The Germs was an American punk rock band from Los Angeles, United States active from 1976 to 1980. The band's main early lineup consisted of singer Darby Crash, guitarist Pat Smear, bassist Lorna Doom, drummer Don Bolles, they released only one album, 1979's, produced by Joan Jett, were featured the following year in Penelope Spheeris' documentary film The Decline of Western Civilization, which chronicled the Los Angeles punk movement. The Germs disbanded following Crash's suicide on December 7, 1980, their music was influential to many punk rock acts. Smear went on to achieve greater fame performing with Foo Fighters. In 2005, actor Shane West was cast to play Crash in the biographical film What We Do Is Secret, titled after a song by the Germs, he performed with Smear and Bolles at a production party for the film, after which the Germs reformed with West as the singer. The new lineup of the band toured the United States several times, including performances on the 2006 and 2008 Warped Tours.
Crash and Smear decided to start a band after being kicked out of University High School for antisocial behavior for using "mind control" on fellow students. Their original name was "Sophistifuck and the Revlon Spam Queens", but they had to shorten the name as they could not afford that many letters on a T-shirt; the first lineup consisted of Beahm on vocals, Ruthenberg on guitar, an early member named "Dinky" on bass, Michelle Baer playing drums. This lineup never played in front of a live audience. In April 1976, the band added Lorna Doom on bass, with transitional member Dottie Danger on drums. Carlisle never played with the band, as she was sidelined by a bout of mononucleosis for an extended period, she was replaced by her friend Donna Rhia, who played three gigs and performed on their first single. Carlisle remained a friend and helper of the band, only leaving because her new band, the Go-Go's, were becoming popular and, as she put it, "I was disturbed by the heroin, going on". Nickey Beat, of various noteworthy Los Angeles bands including the Weirdos sat in on drums for a time.
The band's first live performance was at the Orpheum Theater. Smear recalled: "We made noise. Darby stuck the mic in a jar of peanut butter, it was a dare, we had no songs or anything! Lorna wore her pants inside out, Darby covered himself in red licorice...we made noise for five minutes until they threw us off". The Germs drew musical influences from Iggy Pop, David Bowie, the Runaways, Sex Pistols, New York Dolls. Early on, Smear was the only musically experienced member. Early performances were marked by raucous crowds made up of the band's friends; as a result, their gigs became notorious for being rowdy and verged on a riot. The first single, "Forming", was recorded on a Sony 2-track reel-to-reel recorder in Smear's family garage, arrived back from the pressing plant with the note, "Warning: This record causes ear cancer", printed on the sleeve by the plant staff, much to the band's displeasure, it was released in July 1977 on the What? label. The single featured a shambolic but serviceable performance on the A-side and a muddy live recording of "Sexboy" on the B-side, recorded at the Roxy for the Cheech and Chong movie, Up in Smoke.
The song was the band. They were the only band not to receive a call-back to perform live for the film's "Battle of the Bands" sequence due to the fact that the Germs' chaotic Roxy performance had featured an unscripted, full-on food fight; the Germs, despite most expectations, developed a sound, influential. Throughout their career, they had a reputation as a chaotic live band. Crash arrived onstage nearly incoherent from drugs, singing everywhere but into the microphone and taunting the audience between songs, yet delivered intense theatrical and musical performances; the other band members prided themselves on similar problems, with many contemporary reviews citing collapses and drunken vomiting onstage. Fans saw this as part of the show, indeed, the band presented it as such when breaking bottles and rolling in the glass, with the music coming and going. Smear was revealed to be a remarkably fluid player. Crash's vocals had begun to mold themselves around the style of the Screamers' vocalist Tomata DuPlenty Another strong influence on the band's final sound was Zolar X, a theatrical glam rock band popular in the Los Angeles area circa 1972–1980.
Crash and Smear were enthusiastic fans of the band from the pre-Germs days, the fast tempos and raw guitar tone of Zolar X were similar to the sound achieved on Germs recordings. The Germs recorded two singles, an album-length demo session, one full-length LP, each more focused and powerful than the last. Crash was, despite his erratic behavior regarded as a brilliant lyricist (a contemporary critic descr
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Brian Baker (musician)
Brian Baker is an American punk rock musician. He is best known as one of the founding members of the hardcore punk band Minor Threat, as a guitarist in Bad Religion since 1994. In Minor Threat, he played bass guitar before switching to guitar in 1982 when Steve Hansgen joined the band, moved back to bass after Hansgen's departure, he founded Dag Nasty in 1985, was part of the original line-up of Samhain, has had stints in Doggy Style, The Meatmen, Government Issue, Junkyard. In 1994 Baker was offered a spot as a touring musician with R. E. M, but declined, opting instead to accept a position in Bad Religion as Brett Gurewitz's replacement. He has experimented with a more pop direction influenced by U2, with a band called 400. Baker toured with Me First and the Gimme Gimmes in 2005 and appeared on Canadian punk band Penelope's second album; the Gray Race Tested No Substance The New America The Process of Belief The Empire Strikes First New Maps of Hell The Dissent of Man True North The Last Laugh Can I Say Wig Out at Denko's Field Day Four on the Floor Minority of One Cold Heart 7" War of the Superbikes Make An Effort EP Minor Threat EP In My Eyes EP Out of Step Salad Days EP Junkyard Sixes, Sevens & Nines Shut Up – We're Trying To Practice!
