Gertrude Stein was an American novelist, poet and art collector. Born in the Allegheny West neighborhood of Pittsburgh, raised in Oakland, Stein moved to Paris in 1903, made France her home for the remainder of her life, she hosted a Paris salon, where the leading figures of modernism in literature and art, such as Pablo Picasso, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sinclair Lewis, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson and Henri Matisse, would meet. In 1933, Stein published a quasi-memoir of her Paris years, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, written in the voice of Alice B. Toklas, her life partner; the book became a literary bestseller and vaulted Stein from the relative obscurity of the cult-literature scene into the limelight of mainstream attention. Two quotes from her works have become known: "Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose," and "there is no there there", with the latter taken to be a reference to her childhood home of Oakland, her books include Q. E. D. about a lesbian romantic affair involving several of Stein's friends, Fernhurst, a fictional story about a love triangle, Three Lives, The Making of Americans.
In Tender Buttons, Stein commented on lesbian sexuality. Her activities during World War II have been the subject of commentary; as a Jew living in Nazi-occupied France, Stein may have only been able to sustain her lifestyle as an art collector, indeed to ensure her physical safety, through the protection of the powerful Vichy government official and Nazi collaborator Bernard Faÿ. After the war ended, Stein expressed admiration for another Nazi collaborator, Vichy leader Marshal Pétain; some have argued that certain accounts of Stein's wartime activities have amounted to a "witch hunt". Stein, the youngest of a family of five children, was born on February 3, 1874, in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, to upper-middle-class Jewish parents and Amelia Stein, her father was a wealthy businessman with real estate holdings. German and English were spoken in their home; when Stein was three years old and her family moved to Vienna, Paris. Accompanied by governesses and tutors, the Steins endeavored to imbue their children with the cultured sensibilities of European history and life.
After a year-long sojourn abroad, they returned to America in 1878, settling in Oakland, where her father became director of San Francisco's street car lines, the Market Street Railway, in an era when public transportation was a owned enterprise. Stein attended First Hebrew Congregation of Oakland's Sabbath school. During their residence in Oakland, they lived for four years on a ten-acre lot, Stein built many memories of California there, she would go on excursions with her brother, with whom she developed a close relationship. Stein found formal schooling in Oakland unstimulating, but she read often: Shakespeare, Scott, Smollett and more; when Stein was 14 years old, her mother died. Three years her father died as well. Stein's eldest brother, Michael Stein took over the family business holdings and in 1892 arranged for Gertrude and another sister, Bertha, to live with their mother's family in Baltimore. Here she lived with her uncle David Bachrach, who in 1877 had married Gertrude's maternal aunt, Fanny Keyser.
In Baltimore, Stein met Claribel and Etta Cone, who held Saturday evening salons that she would emulate in Paris. The Cones shared an appreciation for art and conversation about it and modeled a domestic division of labor that Stein would replicate in her relationship with Alice B. Toklas. Stein attended Radcliffe College an annex of Harvard University, from 1893 to 1897 and was a student of psychologist William James. With James's supervision and another student, Leon Mendez Solomons, performed experiments on normal motor automatism, a phenomenon hypothesized to occur in people when their attention is divided between two simultaneous intelligent activities such as writing and speaking; these experiments yielded examples of writing that appeared to represent "stream of consciousness", a psychological theory attributed to James and the style of modernist authors Virginia Woolf and James Joyce. In 1934, behavioral psychologist B. F. Skinner interpreted Stein's difficult poem Tender Buttons as an example of normal motor automatism.
In a letter Stein wrote during the 1930s, she explained that she never accepted the theory of automatic writing: "here can be automatic movements, but not automatic writing. Writing for the normal person is too complicated an activity to be indulged in automatically." She did publish an article in a psychological journal on "spontaneous automatic writing" while at Radcliffe, but "the unconscious and the intuition never concerned her."At Radcliffe, she began a lifelong friendship with Mabel Foote Weeks, whose correspondence traces much of the progression of Stein's life. In 1897, Stein spent the summer in Woods Hole, studying embryology at the Marine Biological Laboratory, she received her A. B. magna cum laude from Radcliffe in 1898. William James, who had become a committed mentor to Stein at Radcliffe, recognizing her intellectual potential, declaring her his "most brilliant woman student", encouraged Stein to enroll in medical school. Although Stein professed no interest in either the theory or practice of medicine, she enrolled at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1897.
