A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Weed is a city in Siskiyou County, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the town had a total population of 2,967, down from 2,979 in 2000. There are several unincorporated communities adjacent to, or just outside, Weed proper, including Edgewood and Lake Shastina; these communities have mailing addresses that use Weed or its ZIP code. The total population of this area in 2007 was 6,318. Weed is about 10 miles west-northwest of Mount Shasta, a prominent northern California landmark, the second-tallest volcano in the Cascade Range. Weed's city motto is "Weed like to welcome you". Weed has been noted on lists of unusual place names; the town of Weed derives its name from the founder of the local lumber mill and pioneer Abner Weed, who discovered that the area's strong winds were helpful in drying lumber. In 1897, Abner Weed bought the Siskiyou Lumber and Mercantile Mill and 280 acres of land in what is now the City of Weed, for $400. By the 1940s Weed boasted the world's largest sawmill. On September 15, 2014, the Boles Fire spread through the town, driven by 40-mph winds.
The fire started behind the Boles Creek Apartments in the central part of Weed at 1:30 p.m. and within four hours spread to over 200 acres. Evacuations were ordered, a shelter was first set up at College of the Siskiyous, but as fire headed towards the college, the evacuation center was relocated first to the Siskiyou Golden Fairgrounds in Yreka to Yreka and Mount Shasta High Schools to the armory in Mt. Shasta. Over 200 structures were damaged or destroyed, including two churches, the elementary school, high school, Roseburg mill; the schools and mill sustained only minimal damage to outbuildings. About 7,678 Pacific Power customers in both Weed and Mt. Shasta lost power as a result of the fire; the town of Weed gets its water from the Beaughan Spring, with the water being piped directly to homes. In September 2016, the New York Times reported French billionaire Pierre Papillaud demanded that Weed give up its Beaughan Spring spring water source so that Papillaud's bottle water company could have more water to sell.
Disconnecting from Beaughan Spring would leave Weed without public water. Weed is at 41 ° 122 ° 23' 4" west, it is off Interstate 5, 49 miles south of the California–Oregon border. The next large town to the north on I-5 is Yreka. U. S. Route 97 runs to Klamath Falls, Oregon. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.8 square miles, of which 0.10% of is covered by water. The closest cities with a population greater than 50,000 are Redding and Medford, Oregon. Weed has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, featuring cool, wet winters with occasional snowfall, warm to hot, dry summers, its average annual precipitation is 23.64 in. Its USDA hardiness zone is 7b. Weed is at the intersection of Interstate 5 and U. S. Route 97. Interstate 5 is the primary north-south transportation corridor for the west coast of the United States running from the Mexico–US border to the Canada–US border. U. S. Route 97 is a major north-south U. S. highway continuing from Weed in a northeasterly direction toward Klamath Falls, thence through Oregon and Washington to the Canada–US border.
California State Route 265 runs through the town of Weed, locally known as North Weed Boulevard. Only two blocks long, it is the second-shortest state highway in California. Weed is served by Siskiyou County's public transportation bus lines, Siskiyou Transit and General Express called "The STAGE"; the closest airports for commercial air travel are Rogue Valley International-Medford Airport and Redding Municipal Airport. The Weed Airport serves general aviation and as a base of operations for search and rescue operations on Mount Shasta. Corporate visitors or geological researchers use this facility. Amtrak trains do not stop there; the Amtrak bus/shuttle has one stop in South Weed. The nearest depot for Amtrak train travel is in Dunsmuir 15 miles to the south. Greyhound Bus Lines has a bus station, with both southbound buses making stops. From its founding in 1901, to as late as the 1980s, Weed was home to a thriving lumber industry. Roseburg Forest Products, International Paper Company, Morgan Products Ltd. and J.
H. Baxter were all based in Weed; the historic industrial area at the northeast corner of town has been plagued with environmental concerns and clean-up efforts as a result of chemicals used for wood treatment, as well as chemical residue from glue used in the door factory. Although reliant on logging, wood processing and forest-related products, Weed's economy has become more reliant on tourism as a source of economic activity. Weed's microbrewery, Mt. Shasta Brewing Company, relies on tourists for 92 percent of its business, according to co-owner Vaune Dillman. Today, most of the wood-product-related industry has been scaled back or ceased altogether, new retail and light industrial activity is concentrated in the southeast corner of Weed. Retail at the south end of town, in the form of restaurants and hotels, caters to tourist travel on the Interstate 5 corridor. Light manufacturing of bottled water from Crystal Geyser Water Company has added economic stability to the area. Weed is part of the Shasta Valley Enterprise Zone which provides tax breaks, fee reductions, permit fast-tracking for employers locating in the area.
