battle, Nelson was shot by a French musketeer and he died shortly before the battle ended. Villeneuve was captured, along with his ship Bucentaure, he attended Nelson's funeral while a captive on parole in Britain. Admiral Federico Gravina, the senior Spanish flag officer, escaped with the remnant of the fleet, he died five months from wounds sustained during the battle. In 1805, the First French Empire, under Napoleon Bonaparte, was the dominant military land power on the European continent, while the British Royal Navy controlled the seas. During the course of the war, the British imposed a naval blockade on France, which affected trade and kept the French from mobilising their naval resources. Despite several successful evasions of the blockade by the French navy, it failed to inflict a major defeat upon the British, who were able to attack French interests at home and abroad with relative ease; when the Third Coalition declared war on France, after the short-lived Peace of Amiens, Napoleon was determined to invade Britain.
To do so, he needed to ensure that the Royal Navy would be unable to disrupt the invasion flotilla, which would require control of the English Channel. The main French fleets were at Toulon on the Mediterranean coast. Other ports on the French Atlantic coast harboured smaller squadrons. France and Spain were allied, so the Spanish fleet based in Cádiz and Ferrol was available; the British possessed an well-trained corps of naval officers. By contrast, some of the best officers in the French navy had either been executed or had left the service during the early part of the French Revolution. Vice-Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve had taken command of the French Mediterranean fleet following the death of Latouche Treville. There had been more competent officers, but they had either been employed elsewhere or had fallen from Napoleon's favour. Villeneuve had shown a distinct lack of enthusiasm for facing Nelson and the Royal Navy after the French defeat at the Battle of the Nile in 1798. Napoleon's naval plan in 1805 was for the French and Spanish fleets in the Mediterranean and Cádiz to break through the blockade and join forces in the Caribbean.
They would return, assist the fleet in Brest to emerge from the blockade, together clear the English Channel of Royal Navy ships, ensuring a safe passage for the invasion barges. Early in 1805, Vice Admiral Lord Nelson commanded the British fleet blockading Toulon. Unlike William Cornwallis, who maintained a close blockade off Brest with the Channel Fleet, Nelson adopted a loose blockade in the hope of luring the French out for a major battle. However, Villeneuve's fleet evaded Nelson's when the British were blown off station by storms. Nelson commenced a search of the Mediterranean, erroneously supposing that the French intended to make for Egypt. However, Villeneuve took his fleet through the Strait of Gibraltar, rendezvoused with the Spanish fleet, sailed as planned for the Caribbean. Once Nelson realised that the French had crossed the Atlantic Ocean, he set off in pursuit. Villeneuve returned from the Caribbean to Europe, intending to break the blockade at Brest, but after two of his Spanish ships were captured during the Battle of Cape Finisterre by a squadron under Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Calder, Villeneuve abandoned this plan and sailed back to Ferrol in northern Spain.
There he received orders from Napoleon to return to Brest according to the main plan. Napoleon's invasion plans for Britain depended on having a sufficiently large number of ships of the line before Boulogne in France; this would require Villeneuve's force of 33 ships to join Vice-Admiral Ganteaume's force of 21 ships at Brest, along with a squadron of five ships under Captain Allemand, which would have given him a combined force of 59 ships of the line. When Villeneuve set sail from Ferrol on 10 August, he was under orders from Napoleon to sail northward toward Brest. Instead, he worried that the British were observing his manoeuvres, so on 11 August, he sailed southward towards Cádiz on the southwestern coast of Spain. With no sign of Villeneuve's fleet, on 25 August, the three French army corps' invasion force near Boulogne broke camp and marched into Germany, where it was engaged; this ended the immediate threat of invasion. The same month, Nelson returned home to Britain after two years of duty at sea.
He was warmly received by his countrymen. Word reached Britain on 2 September about the combined Spanish fleet in Cadiz harbour. Nelson had to wait until 15 September before HMS Victory, was ready to sail. On 15 August, Cornwallis decided
Cornhill is a ward and street in the City of London, the historic nucleus and financial centre of modern London. The street runs between Leadenhall Street; the hill from which it takes its name is one of the three ancient hills of London. The highest point of Cornhill is at 17.7 metres above sea level. Cornhill is one of the traditional divisions of the City; the street contains two of the City churches designed by Sir Christopher Wren: St. Michael, St Peter upon Cornhill, reputed to occupy the oldest Christianised site in London. Both are on the site of the Roman forum of Londinium. At its other end it meets Threadneedle Street, Lombard Street and others at Bank junction. Sir Thomas Gresham's original Royal Exchange fronted onto Cornhill, but its successor on the site, designed by William Tite, faces towards the Bank of England across the junction with Threadneedle Street; the "Standard" near the junction of Cornhill and Leadenhall Street was the first mechanically pumped public water supply in London, constructed in 1582 on the site of earlier hand-pumped wells and gravity-fed conduits.
