click links in text for more info

The Naked Spur

The Naked Spur is a 1953 Technicolor American Western film directed by Anthony Mann and starring James Stewart, Janet Leigh, Robert Ryan and Ralph Meeker. Written by Sam Rolfe and Harold Jack Bloom, the film is about a bounty hunter who tries to bring a murderer to justice, is forced to accept the help of two strangers who are less than trustworthy; the original music score was composed by Bronisław Kaper and the cinematography was by William C. Mellor; the Naked Spur was filmed on location in Durango and the San Juan Mountains in Colorado, Lone Pine, California. The film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay—a rare honor for a Western; this was the third Western film collaboration between James Stewart. In March 1868, Howard Kemp is tracking Ben Vandergroat, wanted for the murder of the marshal in Abilene, Kansas. On the western slope of the Rocky Mountains in southern Colorado, Kemp meets a grizzled old prospector, Jesse Tate, offers him $20 to help. Tate assumes that Kemp is a sheriff, Kemp does nothing to disillusion him.

They trap. Looking for a way around the hill and Tate encounter a Union soldier, Lieutenant Roy Anderson, he is heading east since being discharged from the 6th Cavalry at Fort Ellis in Montana. Kemp chances to see Anderson's discharge order, which describes him as "morally unstable" and a dishonorable discharge. Tate tells Anderson. With the aid of Anderson, who scales a sheer cliff face, Vandergroat is caught, along with his companion, Lina Patch, the daughter of Vandergroat's friend, Frank Patch, shot dead trying to rob a bank in Abilene. Vandergroat sets Tate and Anderson straight on that Kemp is no lawman, that a $5,000 reward is being offered to bring him in. Tate and Anderson want their shares to aid Kemp in getting Vandergroat back to Kansas. Lina is convinced. On the trail to Abilene, Vandergroat attempts to turn his captors against each other, using greed as his weapon, he encourages Lina to use her beauty to divide Kemp and Anderson. Scouting a mountain pass and Tate spot a dozen Blackfoot, a friendly tribe, far from their normal hunting grounds.

They tell the others, Anderson confesses that the Indians are after him for raping the chief's daughter. Kemp wishes him luck avoiding the Blackfoot. Anderson thinks, he rides ahead, waits for Kemp's group to approach the Blackfoot to parley shoots the chief from his hiding place. During the ensuing battle, Kemp saves Lina from the Blackfoot and she, in turn, helps him when he is shot in the leg. Kemp passes out as they awakes from a delirious nightmare, he thinks Lina is his ex-fiancée. Vandergroat tells the others that Mary sold Kemp's ranch while he was a soldier in the Civil War, left with another man. Vandergroat states that Kemp needs the bounty to buy his ranch back, explaining his offer of only $20 to the other men. Lina is confused by loyalty to her father's friend, offset by a growing attraction to Kemp, she has only seen Vandergroat involved in fair fights, but is shocked when he loosens Kemp's saddle cinch and tries to push him off a high mountain pass. Taking refuge from a storm in a cave, Vandergroat manipulates Lina into distracting Kemp.

She tells the rancher of her dream to go to California. He tells her of his wish to repurchase his ranch, they kiss, this gives Vandergroat a chance to escape. Kemp catches him, Anderson suggests that, because the reward is for "dead or alive", they should just kill the troublemaker. Tate stops Anderson but, caught up in the anger of the moment and hurt by what he sees as Lina's treachery, Kemp challenges Vandergroat to a shoot out, which he declines. Continuing on, the group comes to a high-running river; when they argue about where to cross, Anderson throws a rope around Vandergroat's neck and intends to drag him across the river. A fight ensues between Anderson, as Vandergroat watches with malicious enjoyment. While Kemp and Anderson recover from the fight and Lina searches for firewood, Vandergroat convinces Tate to sneak off with him to find a gold mine, the whereabouts of which Vandergroat has been tempting the old man; when they sneak off during the night, he convinces Tate to include Lina.

