Susan Margery Jeaffreson Lloyd was an English model and actress, with numerous film and television credits. She may be best known for her long-running role as Barbara Hunter, née Brady, in the British soap opera Crossroads and Cordelia Winfield in the ITC series The Baron; the daughter of a GP, Lloyd was born in Suffolk. She attended Edgbaston High School in Birmingham and studied dance as a child, attending Sadler's Wells Ballet School; as her height increased, her possibilities for a career as a dancer diminished, she became a showgirl and model, a member of Lionel Blair's dance troupe. She was one of the last two debutantes to be presented to the Queen at Buckingham Palace in 1958, she made her film debut in two espionage-themed films released in 1965. Lloyd was a foil to Michael Caine's Harry Palmer in the spy thriller The Ipcress File. In the same year Lloyd played the regular role of secret agent Cordelia Winfield, alongside Steve Forrest in the 1965–66 British ITC television series The Baron.
Lloyd's character only appeared in the pilot episode, with Steve Forrest's sidekick played by Paul Ferris. Pressure from the American television network who were to screen the show replaced Ferris with Lloyd. In 1971, Lloyd starred in a stage version of the TV series The Avengers playing John Steed's sidekick, Mrs Hannah Wild, she appeared with several other stars in the 1976 Lindsay Shonteff imitation James Bond film No. 1 of the Secret Service. She made many guest appearances in several popular shows of the 1960s and 1970s, including The Saint, Department S, Jason King and Hopkirk, The Persuaders! and The Sweeney. Her other film credits include Revenge of the Pink Panther, The Stud and The Bitch. On her Twitter page Joan Collins said that she and Lloyd had to get drunk prior to their nude scenes, she reunited with Michael Caine in Bullet to Beijing, one of the Harry Palmer films. Lloyd joined the long-running British soap opera Crossroads in 1979, she played Barbara Hunter until she and her on and off screen partner Ronald Allen were dropped from the series in 1985.
In Crossroads Lloyd played the wife of actor Ronald Allen, sacked on the same day she was. They were good friends, having met shortly after his partner, fellow Crossroads actor Brian Hankins, had died from cancer in 1978. Lloyd's friends were surprised when, in 1991, she married an ailing Allen six weeks before his own death, on 18 June, from cancer. Sue Lloyd died on 20 October 2011, aged 72, from cancer. Cinema Nothing But the Best - Debutante at Hunt Ball The Ipcress File - Jean Courtney Hysteria - French Girl Attack on the Iron Coast - Sue Wilson Corruption - Lynn Nolan Where's Jack? - Lady Darlington Twinky - Ursula - Scott's Deprived Girl Percy - Bernice Innocent Bystanders - Joanna Benson That's Your Funeral - Miss Peach Go for a Take - Angel Montgomery Penny Gold - Model Spanish Fly - Janet Scott The Ups and Downs of a Handyman - The Blonde No. 1 of the Secret Service - Sister Jane Revenge of the Pink Panther - Claude Russo The Stud - Vanessa Lady Oscar - Comtesse Gabrielle de Polignac The Bitch - Vanessa Grant Correction, Please or How We Got Into Pictures - Countess Skladanowsky Rough Cut - Female Guest Eat the Rich - Val U.
F. O. - Judge Bullet to Beijing - Jean Beginner's Luck - Television The Saint series 2 ep.19 Luella - Marla Clayton / Luella Gideon's Way - Mary Henderson / Passenger with Det. Chief Insp. David Keen The Avengers series 4 ep.8 A Surfeit of H20 - Joyce Jason The Baron - Cordelia Winfield The Saint series 5 ep.22 Island of Chance - Marla Clayton / Luella Journey to the Unknown series 1 ep.7 The Madison Equation - Barbara Rossiter Department S ep. Black Out - Brigitte The Persuaders! ep.3 Take Seven - Maggie The Two Ronnies - Blanche The Sweeney - Arleen Baker Crossroads - Barbara Hunter / Barbara Brady Bergerac - Eva Southurst Agatha Christie's Miss Marple: A Caribbean Mystery - Lucky Dyson Keeping up Appearances Sue Lloyd on IMDb Sue Lloyd as Cordelia Winfield Obituary, The Guardian, 23 October 2011 Obituary, Daily Telegraph, 24 October 2011
Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information. Spies help agencies uncover secret information. Any individual or spy ring, in the service of a government, company or independent operation, can commit espionage; the practice is clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a method of intelligence gathering which includes information gathering from public sources. Espionage is part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term tends to be associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage. One of the most effective ways to gather data and information about the enemy is by infiltrating the enemy's ranks; this is the job of the spy. Spies can return information concerning the strength of enemy forces, they can find dissidents within the enemy's forces and influence them to defect.
