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The Metamorphosis

The Metamorphosis is a novella written by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915. One of Kafka's best-known works, The Metamorphosis tells the story of salesman Gregor Samsa who wakes one morning to find himself inexplicably transformed into a huge insect, subsequently struggling to adjust to this new condition; the novella has been discussed among literary critics, with differing interpretations being offered. Gregor Samsa wakes up one morning to find himself transformed into a "monstrous vermin", he considers the transformation to be temporary and ponders the consequences of this metamorphosis. Unable to get up and leave the bed, Gregor reflects on his job as a traveling salesman and cloth merchant, which he characterizes as an exhausting and never-ending traffic, he sees his employer as a despot and would quit his job were he not his family's sole breadwinner and working off his bankrupt father's debts. While trying to move, Gregor finds that his office manager, the chief clerk, has shown up to check on him, indignant about Gregor's unexcused absence.

Gregor attempts to communicate with both the manager and his family, but all they can hear from behind the door is incomprehensible vocalizations. Gregor laboriously opens the door; the manager, upon seeing the transformed Gregor, flees the apartment. Gregor's family is horrified, his father drives him back into his room under the threat of violence. With Gregor's unexpected incapacitation, the family is deprived of their financial stability. Although Gregor's sister Grete now shies away from the sight of him, she takes to supplying him with food, which they find he can only eat rotten. Gregor begins to accept his new identity and begins crawling on the floor and ceiling. Discovering Gregor's new pastime, Grete decides to remove some of the furniture to give Gregor more space, she and her mother begin taking furniture away, but Gregor finds their actions distressing. He tries to save a particularly-loved portrait on the wall of a woman clad in fur, his mother loses consciousness at the sight of Gregor clinging to the image to protect it.

As Grete rushes to assist her mother, Gregor follows her and is hurt by a medicine bottle falling on his face. His father angrily tosses apples at Gregor. One of them is lodged into a sensitive spot in his back and wounds him. Gregor suffers from his injuries for several weeks and takes little food, he is neglected by his family and his room becomes used for storage. To secure their livelihood, the family takes three tenants into their apartment; the cleaning lady alleviates Gregor's isolation by leaving his door open for him on the evenings that the tenants eat out. One day, his door is left open despite the presence of the tenants. Gregor, attracted by Grete's violin-playing in the living room, crawls out of his room and is spotted by the unsuspecting tenants, who complain about the apartment's unhygienic conditions and cancel their tenancy. Grete, who has by now become tired of taking care of Gregor and is realizing the burden his existence puts on each one in the family, tells her parents they must get rid of "it", or they will all be ruined.

Gregor, dies of starvation before the next sunrise. The relieved and optimistic family take a tram ride out to the countryside, decide to move to a smaller apartment to further save money. During this short trip, Mr. and Mrs. Samsa realize that, in spite of going through hardships which have brought an amount of paleness to her face, Grete appears to have grown up into a pretty and well-figured lady, which leads her parents to think about finding her a husband. Gregor is the main character of the story, he works as a traveling salesman in order to provide money for his sister and parents. He wakes up one morning finding himself transformed into an insect. After the metamorphosis, Gregor becomes unable to work and is confined to his room for most of the remainder of the story; this prompts his family to begin working once again. Gregor is depicted as isolated from society and misunderstands the true intentions of others; the name "Gregor Samsa" appears to derive from literary works Kafka had read.

A character in The Story of Young Renate Fuchs, by German-Jewish novelist Jakob Wassermann, is named Gregor Samassa. The Viennese author Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, whose sexual imagination gave rise to the idea of masochism, is an influence. Sacher-Masoch wrote Venus in a novel whose hero assumes the name Gregor at one point. A "Venus in furs" recurs in The Metamorphosis in the picture that Gregor Samsa has hung on his bedroom wall. Greta is Gregor's younger sister. Greta and Gregor have a close relationship, but this fades. While Greta volunteers to feed him and clean his room, she grows impatient with the burden and begins to leave his room in disarray out of spite, her initial decision to take care of Gregor may have come from a desire to contribute and be useful to the family, since she becomes angry and upset when the mother cleans his room, it is made clear that Greta is disgusted by Gregor. She plays the violin and dreams of going to the conservatory, a dream Gregor had intended to make happen.