As of 2007, the largest employers in Weed were: College of
September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration among people and governments worldwide. As a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, globalization is considered by some as a form of capitalist expansion which entails the integration of local and national economies into a global, unregulated market economy. Globalization has grown due to advances in communication technology. With the increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade and culture. Globalization is an economic process of interaction and integration that's associated with social and cultural aspects; however and diplomacy are large parts of the history of globalization, modern globalization. Economically, globalization involves goods, the economic resources of capital and data; the expansions of global markets liberalize the economic activities of the exchange of goods and funds. Removal of Cross-Border Trades barriers has made formation of Global Markets more feasible; the steam locomotive, jet engine, container ships are some of the advances in the means of transport while the rise of the telegraph and its modern offspring, the Internet and mobile phones show development in telecommunications infrastructure.
All of these improvements have been major factors in globalization and have generated further interdependence of economic and cultural activities around the globe. Though many scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European Age of Discovery and voyages to the New World, some to the third millennium BC. Large-scale globalization began in the 1820s. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectivity of the world's economies and cultures grew quickly; the term globalization is recent. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions and investment movements and movement of people, the dissemination of knowledge. Further, environmental challenges such as global warming, cross-boundary water, air pollution, over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, socio-cultural resources, the natural environment.
Academic literature subdivides globalization into three major areas: economic globalization, cultural globalization, political globalization. The term globalization derives from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of economic systems. One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled Towards New Education, where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education; the term'globalization' had been used in its economic sense at least as early as 1981, in other senses since at least as early as 1944. Theodore Levitt is credited with popularizing the term and bringing it into the mainstream business audience in the half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations, its antecedents date back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onward. Due to the complexity of the concept, various research projects and discussions stay focused on a single aspect of globalization.
Sociologists Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King define globalization as "all those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single world society." In The Consequences of Modernity, Anthony Giddens writes: "Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa." In 1992, Roland Robertson, professor of sociology at the University of Aberdeen and an early writer in the field, described globalization as "the compression of the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole."In Global Transformations, David Held and his co-writers state: Although in its simplistic sense globalization refers to the widening and speeding up of global interconnection, such a definition begs further elaboration.... Globalization can be on a continuum with the local and regional. At one end of the continuum lie social and economic relations and networks which are organized on a local and/or national basis.
Globalization can refer to those spatial-temporal processes of change which underpin a transformation in the organization of human affairs by linking together and expanding human activity across regions and continents. Without reference to such expansive spatial connections, there can be no clear or coherent formulation of this term.... A satisfactory definition of globalization must capture each of these elements: extensity, intensity and impact. Held and his co-writers' definition of globalization in that same book as "transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions—assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity and impact—generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows" was called "probably the most widely-cited definition" in the 2014 DHL Global Connectiveness Index. Swedish journalist Thomas Larsson, in his book The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization, states that globalization: is the process of world shrinkage, of distances getting shorter, things moving closer.
It pertains to the increasin
Flynn Gower is an Australian vocalist and guitarist the frontman of The Occupants. He is best known as frontman of the rock band Cog, which disbanded in 2010, he was a guitarist in now-defunct funk metal band The Hanging Tree. Flynn Gower was born in 1972 in Sydney, is the oldest of 3 children, he initiated his career in the early- to mid-90s forming the funk metal band The Hanging Tree, which became one of the most popular bands in the Sydney live circuit. After a few years developing a following through extensive touring, the band released a debut, self-titled album in 1996. Shortly before the recording of this album, Lucius Borich, a childhood friend of Gower joined the band on drums, after leaving ARIA Award nominated grunge band Juice. In 1997, Borich left the band and travelled to the U. S. to do session work. Throughout, Gower was communicating with Borich, both writing new music; this led to the formation of Cog in 1998. Gower had, in preparation for a move to the U. S. sold all of his gear.