In times of crisis, spies sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence is the practice of thwarting enemy intelligence-gathering. All nations have strict laws concerning espionage and the penalty for being caught is severe. However, the benefits gained through espionage are so great that most governments and many large corporations make use of it. Information collection techniques used in the conduct of clandestine human intelligence include operational techniques, asset recruiting, tradecraft. Today, espionage agencies target terrorists as well as state actors. Since 2008, the United States has charged at least 57 defendants for attempting to spy for China. Intelligence services value certain intelligence collection techniques over others; the former Soviet Union, for example, preferred human sources over research in open sources, while the United States has tended to emphasize technological methods such as SIGINT and IMINT. In the Soviet Union, both political and military intelligence officers were judged by the number of agents they recruited.
Espionage agents are trained experts in a targeted field so they can differentiate mundane information from targets of value to their own organizational development. Correct identification of the target at its execution is the sole purpose of the espionage operation. Broad areas of espionage targeting expertise include: Natural resources: strategic production identification and assessment. Agents are found among bureaucrats who administer these resources in their own countries Popular sentiment towards domestic and foreign policies. Agents recruited from field journalistic crews, exchange postgraduate students and sociology researchers Strategic economic strengths. Agents recruited from science and technology academia, commercial enterprises, more from among military technologists Military capability intelligence. Agents are trained by military espionage education facilities, posted to an area of operation with covert identities to minimize prosecution Counterintelligence operations targeting opponents' intelligence services themselves, such as breaching confidentiality of communications, recruiting defectors or moles Although the news media may speak of "spy satellites" and the like, espionage is not a synonym for all intelligence-gathering disciplines.
It is a specific form of human source intelligence. Codebreaking, aircraft or satellite photography, research in open publications are all intelligence gathering disciplines, but none of them is considered espionage. Many HUMINT activities, such as prisoner interrogation, reports from military reconnaissance patrols and from diplomats, etc. are not considered espionage. Espionage is the disclosure of sensitive information to people who are not cleared for that information or access to that sensitive information. Unlike other forms of intelligence collection disciplines, espionage involves accessing the place where the desired information is stored or accessing the people who know the information and will divulge it through some kind of subterfuge. There are exceptions to physical meetings, such as the Oslo Report, or the insistence of Robert Hanssen in never meeting the people who bought his information; the US defines espionage towards itself as "The act of obtaining, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation".
Black's Law Dictionary defines espionage as: "... gathering, transmitting, or losing... information related to the national defense". Espionage is a violation of United States law, 18 U. S. C. §§ 792–798 and Article 106a of the Uniform Code of Military Justice". The United States, like most nations, conducts espionage against other nations, under the control of the National Clandestine Service. Britain's espionage activities are controlled by the Secret Intelligence Service. A spy is a person employed to seek out top secret information from a source. Within the United States Intelligence Community, "asset" is a more common usage. A case officer or Special Agent, who may have diplomatic status and directs the human collector. Cutouts are couriers who do not know the case officer but transfer messages. A
Emma Peel is a fictional spy played by Diana Rigg in the British 1960s adventure television series The Avengers, by Uma Thurman in the 1998 film version. She was born the daughter of an industrialist, Sir John Knight, she is the partner of John Steed. As a lady spy adventurer and expert in martial arts, she became a feminist role model around the world and is considered an icon of British popular culture. Regarded as a 1960s fashion icon, the character is remembered for the leather catsuit worn by Rigg in the first series. Mrs. Peel was introduced as a replacement for the popular Cathy Gale, played by actress Honor Blackman. Blackman left the programme at the end of the third season to co-star in the James Bond film Goldfinger. Elizabeth Shepherd was cast as Emma Peel and production on the fourth series began. After filming all of one episode and part of a second, the producers decided that Shepherd was not right for the part, she was dismissed. No footage of Shepherd as Peel is known to have survived.