To help provide an income for the family after Gregor's transformation, she starts working as a salesgirl. Gret

Murder of Jennifer Mills-Westley

Jennifer Joan Mills-Westley was murdered on 13 May 2011 in Tenerife. Her death in a supermarket in the resort of Los Cristianos gained widespread publicity in the United Kingdom, where she was from, around the world, for the horrific nature of the random attack by a homeless man, who stabbed Mills-Westley in the neck several times and beheaded her, carrying her severed head out into the street. Deyan Deyanov, a Bulgarian man, was convicted on 22 February 2013 of the murder and subsequently sentenced to detention in a psychiatric unit for 20 years. Mills-Westley was a 60-year-old grandmother of five from Norwich, United Kingdom, who had retired to the Spanish island of Tenerife in 2006, she owned two apartments, each with two bedrooms, on the Port Royale complex in Los Cristianos, one of which she rented to tourists. Mills-Westley's murder was publicised in the British and international media due to its horrific nature, in which a homeless man stabbed and beheaded her in a busy shop on Avenida Juan Carlos in the town centre.

Officials said the man appeared to choose his victim at random stabbed her in the neck 14 times, beheaded her, carried her severed head out into the street. The attack began at around 10:20 am when the man started stabbing Mills-Westley without warning and with a large knife a ceremonial samurai sword, he cut off her head, carried it out into the street while shouting: "This is my treasure," and "God is on earth." The man was tackled by a security guard before police arrived. Police named the suspect as 28-year-old unemployed Bulgarian Deyan Valentinov Deyanov, who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia, he was reported to have lived rough in a semi-derelict beach house and had a police record for violence towards strangers in the street. Three months prior to the attack on Mills-Westley, he had been released from a psychiatric unit at the Hospital de la Candelaria after a short stay following an unprovoked attack on a security guard, patrolling the seafront at Los Cristianos. Two days prior to killing Mills-Westley, he was detained by police for harassing women at a nightclub in nearby Playa de las Américas.

Although officials were quoted as saying the attack was random reports in the British media suggested that Mills-Westley had sought help in a nearby office just before she was murdered, telling staff that she feared she was being followed by a man, told to go away by a security guard. In the years prior to the attack in Los Cristianos, Deyanov was understood to have travelled between Edinburgh and Bradford in the UK, Cyprus and Tenerife, Flint in north Wales where he had relatives, he had not returned to his family in Ruse, since stealing family money and possessions to pay for addictions to heroin and gambling. In the summer of 2010 he spent some time in a psychiatric unit at Glan Clwyd Hospital in Bodelwyddan, northeast Wales. Deyanov was charged with murder, his trial at the provincial court in Santa Cruz began on 18 February 2013 when a court was shown CCTV footage of the attack. Deyanov denied murder; the trial lasted one week and on 22 February 2013 he was found guilty. He was subsequently sentenced to detention in a psychiatric unit for 20 years, the maximum applicable term.

Speaking after the conviction, Mills-Westley's daughters said in a joint statement that their mother had "become known as the lady, beheaded in Tenerife, but the truth is she was our mum and best friend, a gifted and selfless person." They described her murder as "preventable and needless" and said there had been a "catalogue of failings" in relation to the handling of Deyanov as a mentally unstable man

1935 in Scotland

Events from the year 1935 in Scotland. Monarch – George V Secretary of State for Scotland and Keeper of the Great SealSir Godfrey Collins Lord AdvocateWilfrid Normand until April. Rae, novelist 3 December – Robin Neillands writer specialising in travel and military history 26 December – Stevie Chalmers, footballer 31 December – Jeff Torrington, novelist Jack Alexander of The Alexander Brothers, folk singer Donald Forbes, criminal, "Scotland's most dangerous man" Hamish MacDonald and colourist painter 12 March – Malcolm Smith, Liberal Party politician and MP 16 March – John James Rickard Macleod, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 28 April – Sir Alexander Mackenzie, composer 5 June – James Manson, mechanical engineer 22 June – George Brisbane Scott Douglas and writer 27 September – William W. Naismith, mountaineer 11 October – Samuel Peploe, painter 16 October – Margaret Moyes Black and biographer 22 November – Noel Skelton, Unionist politician and intellectual Timeline of Scottish history 1935 in Northern Ireland


The Valkyrior is a fictional organization appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Based on the Valkyries of Norse mythology, the group, created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, first appeared in Thor #133. Within the context of Marvel's shared universe, the Valkyrior is a group of female warriors led by Brunnhilde / Valkyrie, designated by Odin to bring the souls of slain heroes to Valhalla. In 2013, the team became the subject of The Fearless Defenders; the Valkyrior, created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, first appeared in Thor #133. The team, led by Valkyrie and Misty Knight is the subject of the 2013 series, The Fearless Defenders by Cullen Bunn and Will Sliney. Bun said, "The basic idea of the book is that Valkyrie is choosing a new team of Valkyrior, she's been asked to choose all these women from the heroes of Midgard, instead of from Asgard, she has failed in this task. Valkyrie has been unable to choose anyone that she feels is worthy to be one of the hosts of the shield maidens.