In her fourth year, Stein failed an important course, lost interest, left. Medical school had bored her, she had spent many of her evenings not applying herself to her studies, but taking long walks and atten
The New Republic
The New Republic is an American magazine of commentary on politics and the arts, published since 1914, with influence on American political and cultural thinking. Founded in 1914 by leaders of the progressive movement, it attempted to find a balance between a humanitarian progressivism and an intellectual scientism, discarded the latter. Through the 1980s and'90s, the magazine incorporated elements of "Third Way" neoliberalism and conservatism. In 2014, two years after Chris Hughes, a co-founder of Facebook, purchased the magazine, he ousted its editor and attempted to remake its format and partisan stances, provoking the resignation of the majority of its editors and writers. In early 2016, Hughes announced he was putting the magazine up for sale, indicating the need for "new vision and leadership", it was sold in February 2016 to Win McCormack. Domestically, The New Republic as of 2011 supported a modern liberal stance on fiscal and social issues, according to former editor Franklin Foer, who stated that it "invented the modern usage of the term'liberal', it's one of our historical legacies and obligations to be involved in the ongoing debate over what liberalism means and stands for."
As of 2004, some, like Anne Kossedd and Steven Rendall, contended that it was not as liberal as it had been before 1974. The magazine's outlook was associated with the Democratic Leadership Council and "New Democrats" such as former US President Bill Clinton and Connecticut Senator Joseph Lieberman, who received the magazine's endorsement in the 2004 Democratic primary; the magazine endorsed Barack Obama in the 2008 general election. Prior to 2014, while defending federal programs like Medicare and the EPA, it advocated some policies that, while seeking to achieve the ends of traditional social welfare programs used market solutions as their means, so were called "business-friendly". Typical of some of the policies supported by both The New Republic and the DLC during the 1990s were increased funding for the Earned Income Tax Credit program and reform of the Federal welfare system, supply-side economics the idea of reducing higher marginal income tax rates, which received heavy criticism from senior editor Jonathan Chait.
In its current incarnation, The New Republic is in favor of universal health care. On certain high-profile social issues, such as its support of same-sex marriage, The New Republic could be considered more progressive than the mainstream of the Democratic Party establishment. In its March 2007 issue, The New Republic ran an article by Paul Starr where he provided a definition of modern democratic liberalism: Liberalism wagers that a state... can be strong but constrained – strong because constrained... Rights to education and other requirements for human development and security aim to advance equal opportunity and personal dignity and to promote a creative and productive society. To guarantee those rights, liberals have supported a wider social and economic role for the state, counterbalanced by more robust guarantees of civil liberties and a wider social system of checks and balances anchored in an independent press and pluralistic society; the New Republic does not focus on domestic policy, as it brings analysis and commentary of various international affairs.
Support for Israel was a strong theme in The New Republic under Martin Peretz, the former owner of The New Republic: "Support for Israel is deep down an expression of America's best view of itself." According to journalism professor Eric Alterman: Nothing has been as consistent about the past 34 years of The New Republic as the magazine's devotion to Peretz's own understanding of what is good for Israel... It is not too much to say that all of Peretz's political beliefs are subordinate to his commitment to Israel's best interests, these interests as Peretz defines them always involve more war. Unsigned editorials prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq expressed strong support for military action, citing the threat of weapons of mass destruction as well as humanitarian concerns. Since the end of major military operations, unsigned editorials, while critical of the handling of the war, have continued to justify the invasion on humanitarian grounds, but no longer maintain that Iraq's WMD facilities posed any threat to the United States.
In the November 27, 2006 issue, the editors wrote: At this point, it seems beside the point to say this: The New Republic regrets its early support for this war. The past three years have complicated our idealism and reminded us of the limits of American power and our own wisdom. On June 23, 2006, in response to criticism of the magazine from the blog Daily Kos, Martin Peretz wrote the following as a summary of The New Republic's stances on then-recent issues: The New Republic is much against the Bush tax programs, against Bush Social Security "reform", against cutting the inheritance tax, for radical health care changes, passionate about Gore-type environmentalism, for a woman's entitlement to an abortion, for gay marriage, for an increase in the minimum wage, for pursuing aggressively alternatives to our present reliance on oil and our present tax preferences for gas-guzzling automobiles. We were against the confirmation of Justice Alito; the magazine has published two articles concerning income inequality criticizing conservative economists for their attempts to deny the existence or negative effect increasing income inequality is having on the United States.