The producers gave the job to Diana Rigg. The character was notable for a number of characteristics. Peel is a heroine, she is a master of a formidable fencer. A certified genius, she specialises in chemistry and other sciences, she is seen in episodes engaging in artistic hobbies and had success in industry at the helm of the company of her late father, Sir John Knight. Her husband, Peter Peel, was a pilot, he was presumed dead for many years, Peel went on to work with Steed. She drove a convertible Lotus Elan at high speeds, convincingly portrayed any series of undercover roles, from nurse to nanny, her favourite guise was that of a women's magazine reporter, trying to interview big business tycoons and rich playboys. The name "Emma Peel" is a play on the phrase "Man Appeal" or "M. Appeal", which the production team stated was one of the required elements of the character. Peel's verbal interactions with Steed range from witty banter to thinly disguised innuendo. Regarding the question of whether they had a sexual relationship at any time, Patrick Macnee thought they went to bed on a regular basis.
However, Rigg thought they were engaged in a enjoyable extended flirtation that went nowhere. Writer/producer Brian Clemens said he wrote them with the idea they had an affair before Emma's first appearance in the series, her style of dress typified the period, the character is still a fashion icon. John Bates was brought in as the costume designer for Emma Peel in the second half of the fourth series, he miniskirts. Before this, people had believed that lines and other bold patterns would not work on the television cameras of the day. Episodes were filmed before the miniskirt had become a mainstream fashion statement. Bates had to stop leaving hems on the mini skirts because the production team kept lowering them again, he licensed his designs to several manufacturers under the Avengerswear label and these pieces were sold in various shops throughout the country. Diana Rigg is remembered for the leather catsuit she wore early on in her first season. Rigg disliked wearing leather, so Bates designed softer stretch jersey and PVC catsuits for her instead.
When the show transitioned from black and white to colour, the designer was Alun Hughes who used bold colours and lurid, psychedelic patterns. Hughes created the Emmapeeler catsuit, made of stretch jersey in bright block colours; the Emmapeelers and several other pieces from this season's wardrobe were licensed and sold in the shops as well. When Peter Peel reappears, at the end of "The Forget-Me-Knot", Emma leaves Steed and her spy career behind. In the distant shot in which he appears, Peter Peel looks suspiciously like Steed, like him drives a two-door convertible Bentley, albeit a contemporary model. Emma meets her replacement, Tara King, who enters the building as she herself is leaving and tells her that Steed likes his tea stirred "anti-clockwise". Peel would be the last in a string of "talented amateurs" with whom John Steed was teamed, as her successor is a neophyte professional agent. In real life, Diana Rigg had chosen to leave the series for a number of reasons, one of, to accept a role in the James Bond film On Her Majesty's Secret Service.
During her first series, Rigg learned that she was making less than the cameraman: afterwards her salary was tripled and combined with her loyalty to Macnee, she was persuaded to come back for 25 additional episodes. The arduous shooting schedules, conflicts with the producers, the lure of film and stage roles, a desire to challenge herself as an actress all combined in her decision to leave the show for good. After leaving the series, Rigg played a variation of the Emma Peel character in two German short films produced for the 8mm market: The Diadem and The Mini-Killers. Little behind the scenes information has surfaced. Although Emma Peel appeared on The New Avengers in flashback clips from the original series, she's features in the episode entitled "K is for Kill", she speaks with Steed over the phone and ment
Joanna Lamond Lumley, is an English actress, former model and activist. She won two BAFTA TV Awards for her role as Patsy Stone in the BBC sitcom Absolutely Fabulous, was nominated for the 2011 Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play for the Broadway revival of La Bête. In 2013, she received the Special Recognition Award at the National Television Awards and in 2017, she was honoured with the BAFTA Fellowship award. Lumley's other television credits include The New Avengers, Sapphire & Steel, Sensitive Skin, Jam & Jerusalem, her film appearances include On Her Majesty's Secret Service, Trail of the Pink Panther, Shirley Valentine and the Giant Peach, Ella Enchanted, Corpse Bride, The Wolf of Wall Street, Absolutely Fabulous: The Movie. In addition she had a cameo role in en episode of Are You Being Served, written by Jeremy Lloyd, whom she had both married and divorced three years previously. Lumley is an advocate and human rights activist for Survival International and the Gurkha Justice Campaign.