So she just hasn't done it. She's dropped the ball; because she's not done what she said she would do, nature—or supernature, as it is—abhors a vacuum. The absence of the Valkyrior has opened the door to something terrible. Something awful is waking, Valkyrie finds that it's her fault that she's put everything at risk." The Valkyrior are warrior goddesses of Asgard. Under the leadership of Brunnhilde, they took mortally wounded human heroes from German and Scandinavian battlegrounds and brought them to Valhalla, an area of the Asgardian dimension where the astral forms of the dead Asgardians and human heroes eternally feast and compete in friendly battles; the Valkyries were no longer able to perform this task when Odin, ruler of Asgard, vowed to the Celestials a millennium ago that he would restrict Asgardian contact with Earth. In years, Brunnhilde became a member of Earth's Defenders; the remaining Valkyries were killed in a war between Hela over rule of Valhalla. Odin restored the Valkyries to life after he regained possession of Valhalla, but these Valkyries only have physical form within Valhalla.

Valtrauta has taken Brunnhilde's place as ruler of the Valkyrior, Hildegarde's sister Krista has filled the role of the ninth Valkyrie, left open since Brunnhilde's departure. Axe – a member of the Valkyrior Brunnhilde – leader Danielle Moonstar – an original member of the New Mutants, she joined the Valkurior Freya – the Goddess of Fertility who used to work as a former Valkyrie Gerda – a member of the Valkyrior Grimgerta – a member of the Valkyrior Gruenhilda – a member of the Valkyrior Hercara – a member of the Valkyrior Fatal Sisters – a trio of Valkyries Hilda – a member of the Valkyrior Mista – a member of the Valkyrior Sangrida – a member of the Valkyrior Hildergarde – a gifted Asgardian Valkyrie with extraordinary strength and great skills with the sword Krista – a member of the Valkyrior and sister of Hildegarde, she was kidnapped by Pluto so the Asgardians would go to war against the Olympians, but thankfully she was saved by Thor and Hercules Leita – a member of the Valkyrior Mist – a member of the Valkyrior, she invited Danielle to join them Rossveissa – known as Svava, she is a member of the Valkyrior, but forced to serve Hela Sygnet – a member of the Valkyrior Valtrauta – a member of the Valkyrior Bruhhilde – leader Misty Knight – leader Elsa Bloodstone – a member of the Valkyrior Clea – a member of the Valkyrior Danielle Moonstar – a former member of the Valkyrior Nova – a member of the Valkyrior Ren Kimura – a Inhuman member of the Valkyrior, girlfriend of Annabelle Annabelle Riggs – a member of the Valkyrior, girlfriend of Ren Hippolyta – a member of the Valkyrior, girlfriend of Ren Brün – leader of the Disir, she was the first one to be cursed by Bor due to their rebellion when working with Sigurd Göndul – a member of the Disir, she is a coward and a fool Hlökk – a member of the Disir Kára – a member of the Disir The Valkyrior appears in the 2017 film Thor: Ragnarok.

Valkyrior at the Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe Valkyrior on Marvel Database, a Marvel Comics wiki

Green Door Tavern

The Green Door Tavern is reputedly Chicago's oldest surviving drinking establishment. It opened in 1921, but the building dates from 1872; the building, at 678 N. Orleans St. Chicago, United States, was erected in 1872 by James McCole, just one year after the Great Chicago Fire, it has a wooden frame, a building technique outlawed in the Central Business District by an ordinance passed by Chicago City Council shortly afterwards. The original tenant was Lawrence P. Elk, who used the ground floor as a grocery store and lived upstairs, it was converted to a dining establishment, the Huron-Orleans Restaurant, run by Vito Giacomoni, in 1921. His sons Jack and Nello ran it as a speakeasy during the prohibition. In the 1930s, the bar acquired the nickname "The Green Door", this was adopted formally. George Parenti purchased the bar from the Giacomoni brothers in August 1985; the structure developed a lean from plumb in its early years, due to the construction techniques used at the time, this is still noticeable.