In its May 2007 issue the magazine ran an editorial pointing to the humanitarian beliefs of liberals as being responsible for the recent plight of the American left. In another article The New Republic fav
Thomas Lanier Williams III, known by his pen name Tennessee Williams, was an American playwright. Along with contemporaries Eugene O'Neill and Arthur Miller, he is considered among the three foremost playwrights of 20th-century American drama. After years of obscurity, at age 33 he became famous with the success of The Glass Menagerie in New York City; this play reflected his own unhappy family background. It was the first of a string of successes, including A Streetcar Named Desire, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Sweet Bird of Youth. With his work, he attempted a new style that did not appeal to audiences. Increasing alcohol and drug dependence inhibited his creative expression, his drama A Streetcar Named Desire is numbered on short lists of the finest American plays of the 20th century alongside Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. Much of Williams' most acclaimed work has been adapted for the cinema, he wrote short stories, essays and a volume of memoirs.
In 1979, four years before his death, Williams was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. Thomas Lanier Williams III was born in Columbus, Mississippi of English and Huguenot ancestry, the second child of Edwina Dakin and Cornelius Coffin "C. C." Williams. His father was a traveling shoe salesman who became alcoholic and was away from home, his mother, was the daughter of Rose O. Dakin, a music teacher, the Reverend Walter Dakin, an Episcopal priest from Illinois, assigned to a parish in Clarksdale, shortly after Williams' birth. Williams lived in his parsonage with his family for much of his early childhood and was close to his grandparents, he had two siblings, older sister Rose Isabel Williams and younger brother Walter Dakin Williams.. As a young child Williams nearly died from a case of diphtheria that left him weak and confined to his house during a period of recuperation that lasted a year. At least in part as a result of his illness, he was less robust. Cornelius Williams, a descendant of hearty East Tennessee pioneer stock, had a violent temper and was a man prone to use his fists.
He regarded. Edwina, locked in an unhappy marriage, focused her overbearing attention entirely on her frail young son. Many critics and historians note that Williams drew from his own dysfunctional family in much of his writing; when Williams was eight years old, his father was promoted to a job at the home office of the International Shoe Company in St. Louis, Missouri, his mother's continual search for what she considered to be an appropriate address, as well as his father's heavy drinking and loudly turbulent behavior, caused them to move numerous times around St. Louis. Williams attended a setting he referred to in his play The Glass Menagerie, he studied at University City High School. At age 16, Williams won third prize for an essay published in Smart Set, titled "Can a Good Wife Be a Good Sport?" A year his short story "The Vengeance of Nitocris" was published in the August 1928 issue of the magazine Weird Tales. That same year he first visited Europe with his maternal grandfather Dakin.
From 1929 to 1931, Williams attended the University of Missouri in Columbia where he enrolled in journalism classes. He distracted by unrequited love for a girl. Soon he began entering his poetry, essays and plays in writing contests, hoping to earn extra income, his first submitted play was Beauty followed by Hot Milk at Three in the Morning. As recognition for Beauty, a play about rebellion against religious upbringing, he became the first freshman to receive honorable mention in a writing competition. At University of Missouri, Williams joined the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity, but he did not fit in well with his fraternity brothers. After he failed a military training course in his junior year, his father pulled him out of school and put him to work at the International Shoe Company factory. Although Williams hated the monotony, the job forced him out of the gentility of his upbringing, his dislike of his new 9-to-5 routine drove Williams to write prodigiously. He set a goal of writing one story a week.