However, Borich had returned home. For the next 8 years, Cog consumed the musical direction of Gower, though much of the music the band was playing had been written before the 1998 formation of the band; the band recorded demos with Borich playing bass. Flynn's brother Luke Gower was brought in on bass guitar for live shows. Cog played instrumentally, but after failing in a search for a vocalist, Gower took up the role, though without any previous experience. From 1998 to 2002, the band played through Sydney, gathering a following to rival that of The Hanging Tree in the mid 90's. In 2002, the band came to the fore of Australia's heavy rock/metal scene with the release of the Just Visiting Part One and Just Visiting Part Two EPs. In early 2003, Gower contributed vocals to the track Perception Twin by peers The Butterfly Effect, appearing on their Begins Here album. Cog released the single Open Up in March 2003, continued to tour Australia. In mid-2004 the band shifted management and labels, before recording a debut album in The New Normal.
After its release in April 2005, the album saw a slight shift and a massive growth in the band's fanbase, in accordance with a more commercial sound, while retaining a progressive feel, some tracks topping 10 minutes. After four national tours in the space of a year, the band returned to the US began to record and write tracks for their second album, entitled Sharing Space, in Weed, California. Sharing Space was released on 12 April 2008. In February, the band announced that they will be touring around Australia in support of Sharing Space in May and June. On 24 April 2013 Flynn and Luke Gower released a new single "I've been thinking" under a project name "The Occupants Music", recorded late 2012 at Rocking Horse Studios in Byron Bay. Forrester Savell produced the track with Troy Wright on drums. Amongst his musical pursuits, Gower is known for his intriguing facial hair. In a style that evokes images of a catfish, for the past decade has sported an entirely shaved moustache, besides the edges, which are quite lengthy.
His vocal style is intriguing and unique in the early stages of Cog's development, alternating between a bizarre high-pitched semi-falsetto sung from the throat and more masculine timbres. His formation of words is fairly unusual, drawing out diphthongs to extremes. Over the course of Cog's history, the semi-falsetto has been replaced with more conventional singing, but remaining is the odd word formation. Gower's style is left field, with a lot of contrast between heavier and lighter timbres. Primary influences on his style are not apparent upon listening, though he has cited Helmet and Soundgarden; the tuning of his guitars are all the same in the 4 lower strings. The tuning being CGCf always for the lower strings, the 2 highest strings vary in tuning, depending on the song, for example, "The Spine" and "Doors.." are tuned to CGCfcd. The tunings used were all made up, writing the music first tuning the guitar making it easier to play what had been written. In Cog, where rhythm plays a significant part in the music, there is a lot of interplay between drums and guitar.
Of late, his style seems to be somewhat influenced by heavier post-rock bands such as Isis and Pelican. Guitars: Flynn Gower uses a selection of guitars made by Gibson, his main guitar is a Goldtop Gibson Les Paul Standard. His other tour guitars include a Gibson Les Paul Double-Cutaway. Amplifiers and Effects used Live: Marshall 4x12 Cabinet Orange 4x12 Cabinet Framus 4x12 Cabinet Soldano 4x12 Cabinet Mesa/Boogie Roadster Head Mesa/Boogie Rectifier Roadster FootSwitch Boss DD-20 Giga Delay Boss DD-3 Digital Delay Boss OC-3 Super Octave Boss PH-2 Super Phaser Boss RV-5 Digital Reverb Boss DS-1 Distortion Boss LS-2 Line Selector Electro-Harmonix Sovtek Big Muff DOD FX25B Envelope Filter Vox V847-A Wah TC Electronic G-System "I've been thinking" Hindsight Official Website of The Occupants Music Official Facebook page of The Occupants Music Official Website Official MySpace
Triple J is a government-funded, national Australian radio station intended to appeal to listeners of alternative music, which began broadcasting in January 1975. The station places a greater emphasis on broadcasting Australian content compared to commercial stations. Triple J is a division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2JJ commenced broadcasting at 11:00 am, Sunday 19 January 1975, at 1540 kHz on the AM band. The new Australian Broadcasting Corporation station was given the official call-sign 2JJ, but soon became known as Double J; the station was restricted to the greater Sydney region, its local reception was hampered by inadequate transmitter facilities. However, its frequency was a clear channel nationally, so it was heard at night throughout south-eastern Australia. After midnight the station would use ABC networks – during their off air time slot – to increase its broadcasting range, its first broadcast demonstrated a determination to distinguish itself from other Australian radio stations.