In January 2015, a small, speakeasy-like space opened in the basement known as "The Drifter." A rotating cocktail list is featured on tarot cards. Official website

Geology of England

The geology of England is sedimentary. The youngest rocks are in the south east around London, progressing in age in a north westerly direction; the Tees-Exe line marks the division between younger and low-lying rocks in the south east and the older and harder rocks of the north and west which give rise to higher relief in those regions. The geology of England is recognisable in the landscape of its counties, the building materials of its towns and its regional extractive industries; the bedrock consists of many layers formed over vast periods of time. These were laid down in various climates as the global climate changed, the landmasses moved due to continental drift, the land and sea levels rose or fell. From time to time horizontal forces caused the rock to undergo considerable deformation, folding the layers of rock to form mountains which have since been eroded and overlain with other layers. To further complicate the geology, the land has been subject to periods of earthquakes and volcanic activity.

Overlain on this bedrock geology is a somewhat variable distribution of soils and fragmental material deposited by glaciers (boulder clay, other forms of glacial drift in the recent past. Maps showing the distribution of this "drift" geology are produced as either separate maps, or as literal overprints on the solid geology maps; when ordering maps, this distinction should be kept in mind. Catalogues distinguish them as "S", "D" or "S+D" maps. "Drift" geology is more important than "solid" geology when considering building works, siting water boreholes, soil fertility, many other issues. Glaciation and the resulting glacial and fluvio-glacial deposition has had a vast impact on the geology of England covering many areas with a veneer of glacial till in the lower lying areas north of a line running from Bristol to London. In the Ribble valley, Lancashire in north west England the resulting drumlins are visible. Cromer Ridge in East Anglia is a terminal moraine. Indeed, most of East Anglia is covered with glacial till.

This unconsolidated material is easily eroded hence the rapid rate of retreat of the coastline of this region. A similar situation exists in east Yorkshire in the Holderness district; the chalk outcrop at Flamborough Head in the north produces a headland resistant to coastal erosion whilst the coastline south of this at such places as Mappleton and Hornsea with their soft glacial deposits are vulnerable. Former ice caps did not reach south of the line running from Bristol to London, so this area has only been impacted by fluvio-glacial deposition, represented in gravel beds around rivers such as the Thames; as the ice caps retreated northwards, more fluvio-glacial deposition occurred for example in the Vale of York No rocks earlier than the Proterozoic occur at surface within England. The Proterozoic lasted from; the early geological development of the Avalonia terrane, including England, is believed to have been in volcanic arcs near a subduction zone on the margin of the Gondwana continent.

Some material may have accreted from volcanic island arcs which formed further out in the ocean and collided with Gondwana as a result of plate tectonic movements. The igneous activity had started by 730 million years ago and continued until around 570 million years ago, resulting in a region of volcanic islands within a shallow sea; the remains of these islands underlie much of central England with small outcrops visible in various places. Around 600 million years ago, the Cadomian Orogeny created mountains in what would subsequently become England, along with much of north west Europe; the Phanerozoic comprises the Palaeozoic and Cenozoic eras, each of which are represented in English geology. The Palaeozoic comprises six periods from the Cambrian to the Permian. In the early Cambrian period the volcanoes and mountains of England were eroded as the land became flooded by a rise in sea level, new layers of sediment were laid down. Cambrian shales laid down in a shallow sea are exposed in the Midlands at Nuneaton.

Much of central England formed a stable block of crust which has remained undeformed since. 500 million years ago, in the Ordovician period, southern Britain, the east coast of North America and south-east Newfoundland broke away from Gondwanaland to form the continent of Avalonia. The Skiddaw slates of the Lake District consist of metamorphosed marine sediments laid down on the northern margin of Avalonia. Large quantities of volcanic lava and ash known as the Borrowdale Volcanics covered the Lake District, still seen in the form of mountains such as Helvellyn and Scafell Pike. In the Silurian period and mudstones were deposited in some parts of England. Volcanic ashes and lavas deposited during the period. Avalonia had now joined with the continent of Baltica, the combined landmass collided with Laurentia around 425 million years ago, joining the southern and northern halves of the British Isles together; the resulting Caledonian Orogeny produced an Alpine-style mountain range. England lay on the southern fringe of this range.

In the Devonian period, northern England was a region uplifted by the Caledonian Orogeny. The uplifted regions were eroded down, resulting in the deposition of numerous sedimentary rock layers in lowlands and seas; the Old Red Sandstone was deposited across much of southern England. Sea levels varied at this time with the coastline advancing and retreating from north to south across England; the Old Red Sandstone of Devon gave the period its name. Aroun