She supports charities and animal welfare groups, such as Compassion in World Farming and Vegetarians' International Voice for Animals. She is patron of the Farm Animal Sanctuary, she is known as'daughter of Nepal' in Nepal. Joanna Lamond Lumley was born on 1 May 1946 in Srinagar and Kashmir, British India, to English mother Thyra Beatrice Rose and Scottish-English father, Major James Rutherford Lumley, born in Lahore, British India, who served as an officer in the British Indian Army's 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles, they married in 1941. Her grandfather Lieutenant Colonel Leslie Weir had been born in Ghazipur and served as an army officer in Kashmir and was a close friend to the 13th Dalai Lama. Lumley was brought up in Kent, where she attended Mickledene School in Rolvenden as a boarder; the family spent time in Malaya. Lumley was educated at The Convent of Our Lady School in St Leonards-on-Sea and afterwards attended the Lucie Clayton Finishing School, after being turned down by the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art at the age of 16.
Lumley spent three years as a photographic model, notably for Brian Duffy, who photographed her with her son. In 1967 Lumley appeared on the BBC Two programme The Impresarios: For Appearance's Sake, explaining Duffy's studio process and her joy in working with him, she worked as a house model for Jean Muir. Over forty years she participated in another photoshoot – again with her son – for Duffy as part of a retrospective of the photographer's work. Lumley appeared in an early episode of the Bruce Forsyth Show in 1966, she appeared in a British television advertisement for Nimble bread first screened in 1969. Lumley did not receive any formal training at drama school, her acting career began in 1969 with a small, uncredited role in the film Some Girls Do, as a Bond girl in On Her Majesty's Secret Service, in which she had two lines as a British girl among the villainous Ernst Stavro Blofeld's "Angels of Death". Lumley went on to have a brief but memorable role as Elaine Perkins in Coronation Street, in which her character turned down Ken Barlow's offer of marriage.
In 1973, she made another big screen appearance as Jessica Van Helsing in The Satanic Rites of Dracula, the last Hammer Dracula film to star Christopher Lee. She has worked in James and the Giant Peach and Corpse Bride, she has appeared alongside Hugh Laurie in the British romantic comedy Maybe Baby and alongside Anne Hathaway in Ella Enchanted. She has appeared twice in the episodes. In 2010, she appeared in a 4-episode guest arc on Mistresses as Vivienne Roden. In 2013, she appeared in The Wolf of Wall Street. Throughout her career, she has specialised in playing upper class parts, her distinctive voice has reinforced this. Lumley's first major role was as Purdey in The New Avengers, a revival of the secret agent series The Avengers. In 1979 she appeared in another series which acquired a cult following: Sapphire & Steel, with David McCallum. Conceived as ITV's answer to Doctor Who, Lumley played a mysterious elemental being who, with her collaborator, "Steel", dealt with breaches in the fabric of time.
In 1986, television producer Sydney Newman suggested Lumley for the role of the Doctor but his idea was dismissed. Over a decade Lumley's career was boosted by her portrayal of the louche and drunk fashion director Patsy Stone, companion to Jennifer Saunders' Edina Monsoon in the BBC comedy television series Absolutely Fabulous. Fabulous: The Movie was released in 2016. In 1994 and 1995 Lumley starred alongside Nadine Garner and John Bowe in the British television show Class Act, playing the part of Kate Swift an upper class lady who had fallen on hard times. Other work has included: Lovejoy as widow Victoria Cavero, In the Kingdom of the Thunder Dragon, a film about a journey made by her grandparents in Bhutan, A Rather English Marriage and Dr Willoughby. In 1995, she provided the voice of Annie the rag doll in the animated series The Forgotten Toys. In 1999, she provided the voice for Sims the chicken in the BAFTA award-winning animated series The Foxbusters. In 2000, she co-produced a new drama series The Cazalets.
She appeared in a TV series on Sarawak, where she s
The Professionals (TV series)
The Professionals is a British crime-action television drama series produced by Avengers Mark1 Productions for London Weekend Television that aired on the ITV network from 1977 to 1983. In all, 57 episodes were produced, filmed between 1977 and 1981, it starred Martin Shaw, Lewis Collins and Gordon Jackson as agents of the fictional "CI5". The Professionals was created by Brian Clemens, one of the driving forces behind The Avengers; the show was to have been called The A-Squad. Clemens and Albert Fennell were executive producers, with business partner Laurie Johnson providing the theme music. Sidney Hayers produced the first series in 1977, Raymond Menmuir the remainder. CI5 is a British law enforcement department, instructed by the Home Secretary to use any means to deal with crimes of a serious nature that go beyond the capacity of the police, but which are not tasks for the Security Service or the military; the choice of CI5's name is inspired by Criminal Investigation Department and MI5. The premise allowed the programme-makers to involve a wide variety of villains, including terrorists, hit-men, racist groups and espionage suspects, with plots sometimes relating to the Cold War.