The first on-air presenter, DJ Holger Brockmann, notably used his own name. Owing to 2SM's restrictive policies at the time, whose real name was considered "too foreign-sounding", had been forced to work using the pseudonym "Bill Drake" in prior positions. After an introductory audio collage that featured sounds from the countdown and launch of Apollo 11, Brockmann launched the station's first-ever broadcast with the words, "Wow, we're away!", cued The Skyhooks' You Just Like Me'Cos I'm Good in Bed. The choice of a Skyhooks song to introduce the station was significant, as it represented several important features of the Double Jay brand at the time. Choosing an Australian band reflected Double J's commitment to Australian content at a time when American acts dominated commercial pop stations. Most notably, the song was one of several tracks from the Skyhooks' album, banned from airplay on commercial radio by the industry's peak body; because Double J was a government-funded station operating under the umbrella of the ABC, it was not bound by commercial-radio censorship codes, was not answerable to advertisers or the station owners.
In contrast, their Sydney rival, 2SM, was owned by a holding company controlled by the Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, resulting in the ban or editing of numerous songs.2JJ was a product of the progressive media policies of the Whitlam Government of 1972–75, combined influences from several earlier ABC programs, such as "Room to Move", as well as the freewheeling programming policies of British pirate radio and BBC Radio 1, created to target the pirate radio audience. The inspiration gained from the UK led to Double J adopting the tradition of weekly, live-in-the-studio performances by pop and rock bands. Gough Whitlam was unable to fulfill his aspiration for the establishment of a "National Youth Radio Network", as he was controversially sacked.2JJ presenter, the first female DJ on Australian pop radio, Gayle Austin, completing a Master of Arts on Triple J's first 16 years in 2005, explained that 2JJ staff had heard of other motivations for the founding of the station: Word was the Whitlam government wanted to set the station up to woo young voters.
We heard that the ABC was worried about its audience dying off and wanted a station for young people who would grow up to be ABC listeners. Additionally, the station was one of a series of innovations that stemmed from the recommendations in the McLean Report of 1974; these included expanding radio broadcasting onto the FM band, issuing a new class of broadcasting license which permitted the establishment of community radio stations, the creation of two new stations for the ABC — 2JJ in Sydney and the short-lived 3ZZ in Melbourne. By the time 2JJ went to air, the Whitlam government was in its final months of office. Marius Webb, one of the station's co-ordinators recalls an ABC executive informing him: "You'll be on the air by January. Thank you much, I've got another meeting." On 11 November 1975, Whitlam's commission was revoked by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, sparking a double dissolution of parliament. In the subsequent 1975 federal election, Labor was defeated by the Liberal-National Party coalition, led by Malcolm Fraser.
During the more conservative media climate that emerged in the Fraser years, 2JJ staff were accused of left-wing bias. 2JJ was intended to be the first link in Whitlam's planned national youth network. It was a historic moment in Australian radio, when the station decided to hire a female disc jockey and, excluding the first experimental FM licences, was granted the first new radio licence issued in any Australian capital city since 1932. In its early years 2JJ's on-air staff were recruited from either commercial radio or other ABC stations. In another first, the roster featured presenters who did not come from a radio industry background, including singer-songwriters Bob Hudson and John J. Francis, actor Lex Marinos. Francis commenced broadcasting in the Saturday midnight-to-dawn shift in 1975, the program became so popular that it was expanded to include Friday and Sunday nights two years later; the foundation staff of January 1975 were: Webb and Ron Moss, Ros Cheney, David Ives, Sam Collins, Holger Brockman, Caroline Pringle, Bob Hudson, Mike Parker, Iven Walker, Arnold Frolows, Di Auburn, Margot Edwards, George "
A Molotov cocktail known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili, fire bomb or just Molotov, sometimes shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons. Due to the relative ease of production, Molotov cocktails have been used by street criminals, rioters, criminal gangs, urban guerrillas, hard-line militants, irregular soldiers, or regular soldiers short on equivalent military-issue weapons, they are intended to ignite rather than obliterate targets. The name "Molotov cocktail" was coined by the Finns during the Winter War, called in Finnish: polttopullo or Molotovin koktaili; the name was an insulting reference to Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov, one of the architects of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed in late August 1939. The pact with Nazi Germany was mocked by the Finns, as was much of the propaganda Molotov produced to accompany the pact, including his declaration on Soviet state radio that bombing missions over Finland were airborne humanitarian food deliveries for their starving neighbours.