The mechanism, a force pump driven by a water wheel under the northernmost arch of London Bridge, transferred water from the Thames through lead pipes to four outlets. The service was discontinued in 1603; this became the mark from which many distances to and from London were measured and the name still appears on older mileposts. In 1652, Pasqua Rosée a native of Ragusa, opened London's first coffeehouse, in St. Michael's Alley off Cornhill; the publishers Smith, Elder and Co, based at No. 65, published the popular literary journal Cornhill Magazine from 1860 to 1975, as well as the Dictionary of National Biography. The magazine was first edited by William Makepeace Thackeray. In Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, Bob Cratchit slides down Cornhill 20 times in honour of it being Christmas Eve. Today, the street is associated with opticians and makers of optical apparatus such as microscopes and telescopes. A statue of the engineer James Henry Greathead was erected in 1994 in the road beside the Royal Exchange, which lies within the ward.
Underneath the modern pavement is the world's first underground public toilet, which opened in 1855. Users were charged a standard fee of 1d, reputedly giving rise to the saying to "spend a penny". Cornhill formed part of the marathon course of Paralympic Games; the women's Olympic marathon took place on the men's Olympic marathon on 12 August. The four Paralympic marathons were held on 9 September; the postcode for the street is EC3V. Cornhill is one of 25 wards in the City of London, each elects an Alderman to the Court of Aldermen, Commoners to the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation. Only electors who are Freeman of the City of London are eligible to stand; the current Alderman is Robert Howard and the current Members of Common Council are Reverend Stephen Haines, Peter Dunphy and Ian Seaton. The most recent Common council election results are below: CORNHILL WARD - DATE OF ELECTION: 23 MARCH 2017 Joseph James Batty 20 Peter Gerard Dunphy 92 Stephen Decatur Haines 85 Ian Christopher Norman Seaton 77 denotes elected.
Turnout: 29.2% Cornhill Ward The Official Ward Website City of London Corporation Map of Cornhill ward "The English coffee houses" Cornhill, after a London map of 1750
The Swedish Empire was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries. The beginning of the Empire is taken as the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, who ascended the throne in 1611, its end as the loss of territories in 1721 following the Great Northern War. After the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, the empire was controlled for lengthy periods by part of the high nobility, such as the Oxenstierna family, acting as regents for minor monarchs; the interests of the high nobility contrasted with the uniformity policy. In territories acquired during the periods of de facto noble rule, serfdom was not abolished, there was a trend to set up respective estates in Sweden proper; the Great Reduction of 1680 put an end to these efforts of the nobility and required them to return estates once gained from the crown to the king. Serfdom, remained in force in the dominions acquired in the Holy Roman Empire and in Swedish Estonia, where a consequent application of the uniformity policy was hindered by the treaties by which they were gained.
After the victories in the Thirty Years' War, Sweden reached the climax of the great-power era during the Second Northern War, when its primary adversary, was neutralized by the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. However, in the further course of this war, as well as in the subsequent Scanian War, Sweden was able to maintain her empire only with the support of her closest ally, France. Charles XI of Sweden consolidated the empire, but a decline began with his son, Charles XII. After initial Swedish victories, Charles secured the empire for some time in the Peace of Travendal and the Treaty of Altranstädt, before the disaster that followed the king's war in Russia; the Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava put an end to Sweden's eastbound expansion, by the time of Charles XII's death in 1718 only a much-weakened and far smaller territory remained. The last traces of occupied continental territory vanished during the Napoleonic Wars, Finland went to Russia in 1809. In older Swedish history telling, Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII were heroic warriors.
Sweden emerged as a great European power under King Gustavus Adolphus. As a result of acquiring territories seized from Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as well as its involvement in the Thirty Years' War, Sweden found itself transformed into the leader of Protestantism. During the Thirty Years' War, Sweden managed to conquer half of the member states of the Holy Roman Empire; the fortunes of war would shift forth several times. After its defeat in the Battle of Nördlingen, confidence in Sweden among the Swedish-controlled German states was damaged, several of the provinces refused further Swedish military support, leaving Sweden with only a couple of northern German provinces. After France intervened on the same side as Sweden, fortunes shifted again; as the war continued, the civilian and military death toll grew, when it was over, it had led to severe depopulation in the German states. Although exact population estimates do not exist, historians estimate that the population of the Holy Roman Empire fell by one-third as a result of the war.