Led by the formidable George Cowley, CI5 is known for using unconventional and sometimes illegal methods to beat criminals, or as Cowley put it "Fight fire with fire!" The use of a fictitious force in this context was somewhat less controversial than the portrayal of the real Flying Squad in The Sweeney. Cowley's two best agents are William Bodie. Doyle is an ex-detective constable who has worked the seedier parts of London, while Bodie is an ex-paratrooper and Special Air Service sergeant. Of the two, Doyle is the softer and more thoughtful character, while Bodie is ruthless and more willing to take on criminals on their own terms; that said, Doyle is more hot-headed and tended to rush in, while Bodie waits for the shooting to start. While polar opposites and Doyle have a deep and enduring friendship, are inseparable. Although their loyalty to Cowley is beyond question, they have no qualms about disobeying orders if it means getting the right result, either for the case or themselves. Anthony Andrews was contracted to play Bodie, but he and Shaw did not have the chemistry that Clemens was looking for.
As Shaw was deemed to have more'screen presence', Andrews was dropped, Clemens hiring Collins in his place. Shaw and Collins had played villains in a 1977 episode of The New Avengers together, had not got on with each other. Since this was the reason Collins was brought into the production, he and Shaw became friends off-screen, although they managed to keep up the on-screen chemistry and abrasiveness of Bodie and Doyle's relationship; the Collins character in "Obsession" signed off by saying "Maybe we should work together again. We're a good team." The first Professionals episode was produced the same year. Clemens intended to write two or three establishing episodes and hand over to other writers, but their scripts were uneven and lacked the energy and pace needed. Clemens re-wrote nearly 10 scripts for the first-series episodes and took a direct hands-on approach to the filming. In series, with the format established and the writers and directors familiar with the show, he took a more leisurely approach behind the scenes.
The early years of the show featured varied plots, good scripts and ongoing character development of Bodie and Doyle and to a lesser extent Cowley, but series featured overused ideas and script devices, both Collins and Shaw stated they felt the show was becoming stale. Although the final series was broadcast from November 1982 until February 1983, no episodes were filmed after May 1981. Major George Cowley – Nicknamed "Morris" after the car of the same name, his operatives sometimes call him "The Cow". Founder and head of CI5, making him Doyle's boss; as a young man he volunteered in the Spanish Civil War on the Republican side, where he was shot in the leg. Served as an officer in the British Army, where he attained the rank of major, he worked in the secret services before being seconded to CI5 to form and manage the team. A confident and experienced man, able to defend himself against physical and high-level political attacks. With many contacts and friends in high places, he is not afraid to clash with leaders of other services like Special Branch and MI5 or to speak his mind, being insolent towards superiors, one of whom looked upon Cowley as "Not a Very Civil Civil Servant".
Cowley's favourite tipple is single malt Scotch whisky. Raymond Doyle, a former police detective constable, who originated in Derby but lived in an unspecified "city" with parallels to Birmingham, he was working the seedier parts of east London when recruited into CI5. He took art classes, appears to be musically inclined as well. An expert shot with a pistol, he ran a karate class for the children on his beat, he was recruited by Cowley, was made Bodie's partner shortly afterwards. Doyle is intelligent and thoughtful but is quick to anger, his tendency to rush in leaves Bodie having to race to the rescue, he is more inclined to seek long-lasting relationships with women, in one episode nearly married. Like Bodie he enjoyed football, but enjoyed a more healthy lifestyle. Doyle's bubble perm hairstyle and 1970s dress sense were chosen by Martin Shaw and hi
Sydney Cecil Newman, OC was a Canadian film and television producer, who played a pioneering role in British television drama from the late 1950s to the late 1960s. After his return to Canada in 1970, Newman was appointed Acting Director of the Broadcast Programs Branch for the Canadian Radio and Television Commission and head of the National Film Board of Canada, he occupied senior positions at the Canadian Film Development Corporation and Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, acted as an advisor to the Secretary of State. During his time in Britain in the 1950s and 1960s, he worked first with the Associated British Corporation, before moving across to the BBC in 1962, holding the role of Head of Drama with both organisations. During this phase of his career, he was responsible for initiating two hugely popular television programmes, the spy-fi series The Avengers and the science-fiction series Doctor Who, as well as overseeing the production of groundbreaking social realist drama series such as Armchair Theatre and The Wednesday Play.