Vandergroat and Lina ride double. Vandergroat yells "Snake!" and in the confusion grabs Tate's rifle kills him. He positions Tates body on rocks beside a rushing river so he can ambush Anderson. Lina accepts that he is a criminal; when Kemp and Anderson discover Tate's body, Lina grabs Vandergroat's rifle barrel, saving Kemp's life. While Anderson exchanges gunfire with Vandergroat, Kemp removes one of his spurs to use as a climbing ax to get up the back of the cliff and outflank Vandergroat. Vandergroat hears Kemp and just as he aims at the rancher, Kemp throws his spur into the killer's cheek; as Vandergroat reels from the pain, he is shot by Anderson and his body falls into the river, becoming entangled in the roots of a tree. Anderson crosses using the rope, he wraps it around Vandergroat's body but is crushed and carried off by a large floating log. Kemp drags Vandergroat's body across the river and, in a rage, vows that he will take him back to reclaim his land. Lina pleads with him not to sell the body for money, but says she will go with him, no matter his choice, marry him, live with him on the ranch.

Kemp realizes what he is doing and his love for Lina makes him stop. He buries Vandergro

Peter H. Schultz

Peter H. Schultz is Professor of Geological Sciences at Brown University specializing in the study of planetary geology, impact cratering on the Earth and other objects in the Solar System, volcanic modifications of planetary surfaces, he was co-investigator to the NASA Science Mission Directorate spacecraft Deep Impact and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite. He was awarded the Barringer Medal of the Meteoritical Society in 2004 for his theoretical and experimental studies of impact craters. Schultz earned a BA degree from Carleton College in Minnesota in 1966, he received a Ph. D. in Astronomy from the University of Texas at Austin in 1972. He was a research associate at the NASA Ames Research Center. In 1976 he joined the Lunar and Planetary Institute as a Staff Scientist and Regional Planetary Image Facility director. In 1984 Schultz was appointed Associate Professor in the Department of Geological Sciences at Brown University and was named Professor in 1994, he serves as the Science Coordinator for the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range, Chair for NASA Regional Planetary Image Facilities board, Director of NASA Rhode Island Space Grant Consortium, Director of the Northeast Planetary Data Center.

Schultz is the author of the 1976 book Moon Morphology: Interpretations Based on Lunar Orbiter Photography. He was co-editor for A Primer in Lunar Geology, Multi-Ring Basins, Geological Implications of Impacts of Large Asteroids and Comets on the Earth. At the Meteoritical Society in 2004, Schultz was awarded the Barringer Medal for his theoretical and experimental studies of impact craters, which have helped to elucidate cratering processes on the Earth, Mercury and Mars, his contribution to cratering phenomena experimentally and in the field was recognized with the naming of the asteroid 16592 PeteSchultz in his honor. On the BBC Horizon programme on asteroids, "The Good, the Bad, the Ugly", first broadcast in 2010, Schultz jokes about the possibility that his asteroid might collide with Earth: "It's a bullet with my name on it." At the 2010 Hypervelocity Impact Symposium in Freiburg, Schultz received the Distinguished Scientist Award for significant and lasting contributions to the field of hypervelocity science.

In 2012, Schultz was awarded the G. K. Gilbert award by the Geological Society of America Planetary Division for his outstanding contributions to the solution of a fundamental problem of planetary geology. Impact crater Brown University: Peter H. Schultz Profile from NASA Deep Impact mission Biographical sketch from NASA Deep Impact mission

A-35 anti-ballistic missile system

The A-35 anti-ballistic missile system was a Soviet military anti-ballistic missile system deployed around Moscow to intercept enemy ballistic missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas. The A-35 was the only Soviet ABM system allowed under the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. In development since the 1960s and in operation from 1971 until the 1990s, it featured the nuclear-tipped A350 exoatmospheric interceptor missile; the A-35 was supported by the Soviet early warning system. It was followed by the A-135 in the early 1990s; the first Soviet anti-ballistic missile system was System A, started at Test Range A at Sary Shagan test site in July 1956. The testing of System A began in 1959. System A used the V-1000 missile to intercept enemy missiles; the first launch of the V-1000 was 11 October 1957 and its first successful intercept was 4 March 1961 where it intercepted an R-12 missile launched from Kapustin Yar. System A used the Dunay-2 designed by V Sosulnikov at NII-37 as well as 3 homing radars and an ABM radar.