Sweden founded overseas colonies, principally in the New World. New Sweden was founded in the valley of the Delaware River in 1638, Sweden laid claim to a number of Caribbean islands. A string of Swedish forts and trading posts was constructed along the coast of West Africa as well, but these were not designed for Swedish settlers. At the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War, the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 granted Sweden territories as war reparations. Sweden demanded Silesia, Pomerania (which had been in its possession since the Treaty of Stettin, a war indemnity of 20,000,000 Riksdaler. Through the efforts of Johan Oxenstierna and Johan Adler Salvius it obtained: Swedish Pomerania, the Swedish share of the former Duchy of Pomerania since the Treaty of Stettin, consisting of Western Pomerania, with the islands of Rügen and Wollin, as well as the towns of Stettin and Stralsund; these German possessions were to be held as fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire. This allowed Sweden a vote in the Imperial Diet and enabled it to "direct" the Lower Saxon Circle alternately with Brandenburg.
France and Sweden, became joint guarantors of the treaty with the Holy Roman Emperor and were entrusted with carrying out its provisions, as enacted by the executive congress of Nuremberg in 1650. After the peaces of Brömsebro and Westphalia, Sweden was the third-largest area of control in Europe by land area, only surpassed by Russia and Spain. Sweden reached its largest territorial extent during this time under the rule of Charles X Gustav after the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658; as a result of eighteen years of war, Sweden gained small and scattered possessions, but had secured control of three principal rivers in northern Germany—the Oder, the Elbe and the Weser—and gained toll-collection rights for those important commercial arteries. Two principal reasons for the small reparations were Queen Christina's impatience; as a result of Sweden's intervention, Swede
Albert Mansbridge, CH was an English educator, one of the pioneers of adult education in Britain. He is best known for his part in co-founding the Workers' Educational Association in England in 1903, serving as its first secretary until 1915. Mansbridge was born the son of a carpenter, Thomas Mansbridge, due to his family's tight finances had to leave school at 14; as a result was self-educated. However he still managed to attend university extension courses at King's College London, he taught evening classes himself in economics, industrial history, typing, all while taking up clerical work. He married Frances Jane Pringle in the Parish of Battersea, London, in July 1900 and they had a son, Thomas John, the following July. Albert had growing concerns over the fact that the extension courses, started in 1873, were aimed at the upper and middle classes. To help the situation he and his wife Frances founded the WEA at a meeting in their home on 16 May 1903, using two shillings and sixpence from the housekeeping money.
Called An Association to Promote the Higher Education of Working Men, the name change took place in 1905, after pressure from the Women's Co-operative Guild. The association and its aims was quick to be recognized by universities, Mansbridge left clerical work in 1905 to become its fulltime general secretary; the first Scottish branch of the WEA was in Springburn, although this only lasted until 1909 at that time, the Edinburgh and Leith Branch coming into existence on 25 October 1912 after a meeting held at the Free Gardeners' Hall, 12–14 Picardy Place, Edinburgh. The meeting was chaired by Professor Lodge and addressed by Albert Mansbridge and Dr Bernard Bosanquet; the meeting was attended by 200 people, including Mr James Munro, M. A. who became Secretary of the newly formed branch. Albert founded international branches of the WEA in Australia in 1913, Canada and New Zealand. Mansbridge suffered from spinal meningitis, but after recovering he would go on to form several other adult-education groups.
These included the World Association for Adult Education in 1918, the Seafarers' Educational Service in 1919, the British Institute of Adult Education in 1921. In 1922, he delivered the Lowell Lectures in Boston, for the Pacific School of Religion with the University of California the Earle Lectures in 1926, he founded the National Central Library, a tutorial system and a scholarly library for working people who were not connected to an academic institution. He was a member of numerous government committees of education, including the Consultative Committee of the Board of Education from 1906 to 1912, from 1924 to 1939. From 1915 to 1918, Mansbridge was on the Prime Minister's Committee on the Teaching of Modern Languages, he was a member of the Royal Commission on the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge from 1919 to 1922. He was on the Statutory Commission on Oxford in 1923, he was a member of numerous church committees, including the Selborne Committee on Church and State from 1914 to 1916.
Albert wrote the preface to Economic Justice. A blue plaque commemorates Mansbridge at 198 Windsor Road in Ilford. 1914: University Tutorial Classes published by Longmans Green in 1914. 1920: Adventure in Working Class Education London: Longmans Green 1923: The Older Universities of England, London: Longmans Green 1929:The Making of an Educationist 1932: Margaret Mcmillan: Prophet and Pioneer. London: Dent 1934: Brick upon Brick: 50 years Co-operative Permanent Building Society. Contains black and white images of personnel, has a chronology, includes a substantial appendix section and index. Total of 236 pages. 1935: Edward Stuart Talbot & Charles Gore. London: J. M. Dent & Sons Limited 1940: The Trodden Road John Mansbridge, son The Marine Society College of the Sea