Williams worked on weekends and late into the night. His mother recalled his intensity: Tom would go to his room with black coffee and cigarettes and I would hear the typewriter clicking away at night in the silent house; some mornings when I walked in to wake him for work, I would find him sprawled dressed across the bed, too tired to remove his clothes. Overworked and lacking further success with his writing, by his 24th birthday Williams had suffered a nervous breakdown and left his job, he drew from memories of this period, a particular factory co-worker, to create the character Stanley Kowalski in A Streetcar Named Desire. By the mid-1930s his mother separated from his father due to his worsening alcoholism and abusive temper, they never divorced. In 1936 Williams enrolled at Washington University in St. Louis where he wrote the play Vashya. In the autumn of 1937, he transferred to the University of Iowa, where he graduated with a B. A. in English in August 1938. He studied at the Dramatic Workshop of The New School in New York City.
Speaking of his early days as a playwright and an early collaborative play called Cairo, Bombay!, Williams wrote, "The laughter... enchanted me. And there the theatre and I found each other for better and for worse. I know it's the only thing that saved my life
A crossword is a word puzzle that takes the form of a square or a rectangular grid of white-and black-shaded squares. The game's goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words or phrases, by solving clues, which lead to the answers. In languages that are written left-to-right, the answer words and phrases are placed in the grid from left to right and from top to bottom; the shaded squares are used to separate the phrases. Crossword grids such as those appearing in most North American newspapers and magazines feature solid areas of white squares; every letter is checked and each answer must contain at least three letters. In such puzzles shaded squares are limited to about one-sixth of the total. Crossword grids elsewhere, such as in Britain, South Africa and Australia, have a lattice-like structure, with a higher percentage of shaded squares, leaving about half the letters in an answer unchecked. For example, if the top row has an answer running all the way across, there will be no across answers in the second row.
Another tradition in puzzle design is that the grid should have 180-degree rotational symmetry, so that its pattern appears the same if the paper is turned upside down. Most puzzle designs require that all white cells be orthogonally contiguous; the design of Japanese crossword grids follows two additional rules: that shaded cells may not share a side and that the corner squares must be white. The "Swedish-style" grid uses no clue numbers, as the clues are contained in the cells which do not contain answers. Arrows indicate in which direction the clues have to be answered: horizontal; this style of grid is used in several countries other than Sweden in magazines, but in daily newspapers. The grid has one or more photos replacing a block of squares as a clue to one or several answers, for example, the name of a pop star, or some kind of rhyme or phrase that can be associated with the photo; these puzzles have no symmetry in the grid but instead have a common theme Substantial variants from the usual forms exist.
Two of the common ones are barred crosswords, which use bold lines between squares to separate answers, circular designs, with answers entered either radially or in concentric circles. "Free form" crosswords, which have simple, asymmetric designs, are seen on school worksheets, children's menus, other entertainment for children. Grids forming shapes other than squares are occasionally used. Puzzles are one of several standard sizes. For example, many weekday newspaper puzzles are 15×15 squares, while weekend puzzles may be 21×21, 23×23, or 25×25; the New York Times puzzles set a common pattern for American crosswords by increasing in difficulty throughout the week: their Monday puzzles are the easiest and the puzzles get harder each day until Saturday. Their larger Sunday puzzle is about the same level of difficulty as a weekday-size Thursday puzzle; this has led U. S. solvers to use the day of the week as a shorthand when describing how hard a puzzle is: e.g. an easy puzzle may be referred to as a "Monday" or a "Tuesday", a medium-difficulty puzzle as a "Wednesday", a difficult puzzle as a "Saturday".
One of the smallest crosswords in general distribution is a 4×4 crossword compiled daily by John Wilmes, distributed online by USA Today as "QuickCross" and by Universal Uclick as "PlayFour". Clues appear outside the grid, divided into an Across list and a Down list. For example, the answer to a clue labeled "17 Down" is entered with the first letter in the cell numbered "17", proceeding down from there. Numbers are never repeated; some Japanese crosswords are numbered from top to bottom down each column, starting with the leftmost column and proceeding right. Capitalization of answer letters is conventionally ignored; this ensures a proper name can have its initial capital letter checked with a non-capitalizable letter in the intersecting clue. Diacritical markings in foreign loanwords are ignored for similar reasons; some crossword clues, called straight or quick clues, are simple definitions of the answers. Some clues may feature anagrams, these are explicitly described as such. A straight clue is not in itself sufficient to distinguish between several possible answers, either because multiple synonymous answers may fit or because the clue itself is a homonym, so the solver must make use of checks to establish the correct answer with certainty.