The three homing radars were situated in an equilateral triangle with a length of 150 kilometres. It could track missiles from a distance of about 700 kilometres; the V-1000 launch position and the ABM radar were located together. The system used an M-40 computer; the first work on A-35 started in 1959 with the test model, called Aldan. The designer of the system was Gregory Kisunko of Soviet Experimental Design Bureau OKB-30. A new missile, the A-350, was to be designed by P. Grushin of OKB-2. Unlike the V-1000, the missile was to have a nuclear warhead; the design of the system called for it to be able to intercept several hostile incoming missiles with a single warhead. It was to intercept them outside the atmosphere. A-35 was to have a main command centre, eight early warning radars with overlapping sectors, 32 battle stations. Practical work to install the system started in 1965 but by 1967 only the test version at Sary Shagan was ready. There was an awareness. In 1967 a Ministry of Defence commission decided that it should not be implemented.

The eight radars were to be reduced to the two, started: the Dunay-3 at Akulovo and the Dunay-3U at Chekhov. In 1971 a version of A-35 was tested with the main command centre, one radar and three battle stations; the command centre was located at the same site as the Dunay-3 radar. In 1974 a version was tested with the main command with its 5E92 computer and four of the eight battle stations; each battle station had two tracking radars, two battle management radars and sixteen A-350 missiles. Only four of the eight battle stations were completed; each battle station had two areas with eight missiles each. Each area had three radars, which were called TRY ADD by NATO; the testing of A35-M began in 1977. It was a modified version using A-350R rather than A-350Zh missiles. In 1971 work starting on the next generation of ABM systems - A135. Building of the Don-2N radar started in 1978 and the replacement system was placed on combat duty in 1995. A 1985 note from the archives of Vitalii Leonidovich Kataev states that the A-35M system was capable of intercepting "a single ballistic missile from some directions and up to 6 Pershing II-type missiles from the FRG".

Mike Gruntman. Intercept 1961: The Birth of Soviet Missile Defense. Reston, VA. ISBN 1624103499. Mike Gruntman. "Intercept 1961: From Air Defense SA-1 to Missile Defense System A". Proceedings of the IEEE. 104: 883-890. Doi:10.1109/JPROC.2016.2537023. on the A-35 anti-ballistic missile system. Photo of a launch of an A-350 missile

Angelo Genna

Angelo "Bloody Angelo" Genna was an Italian-born Chicago bootlegger and organized crime leader during the Prohibition era. The leader of his own Sicilian crime family, he was best known for his war with the North Side Gang leader, Charles Dean O'Banion. Genna masterminded the assassination of O'Banion in November 1924. Genna and his brothers fought the North Side's new leader, George "Bugs" Moran, but seven months in May 1925, Moran chased Angelo in a high-speed car chase and shot him to death. In June and July, two of Angelo's brothers were killed. Angelo Genna was born on February 1898 in Marsala, Sicily. Genna's parents, Antonino Genna Sr. and Maria Concetta Utica, had six other sons: Antonio "the Gentleman", Mike "the Devil", Vincenzo "Jim", Pietro "Peter", Salvatore "Sam", Nicola Genna. He and his brothers entered the U. S. through New York around 1910. Angelo arrived in New York harbor on August 5, 1914, via the S. S. Venezia, he was on his way to meet his brother Pietro. The Aldermen's Wars were at their height at the time of the 19th Ward's 1921 elections.