The Finns sarcastically dubbed the Soviet cluster bombs "Molotov bread baskets" in reference to Molotov's propaganda broadcasts. When the hand-held bottle firebomb was developed to attack Soviet tanks, the Finns called it the "Molotov cocktail", as "a drink to go with the food". A Molotov cocktail is a breakable glass bottle containing a flammable substance such as petrol, alcohol or a napalm-like mixture, with some motor oil added, a source of ignition such as a burning cloth wick held in place by the bottle's stopper; the wick is soaked in alcohol or kerosene, rather than petrol. In action, the wick is the bottle hurled at a target such as a vehicle or fortification; when the bottle smashes on impact, the ensuing cloud of fuel droplets and vapour is ignited by the attached wick, causing an immediate fireball followed by spreading flames as the remainder of the fuel is consumed. Other flammable liquids such as diesel fuel, turpentine, jet fuel, isopropyl alcohol have been used in place of, or combined with petrol.
Thickening agents such as solvents, foam polystyrene, baking soda, petroleum jelly, strips of tyre tubing, nitrocellulose, XPS foam, motor oil, rubber cement and dish soap have been added to help the burning liquid adhere to the target and create clouds of thick, choking smoke. In addition, toxic substances are known to be added to the mixture, in order to create a suffocating or poisonous gas on the resulting explosion turning the Molotov cocktail into a makeshift chemical weapon; these include bleach, various strong acids, among others. Improvised incendiary devices of this type were used for the first time in the Spanish Civil War between July 1936 and April 1939, before they became known as "Molotov cocktails." In 1936, General Francisco Franco ordered Spanish Nationalist forces to use the weapon against Soviet T-26 tanks supporting the Spanish Republicans in a failed assault on the Nationalist stronghold of Seseña, near Toledo, 40 km south of Madrid. After that, both sides used petrol-soaked blankets with some success.
Tom Wintringham, a veteran of the International Brigades publicised his recommended method of using them: We made use of "petrol bombs" as follows: take a 2lb glass jam jar. Fill with petrol. Take a heavy curtain, half a blanket, or some other heavy material. Wrap this over the mouth of the jar, tie it round the neck with string, leave the ends of the material hanging free; when you want to use it have somebody standing by with a light. Put a corner of the material down in front of you, turn the bottle over so that petrol soaks out round the mouth of the bottle and drips on to this corner of the material. Turn the bottle right way up again, hold it in your right hand, most of the blanket bunched beneath the bottle, with your left hand take the blanket near the corner, wetted with petrol. Wait for your tank; when near enough, your pal lights the petrol soaked corner of the blanket. Throw the bottle and blanket as soon as this corner is flaring. See that it drops in front of the tank; the blanket should wind itself round an axle.
The bottle will smash, but the petrol should soak the blanket well enough to make a healthy fire which will burn the rubber wheels on which the tank track runs, set fire to the carburetor or frizzle the crew. Do not play with these things, they are dangerous. The Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border conflict of 1939 ostensibly between Mongolia and Manchukuo, saw heavy fighting between Japanese and Soviet forces. Short of anti-tank equipment, Japanese infantry attacked Soviet tanks with gasoline-filled bottles. Japanese infantrymen claimed that several hundred Soviet tanks had been destroyed this way, though Soviet loss records do not support this assessment. On 30 November 1939, the Soviet Union attacked Finland, starting what came to be known as the Winter War; the Finns perfected the design and tactical use of the petrol bomb. The fuel for the Molotov cocktail was refined to a sticky mixture of gasoline, kerosene and potassium chlorate. Further refinements included the attachment of wind-proof matches or a phial of chemicals that would ignite on breakage, thereby removing the need to pre-ignite the bottle, leaving the bottle about one-third empty was found to make breaking more likely.
A British War Office report dated June 1940 noted that: The Finns' policy was to allow the Russian tanks to