For example, the answer to the clue "PC key" for a three-letter answer could be ESC, ALT, TAB, DEL, or INS, so until a check is filled in, giving at least one of the letters, the correct answer cannot be determined. In most American-style crosswords, the majority of the clues in the puzzle are straight clues, with the remainder being one of the other types described be
Rob Walker (journalist)
Rob Walker is an American author and freelance journalist. He writes "The Workologist" column for the New York Times Sunday Business section and blogs for Design Observer, he is the former "Consumed" columnist for the New York Times Magazine, where he was a contributing writer from 2004-2012, coined the word "murketing." Walker has written for and worked as an editor at such publications as Slate.com, New York Times Magazine and The American Lawyer. Walker's 2005 book, Letters From New Orleans, was compiled from essays emailed "to interested parties" about life in New Orleans, where he lived in the early 2000s. Subjects covered in the book include celebratory gunfire, rich people, the riddle of race relations in our time, fine dining, urban decay, the nature of identity, Gennifer Flowers, mortality. All author proceeds from Letters from New Orleans went to relief organizations such as the Red Cross and others working with victims of Hurricane Katrina. In 2008, Walker published book exploring themes similar to those in his "Consumed" columns called Buying In: The Secret Dialogue Between What We Buy and Who We Are It was reviewed favorably and received much attention for its discussion of the term ‘’murketing’’ which Walker had coined.
Walker has written a number of comic book stories published under the name R. Walker. A collection of his satirical stories of the business world was published in 2001 as Titans of Finance: True Tales of Money & Business. Collaborating with artist Josh Neufeld, Walker tells the tales of Wall Street's most well-known Icaruses; the stories are based on press accounts, with no embellishment. Among those profiled are Ronald O. Perelman, Al Dunlap, Mike Vranos, Victor Niederhoffer. Titans of Finance received a good deal of attention from the mainstream business press, including Fortune Small Business, U. S. News & World Report,Kiplinger's Personal Finance and The New York Times. Walker has participated in or led a number of artistic projects including the Hypothetical Development Organization which explored renderings of purely hypothetical possibilities for blighted buildings in New Orleans, the Unconsumption Project, which tracks mindful consumption and creative reuse, he started the MLK BLVD open source journalism project housed on Flickr.com which looks at the streets by that name all over the word.
The Significant Objects project, where writers are paired with an interesting object curated by Walker and co-founder Joshua Glenn, about which he or she writes a fictional story to be sold on Ebay, has been extensively covered in the press, including on NPR's "All Things Considered," the "Paper Cuts" blog of the New York Times Book Review, the Chicago Tribune, The Economist online and employed the talents of such writers as Kurt Andersen, Nicholson Baker, William Gibson, Myla Goldberg, Ann Nocenti, Luc Sante, Colson Whitehead. A book compiling 100 of these stories was published by Fantagraphics Books in 2012; the "Consumed" column, which appeared weekly in The New York Times Magazine, examined consumer behavior from a hybrid business-and-anthropology standpoint. Each column discussed a new consumer trend; the column began in 2004, ended in 2011. Walker is a 1990 graduate of the University of Texas at Austin, is married to photographer and designer Ellen Susan. Significant Objects: 100 Extraordinary Stories About Ordinary Things, with Joshua Glenn ISBN 978-1606995259 Buying In: The Secret Dialogue Between What We Buy and Who We Are ISBN 1-4000-6391-4 Where Were You?
Letters From New Orleans ISBN 1-891053-01-9 Titans of Finance: True Tales of Money & Business ISBN 978-1-891867-05-7 "Brian Lehrer Show" interview on WNYC radio Gothamist interview Core77.com interview Official website Video discussion/debate with Walker and Will Wilkinson on Bloggingheads.tv
Will Shortz is an American puzzle creator and editor, crossword puzzle editor for The New York Times. Will Shortz was raised on an Arabian horse farm in Crawfordsville, Indiana. From an early age he was drawn to wordplay, at 13 wrote to Language on Vacation author Dmitri Borgmann for advice on how to pursue a career in puzzles, he graduated from Indiana University in 1974, is the only person known to hold a college degree in enigmatology, the study of puzzles. Shortz achieved this by designing his own curriculum through Indiana University's Individualized Major Program, he earned a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Virginia School of Law, but forewent the bar exam and began a career in puzzles instead. Shortz began his career at Penny Press Magazines moved to Games magazine for 15 years, serving as its editor from 1989–1993, he has been the crossword puzzle editor for The New York Times since 1993, has been the puzzle master on NPR's Weekend Edition Sunday since the program was started in 1987.