Tried and True High Water Azerrad, Michael. Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981–1991. Little and Company. ISBN 0-316-78753-1. Blush, Steven. Petros, George, ed. American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Feral House. ISBN 978-0-922915-71-2. Cogan, Brian; the Encyclopedia of Punk. Sterling. ISBN 978-1-4027-5960-4
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Caroline Records is a record label. Caroline has or had a number of subsidiary labels including Astralwerks, Caroline Blue Plate, Rocks the World and Passenger; the original Caroline record label started as a subsidiary of Richard Branson's Virgin Records from 1973 to 1976. It specialized in inexpensive LPs by progressive rock and jazz artists that lacked commercial appeal. Caroline records mentioned a connection with Virgin, some UK and European Virgin albums that were distributed internationally named Caroline as their American distributor; some Caroline records bore the label name Caroline Blue Plate. The first release was Outside the Dream Syndicate by Tony Conrad and Faust in 1973; the logo was a photographic-style variation of Virgin's "Twins" logo designed by Roger Dean. In 1983, the Caroline name was reused by Virgin in the US as the importer Caroline Distribution. Caroline Distribution founded the current Caroline Records in 1986. Caroline Records was merged into Virgin Records after Virgin was acquired by Thorn EMI.
Caroline Distribution became part of EMI Music Distribution. Primo Scree was an imprint of Caroline Records created by Ned Hayden of the Action Swingers, a sales rep at Caroline, its releases included the Action Swingers' single "Fear of a Fucked Up Planet", as well as Gumball's debut album Special Kiss and Monster Magnet's debut album Spine of God. Audio Active & Laraaji – The Way Out Is the Way In Kevin Ayers, June Campbell Cramer & Brian Eno – Lady June's Linguistic Leprosy Bad Brains – Quickness Ben Folds Five – Ben Folds Five Harold Budd Reuben Garcia Daniel Lentz – Music for 3 Pianos Cabaret Voltaire – The Drain Train Cabaret Voltaire – Drinking Gasoline Cherry Poppin' Daddies – Kids on the Street Cluster – Grosses Wasser Cluster – One Hour Lol Coxhill – Fleas in Custard Dumblonde – Dumblonde Egg – The Civil Surface Brian Eno – Before and After Science Eno Moebius Roedelius – After the Heat Brian Eno & Jah Wobble – Spinner Excel – Split Image Excel – The Joke's on You Excel – Seeking Refuge Fred Frith – Guitar Solos Various artists – Guitar Solos 2 Gilgamesh – Gilgamesh Gong – Camembert Electrique Gong – Angel's Egg Gong – You Goo Goo Dolls – Goo Goo Dolls Heatmiser – Mic City Sons Henry Cow – Concerts Hole – Pretty on the Inside Bat For Lashes–Two Suns Bat For Lashes – Fur and gold Idaho – Year After Year Idaho– This Way Out Idaho – Three Sheets to the Wind Jabula – Thunder into our hearts Killing Joke – Killing Joke Korn – The Paradigm Shift KT Tunstall - Kin Jayce Lewis/Protafield - Nemesis Mercyful Fate – Melissa The Misfits – Static Age Monster Magnet – Tab Oh Wonder – Oh Wonder Andy Partridge/Harold Budd – Through the Hill Primus – Frizzle Fry Smashing Pumpkins – Gish Southern Culture on the Skids – For Lovers Only Steven Wilson – To the Bone Suicidal Tendencies – Join the Army Suicideboys – I Want to Die in New Orleans Swans – Children of God Tangerine Dream – Livemiles Tangerine Dream – Pergamon Uncle Slam – Say Uncle Underdog – The Vanishing Point Various artists – Greasy Truckers Live at Dingwalls Dance Hall Van Morrison - Keep Me Singing Walt Mink – Bareback Ride Walt Mink – Miss Happiness Warzone – Don't Forget the Struggle, Don't Forget the Streets White Zombie – Gods on Voodoo Moon White Zombie – Soul-Crusher White Zombie – Make Them Die Slowly White Zombie – God of Thunder Youth Of Today – We're Not In This Alone Artist Shop Caroline Records Caroline Distribution Official website Discogs Caroline Records Discogs Gyroscope EMI Group Website links
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me