Anthony D'Andrea hired Genna to kill supporters of alderman John Powers. Genna was suspected of killing Harry Raimondi and Paul Labriola, two Powers supporters that won the elections. Genna was tried for the murder of Labriola, his defense attorney was a friend of D'Andrea. In 1922, Genna was prosecuted for the murder of Paul Notti, who had identified Genna on his deathbed. Genna was not convicted on either charge. In November 1922, Genna was sentenced to a year in prison after being convicted for the prostitution of a 15-year-old girl. On December 18, 1922, Genna was arrested by detectives after being named as a stolen goods fence for a gang accused of killing Joe Lanus, he is released on $15,000 bonds. The Gennas became bootlegging gang. In 1919, the Gennas obtained a federal license to manufacture industrial alcohol, which they sold illegally. Angelo and his brothers operated from Chicago's Little Italy, located west of the Chicago Loop, they started selling their extra alcohol at cut-rate prices outside of their territory.

This caused a problem with the North Side Gang leader Dean O'Banion, who went to John "Johnny The Fox" Torrio and Unione Siciliana boss Mike Merlo to get the Gennas to back down. When Torrio refused, O'Banion began hijacking shipments of alcohol belonging to the Genna brothers. On November 3, 1924, Dean O'Banion inadvertently signed his own death warrant during an argumentative phone call to arch-rival Angelo Genna, their disagreement originated at The Ship, the gambling casino that the North Side gang boss owned along with the Torrio Syndicate. On this day, O'Banion sat in with Al Capone, Frank Nitti, Frank Rio, others to tally the week's profits, it was mentioned. Capone recommended. O'Banion, got Genna on the telephone and demanded that he pay his debt within a week. With this personal insult, Angelo Genna and his family could no longer be restrained; until Merlo and the Unione had refused to sanction a hit on O'Banion. However, Merlo had terminal cancer and died on November 8, 1924. With Merlo gone, the Gennas and South Siders were free to move on O'Banion.

Torrio ordered the Gennas to murder O'Banion. Francesco Ioele and two Genna hitmen—John Scalise and Alberto Anselmi—entered O'Banion's flower shop and when Yale and O'Banion shook hands and Anselmi shot two bullets into O'Banion's chest and two in his throat, one of them shot a final bullet into the back of his skull as he was lying on the floor, face-down. On December 13, 1922, Angelo and Lucille Spingola applied for a marriage license and on January 10, 1923, Angelo and Lucille got married. Spingola was the sister of Genna ally Peter Spingola; the wedding was lavish, with a 2,000 pound cake. After the O'Banion hit, Chicago erupted into a five-year full-scale war; the North Siders—now led by Adelard Cunin—attempted to assassinate Torrio outside his home, causing Torrio to flee to Italy, leaving his second-in-command—Alphonse "Scarface" Capone—as head of the Chicago Outfit. The North Siders took aim at the Genna brothers. On May 26, 1925, Vincent "The Schemer" Drucci, Hymie Weiss shot and wounded Genna numerous times during a high-speed car chase, causing Genna to crash his car into a lamp post at Hudson and Ogden Avenues.

Angelo was rushed to the Evangelical Deaconess Hospital. When police asked Genna who shot him, he shrugged, he died shortly afterwards while his brother Sam and brother-in-law were at his bedside. He was buried on May 1925, at the Mount Carmel Cemetery in Chicago. Several hundred people attended Genna's funeral on May 29, 1925, his funeral was supposed to belittle O'Banion's previous $100,000 funeral. Genna was laid out in a $3,000 bronze coffin that weighed about 1,200 pounds and was surrounded by $75,000 worth of flowers bought from O'Banion's flower shop Schofield. Capone had sent lilies, Joseph "Diamond Joe" Esposito sent peonies, Torrio sent a huge vase of pink and white carnations. There was a floral tribute sent from Samuel Sammuzzo Amatuna; the funeral home in which his funeral took place—Michael Larussi's Undertaking Establishment—was filled with pallbearers and members of Unione Siciliana. Included in mass of people were 50 policemen, lawyers and labor union officials. On June 13, 1925