He is the founder of the American Crossword Puzzle Tournament, has served as its director since that time. He founded the World Puzzle Championship in 1992 and is a director of the U. S. Puzzle Team. Shortz is the author or editor of more than 100 books and owns over 20,000 puzzle books and magazines dating back to 1545 the world's largest private library on the subject, he is a historian of the National Puzzlers' League. Shortz provided the puzzle clues, he has said that his favorite crossword of all time is the Election Day crossword of November 5, 1996, designed by Jeremiah Farrell. It had two correct solutions with the same set of clues, one saying that the "Lead story in tomorrow's newspaper" would be "BOB DOLE ELECTED", the other correct solution saying "CLINTON ELECTED", his favourite individual clue is "It might turn into a different story". Shortz resides in New York, where he works from home, he is an avid table tennis player. In May 2011, with Barbadian champion Robert Roberts, he opened one of the largest table tennis clubs in the Northeast in Pleasantville.
In 2012, Shortz set a goal for himself to play table tennis every day for a year, but surpassed his goal, playing for 1000 consecutive days. In February 2009, Shortz helped introduce the KenKen puzzle into The New York Times. In 2013, Shortz lent his name and talents in puzzle writing and editing to a new bimonthly publication entitled Will Shortz' WordPlay, published by PennyPress. In March 2016, FiveThirtyEight reported on allegations of plagiarism regarding USA Today editor Timothy Parker's use of themes and grids published in the New York Times; the Times reported on the story, in which Shortz is quoted as saying: "When the same theme answers appear in the same order from one publication to the next, that makes you look closer. When they appear with the same clues, that looks suspicious, and when it happens then you know it's plagiarism." The 2006 documentary Wordplay by Patrick Creadon focuses on Shortz and the American Crossword Puzzle Tournament. Various famous fans of his puzzles such as Bill Clinton, Ken Burns, Jon Stewart, Daniel Okrent, Indigo Girls and Mike Mussina appear in the film.
Shortz has been a guest on a number of TV shows, including Martha Stewart Living, The Daily Show, The Colbert Report. He has appeared on Millionaire as an expert for the "Ask the Expert" lifeline, he appeared on an episode of The Simpsons titled "Homer and Lisa Exchange Cross Words", which first aired on November 16, 2008. He appeared in Dinner: Impossible as himself, challenging the chef to create dishes that mimic common English idioms at the annual American Crossword Puzzle Tournament; the episode aired on May 6, 2009. He appeared on an episode of How I Met Your Mother titled "Robots Versus Wrestlers", which first aired on May 10, 2010 during season 5, he appeared as himself at an upscale dinner party that included Arianna Huffington and Peter Bogdanovich playing themselves. Shortz is a weekly guest on NPR's Weekend Edition Sunday where he hosts the Sunday Puzzle, a cooperative game between the show's host and one of the show's listeners; the lucky player is picked randomly from a group of submissions containing the correct answer to a qualifier puzzle issued the week before.
On December 18, 2015 he presented the answers on Jeopardy! in the category "The New York Times Crossword". Shortz was featured on HBO's Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel. Shortz gave the commencement address at his alma mater, Indiana University, in May 2008. In May 2010, Shortz was given an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from Wabash College in Crawfordsville, Indiana. In May 2018, Shortz was given an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from Indiana University, his alma mater. A Puzzling Occupation from the American Crossword Puzzle Tournament Opens New Table Tennis Club in Westchester 2011 Bookologist Interviews Will Shortz About Crossword Puzzle Collecting American Crossword Puzzle Tournament New York Times crosswords some sample puzzles and crossword forums are free.