The Museum of Broadcast Communications describes Newman as "the most significant agent in the development of British television drama." His obituary in The Guardian declared that "For ten brief but glorious years, Sydney Newman... was the most important impresario in Britain... His death marks not just the end of an era but the laying to rest of a whole philosophy of popular art."In Quebec, as commissioner of the NFB, he attracted controversy for his decision to suppress distribution of several politically sensitive films by French Canadian directors. Born in Toronto with the surname Nudelman, Newman was the son of a Russian-Jewish immigrant father who ran a shoe shop. After studying at Ogden Public School, which he left at the age of thirteen, he enrolled in the Central Technical School, studying art and design subjects, he attempted to follow a career as a stills photographer and an artist, specialising in drawing film posters. However, he found it so difficult to earn enough money to make a living from this profession that instead, he switched to working in the film industry itself.
In 1938, he travelled to Hollywood, where he was offered a role with the Walt Disney Company on the strength of his graphic design work. However, he was unable to take the job due to a failure to secure a work permit. Returning to his native country, in 1941, he gained a job as a film editor at the National Film Board of Canada, he was to work on over 350 films while an editor for the NFB. During the Second World War the head of the NFB, John Grierson, promoted Newman to film producer, working on documentaries and propaganda films, including Fighting Norway, which he directed. In 1944 he was made executive producer of a long-running series of such films. In 1949 Grierson again assisted Newman's career, entering him into television a new industry, on a one-year attachment to NBC in New York City, his assignment there was to compile reports for the Canadian government on American television techniques, focusing on dramas and outside broadcasts. One of Newman's reports on outside broadcasting was seen and admired by executives at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, in 1952 he joined the Corporation as their Supervising Director of Features and Outside Broadcasts.
There he was involved in producing not only some of the earliest television editions of Hockey Night in Canada, but the first Canadian Football League game to be shown on television. After his experience of seeing the production of television plays in New York, he was eager to work in drama despite, by his own admission, "knowing nothing about drama." He was nonetheless able to persuade his superiors at CBC to make him Supervisor of Drama Production in 1954. In this position he encouraged a new wave of young writers and directors, including Ted Kotcheff and Arthur Hailey, oversaw shows such as the popular General Motors Theatre. Writing in 1990, the journalist Paul Rutherford felt that during his time at the CBC in the 1950s, Newman had been a "great champion of both realistic and Canadian drama." He felt that Newman "came to fulfil the role of the drama impresario with the vision to push people to develop a high-quality and popular style of drama."Several of the General Motors Theatre plays, including Hailey's Flight into Danger, were purchased for screening by the BBC in the United Kingdom.
The productions impressed Howard Thomas, the managing director of Associated British Corporation, the franchise holder for the rival ITV network in the English Midlands and the North at weekends. Thomas offered Newman a job with ABC as a producer of his own Saturday night thriller series, which Newman accepted, moving to Britain in 1958. In 1975 the Head of Drama at the CBC, John Hirsch, noted that the tendency of so many writers and directors having followed Newman to the UK in the 1950s and never having returned to work in Canada had a detrimental impact on the standard of subsequent Canadian television drama. Soon after Newman arrived in the UK, ABC's Head of Drama Dennis Vance was moved into a more senior position with the company, Thomas offered Newman his position, which the Canadian accepted, he was, somewhat disparaging of the state in which he found British television drama. "At that time, I found this country to be somewhat class-ridden," he reminisced to interviewers in 1988. "The only legitimate theatre was of the'anyone for tennis' variety, which on the whole gave a condescending view of working-class people.
Television dramas were adaptations of stage plays and invariably about the upper classes. I said,'Damn the upper classes: they don't own televisions!'"Newman's principal too
Attack of the Alligators!