Paracanoe is canoeing for athletes with a range of physical disabilities. The Paralympic version of the sport is governed by the International Canoe Federation, a va'a-specific variant is governed by the International Va'a Federation. A meeting of the International Paralympic Committee in Guangzhou, China in 2010 decided to add paracanoe to the Paralympic programme; as a result, paracanoe debuted at the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympics where single kayak races were contested. The two main types of paracanoe boat are kayaks, with a double-blade paddle, outrigger canoes called va'as where the paddler has a second hull as a support float and uses a single blade paddle with a T-top handle. In the single kayak, there are three event classifications for both men and women: KL1 This grouping is for paddlers who have no trunk function. A KL1 class paddler shoulders. KL2: paddlers who have good use of the trunk and arms, but limited use of their legs, they are unable to apply continuous and controlled force to the footboard or seat to propel the boat.

KL3: this class is for paddlers with a disability who have good use of their legs and arms for paddling, who can apply force to the foot board or the seat to propel the boat. There is a three-tier ICF classification system in place for single va'a events. All international paracanoe competitions are held over 200 metres in single va'a boats, it is contested at World Cups and continental championships. As of May 2018, nine of the twelve events are on the Paralympic programme. At the 2009 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships in Dartmouth, four'paddability' races featured as non-medal exhibition events, including two male-female mixed disciplines in kayak doubles and in doubles canoe; the sport made its official World Championship debut in 2010 and has been contested at every World Championship since, including the standalone Paralympic-year ICF Paracanoe World Championships in 2012 and 2016. The 2012 ICF Paracanoe World Championships were held on 16–17 May 2012 in Poznań, Poland, as a standalone event since the ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships are not held in Olympic years.

Combined categories such as the 2012 Women's V1 A/TA have since been dissolved from the World Championship programme. In IVF competition, a points system is used with a higher number assigned to less impaired paddlers and lower points for more severe impairment. In team events the total number of points of a boat crew are limited. In single-seat boats competition take place in three divisions. 1-point paddlers do not participate in singles races. The three divisions correspond to the three ICF va'a classes. Paracanoeing at the 2016 Summer Paralympics International Canoe Federation - Paracanoe International Paralympic Committee - Paracanoe

Anmanari Brown

Anmanari Brown is an Australian Aboriginal artist. She was one of the pioneers of the art movement across the Ngaanyatjarra and Yankunytjatjara lands, which began in 2000. Since her paintings have gained much success, her work is held in the National Gallery of Victoria, the Art Gallery of Western Australia, the Queensland Art Gallery, the National Gallery of Australia. Brown was born some time during the 1930s, she was born at Purpurna, a waterhole, sacred to the Pitjantjatjara. She grew up living a traditional, nomadic way of life in the bush with her family, before any contact with Euro-Australian society. In the 1950s, her family was moved out of the bush to live at Warburton, with many other Aboriginal families. Warburton was a Christian mission at the time, Brown was taught at school here by missionaries; when she was older, Brown married Nyakul Dawson. Brown began work as an artist in 2000; the women of Irrunytju had opened an art centre as a community-owned economic program. Anmanari and other senior women in the community began painting for Irrunytju Arts on linen canvases.

Their first exhibition was held in Perth. The art mixed modern painting techniques with cultural law. From the beginning of her career, Brown painted with her friend Tjayanka Woods; when Brown's husband died in 2007, she and Woods left Irrunytju and went to live at Papulankutja, on Ngaanyatjarra lands. Here, they paint for Papulankutja Artists. In April 2010, the two women held their first solo exhibition together at the Vivien Anderson Gallery in Melbourne. Brown paints the Kungkarrakalpa Tjukurpa, her connection to this Dreaming comes from her mother, whose homeland is Kuru Ala, a sacred place for women. The paintings in her solo show depicted stories from this Dreaming. Brown's paintings are not figurative, she does not explicitly depict figures or features of the landscape, but she does use iconographic symbols to represent them. She uses patterned lines to represent tracks in a journey, or seven small shapes or lines to represent the sisters, she sometimes uses colour symbolically. While Brown paints directly on canvas, several of her works are made from screen-printing methods.

Resources at the National Library of Australia