Kwame Anthony Appiah
Kwame Akroma-Ampim Kusi Anthony Appiah is a British-born Ghanaian-American philosopher, cultural theorist, novelist whose interests include political and moral theory, the philosophy of language and mind, African intellectual history. Appiah was the Laurance S. Rockefeller University Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University, before moving to New York University in 2014, he holds an appointment at the NYU Department of Philosophy and NYU's School of Law. Appiah was born in London, England, to Peggy Cripps, a British art historian and writer of English heritage, Joseph Emmanuel Appiah, a lawyer and politician from the Asante region, once part of the British Gold Coast colony but now part of Ghana. For two years Joe Appiah was the leader of a new opposition party, made by the country's three opposing parties he was the president of the Ghana Bar Association. Between 1977 and 1978, he was Ghana's representative at the United Nations, he died in an Accra hospital in 1990. Anthony Appiah was raised in Kumasi and educated at Bryanston School and Clare College, where he earned his BA and PhD degree in philosophy.
He has three sisters: Isobel and Abena. As a child, he spent a good deal of time in England, staying with his grandmother Dame Isobel Cripps, widow of the English statesman Sir Stafford Cripps. Appiah's mother's family has a long political tradition: Sir Stafford was a nephew of Beatrice Webb and was Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer under Clement Attlee. Through his grandmother Isobel Cripps, Appiah is a descendant of John Winthrop and the New England Winthrop family as one of his ancestors, Robert Winthrop, was a Loyalist during the American Revolutionary War and migrated to England, becoming a distinguished Vice Admiral in the British Navy. Through Isobel, he is descended from the British pharmacist James Crossley Eno. Through Professor Appiah's father, a Nana of the Ashanti people, he is a direct descendant of Osei Tutu, the warrior emperor of pre-colonial Ghana, whose reigning successor, the Asantehene, is a distant relative of the Appiah family. Among his African ancestors is the Ashanti nobleman Nana Akroma-Ampim I of Nyaduom, a warrior whose name the Professor now bears.
He lives with his husband, Henry Finder, in an apartment in Manhattan, a home in Pennington, New Jersey. Appiah has written about, his nephew is the actor Adetomiwa Edun. Appiah taught philosophy and African-American studies at the University of Ghana, Yale and Princeton Universities from 1981 to 1988, he was, until a Laurance S. Rockefeller University Professor of Philosophy at Princeton and was serving as the Bacon-Kilkenny Professor of Law at Fordham University in the fall of 2008. Appiah served on the board of PEN American Center and was on a panel of judges for the PEN/Newman's Own First Amendment Award, he has taught at Yale, Cornell and Harvard universities and lectured at many other institutions in the US, Germany and South Africa, Paris. Until the fall of 2009, he served as a trustee of Ashesi University College in Ghana, he is the professor of philosophy and law at NYU. His Cambridge dissertation explored the foundations of probabilistic semantics. In 1992, Appiah published In My Father's House, which won the Herskovitz Prize for African Studies in English.
Among his books are Colour Conscious, The Ethics of Identity, Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. He has been a close collaborator with Henry Louis Gates Jr. with whom he edited Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African-American Experience. Appiah was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1995. In 2008, Appiah published Experiments in Ethics, in which he reviews the relevance of empirical research to ethical theory. In the same year, he was recognized for his contributions to racial and religious relations when Brandeis University awarded him the first Joseph B. and Toby Gittler Prize. As well as his academic work, Appiah has published several works of fiction, his first novel, Avenging Angel, set at the University of Cambridge, involved a murder among the Cambridge Apostles. Appiah's second and third novels are Another Death in Venice. Appiah has been nominated for, or received, several honours, he was the 2009 finalist in the arts and humanities for the Eugene R. Gannon Award for the Continued Pursuit of Human Advancement.
In 2010, he was named by Foreign Policy magazine on its list of top global thinkers. On February 13, 2012, Appiah was awarded the National Humanities Medal at a ceremony at the White House. Appiah chairs the jury for the Berggruen Prize, serves on the Berggruen Institute's Philosophy & Culture Center's Academic Board. Appiah argues that the formative denotation of culture is preceded by the efficacy of intellectual interchange. From this position, his views on the efficacy of organizations such as UNICEF and Oxfam are notable for their duality: on the one hand he seems to appreciate the immediate action these organizations provide while on the other hand he points out the long-term futility of such intervention, his focus is, instead, on the long-term political and economic development of nations according to the Western capitalist/ democratic model, an approach that relies on continued gro