"Attack of the Alligators!" is the 23rd episode of Thunderbirds, a British Supermarionation television series created by Gerry and Sylvia Anderson and produced by their company AP Films. Written by Alan Pattillo and directed by David Lane, it was first broadcast on ATV Midlands on 10 March 1966. Set in the 2060s, the series follows the exploits of International Rescue, an organisation that uses technologically-advanced rescue vehicles to save human life; the main characters are ex-astronaut Jeff Tracy, founder of International Rescue, his five adult sons, who pilot the organisation's main vehicles: the Thunderbird machines. The plot of "Attack of the Alligators" sees a group of alligators grow to enormous size after their swamp is contaminated by a new food additive; when the reptiles lay siege to a house, International Rescue is called in to save the trapped occupants. Combining science-fiction and haunted house themes, with a plot deliberately written to be "nightmarish", "Attack of the Alligators!" was filmed at APF Studios in Slough in late 1965.
It was the first APF production to use live animals, the re-sized alligators being played by juvenile crocodiles. Filming of the episode was controversial as the crew resorted to using electric shocks to coax movement out of the animals. Concern for the crocodiles' welfare prompted an investigation by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, which took no action against APF. "Attack of the Alligators!" remains a favourite with Thunderbirds fans and commentators and is regarded as one of the series' best episode. Along with "The Cham-Cham", the next episode to enter production, it went over-budget, causing the final instalment of Thunderbirds Series One to be re-written as a clip show to lower costs. In 1976, "Attack of the Alligators!" Inspired an episode of The New Avengers titled "Gnaws", written by ex-Thunderbirds writer Dennis Spooner. A businessman, visits the reclusive Dr Orchard, a scientist who lives in a dilapidated house on the Ambro River. From the local plant Sidonicus americanus, Orchard has developed a food additive called "theramine" that increases the size of animals.
Enlargement of animal stock presents a simple solution to world famine as well as other economic advantages. Blackmer's boatman, eavesdrops on the meeting; when a storm forces Blackmer to stay at the house overnight, Culp decides to steal the theramine and sell it to the highest bidder. Waiting until the house's other occupants are asleep, he breaks into Orchard's laboratory and pours some theramine into a vial; the rest of the supply drains into the Ambro River. When Blackmer and Culp leave the next morning, their boat is attacked by an alligator, now enormous due to the theramine contamination. Orchard's assistant, Hector McGill, manages to rescue Culp is nowhere to be found; the house is surrounded by three giant alligators that hurl themselves at the building with Orchard, Blackmer, McGill and the housekeeper, Mrs Files, trapped inside. At Mrs Files' suggestion, McGill transmits a distress call to International Rescue; this is picked up by John Tracy on the Thunderbird 5 space station and relayed to Tracy Island, where Jeff dispatches his other four sons to the danger zone in Thunderbirds 1 and 2.
Arriving in Thunderbird 1 and transferring to a hover-jet, Scott fires the hover-jet's missile gun to disperse the alligators and accesses the house via the laboratory window. The room caves in, forcing Scott and the others to retreat to the lounge. There, they are confronted by Culp. Virgil and Gordon arrive in Thunderbird 2. Alan and Gordon subdue two of the alligators; when the third returns to the house, Alan exits Thunderbird 2 on another hover-jet to lure it away. He hits a tree and falls off the hover-jet, but is saved by Gordon, who tranquilises the alligator before it reaches Alan. Threatening to empty the entire theramine vial into the Ambro unless he is given safe passage upriver, Culp sets off in Blackmer's boat. At the same time, Gordon launches Thunderbird 4. A fourth, much larger alligator attacks the boat, killing Culp. Virgil disposes of the creature with a missile fired from Thunderbird 2. Gordon finds the theramine vial intact on the riverbed. After his sons return to Tracy Island, Jeff announces that theramine will be subject to international security restrictions.
Tin-Tin has been away on a shopping trip and has bought Alan a present for his birthday – a pygmy alligator. The episode was inspired by H. G. Wells' 1904 novel The Food of the Gods and How It Came to Earth and its theme of animal size change. Another influence was the 1927 film The Cat and the Canary and its 1939 re-make, both of which feature haunted house premises and stalker characters. Writer Alan Pattillo, who according to special effects supervisor Derek Meddings "had tried to come up with the most nightmarish rescue situation he could", had wanted to direct the episode as well. However, it was directed by David Lane."Attack of the Alligators!" was filmed in October and November 1965. Production went over-schedule, forcing the crew to work extra hours, sometimes long into the night, to complete the filming. Special effects technician Ian Wingrove remembered that the episode's complex technical aspects once resulted in the crew " day and night... through a weekend". The alligators in the episode were portrayed not by actual alligators, as Gerry Anderson had intended, but by juvenile crocodiles.
These were acquired