SubUrbia is a 1996 American comedy-drama film written by Eric Bogosian, based on his play of the same name, directed by Richard Linklater. It follows the relationships between a few young adults as they spend their time standing on "the corner" outside a local convenience store. Bogosian based the story on his own experiences growing up in Woburn, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston; the convenience store setting is based on the 7-11 in the "Four Corners" section of the west side of Woburn, the high-school fight song, sung in one scene is the actual Woburn High fight song. Three years out of high school in the fictional Burnfield, four friends are in the daily habit of hanging out drinking by the garbage dumpster of a corner convenience store taunting the foreign-born store owner/operator, married couple Nazeer and Pakeesa; the film's main character, Jeff, is an aimless soul unsure of his future since dropping out of college. Jeff is dating Sooze, a student at the local community college who plans to leave Burnfield and study visual arts in New York City.
Jeff's best friends are Tim. Tim honorably discharged from the Air Force, is a troubled heavy-drinker with a knack for shooting off his mouth. Sooze's friend Bee-Bee is a recovering alcoholic; this particular evening, the group are expecting a visit from a high school friend, Neil "Pony" Moynihan, lead singer for Dreamgirl, a rock band, on a stadium tour. Dreamgirl performed in Burnfield that night. Pony arrives with Dreamgirl's publicist. Erica reveals how excited Pony has been about seeing the gang and most of the group is glad to see him, although some of them are bitter and jealous of his recent success; as the expanded group hangs out beside the store, their actions and conversations show that they all are contemplating what they want to do with the rest of their lives. By the end of the night, Bee-Bee is in medical trouble after drinking an entire bottle of hard liquor. Buff is going to Los Angeles to shoot a Dreamgirl music video. Sooze has left town with Pony. Tim has been arrested and released, Jeff is berated by Nazeer for "throw it all away".
Jayce Bartok as Pony Amie Carey as Sooze Nicky Katt as Tim Ajay Naidu as Nazeer Parker Posey as Erica Giovanni Ribisi as Jeff Samia Shoaib as Pakeesa Dina Spybey as Bee-Bee Steve Zahn as BuffActors Samia Shoaib and Steve Zahn reprise their roles from the original stage production at the Mitzi E. Newhouse Theater. In the stage play, the character of Nazeer was named Norman. In addition to existing songs by various artists heard during the film, Sonic Youth composed and performed new songs for the film; the film's score was composed by Stewart Copeland. "Unheard Music" – Elastica & Stephen Malkmus "Bee-Bee's Song" – Sonic Youth "Bulletproof Cupid" – Girls Against Boys "Feather in Your Cap" – Beck "Berry Meditation" – U. N. K. L. E. "I'm Not Like Everybody Else" – Boss Hog "Cult" – Skinny Puppy "Does Your Hometown Care?" – Superchunk "Sunday" – Sonic Youth "Human Cannonball" – Butthole Surfers "Tabla in Suburbia" – Sonic Youth "Hot Day" – The Flaming Lips "Psychic Hearts" – Thurston Moore "Town Without Pity" – Gene Pitney The film earned a ranking of 64% on Rotten Tomatoes.
Roger Ebert gave the film a positive review giving the film 31⁄2 stars out of 4, calling it "dark and disturbing". Ajay Naidu was nominated for Best Supporting Male at the 1997 Independent Spirit Awards but lost to Jason Lee. SubUrbia on IMDb SubUrbia at Box Office Mojo SubUrbia at Rotten Tomatoes
Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies is an American movie-oriented pay-TV network operated by Warner Bros. Entertainment, a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Launched in 1994, TCM is headquartered at Turner's Techwood broadcasting campus in the Midtown business district of Atlanta, Georgia; the channel's programming consisted of classic theatrically released feature films from the Turner Entertainment film library – which comprises films from Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, TCM licenses films from other studios, shows more recent films; the channel is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, Malta, Latin America, Italy, Cyprus, the Nordic countries, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific. In 1986, eight years before the launch of Turner Classic Movies, Ted Turner acquired the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio for $1.5 billion. Concerns over Turner Entertainment's corporate debt load resulted in Turner selling the studio that October back to Kirk Kerkorian, from whom Turner had purchased the studio less than a year before.
As part of the deal, Turner Entertainment retained ownership of MGM's library of films released up to May 9, 1986. Turner Broadcasting System was split into two companies; the film library of Turner Entertainment would serve as the base form of programming for TCM upon the network's launch. Before the creation of Turner Classic Movies, films from Turner's library of movies aired on the Turner Broadcasting System's advertiser-supported cable network TNT – along with colorized versions of black-and-white classics such as The Maltese Falcon. Turner Classic Movies debuted on April 14, 1994, at 6 p.m. Eastern Time, with Ted Turner launching the channel at a ceremony in New York City's Times Square district; the date and time were chosen for their historical significance as "the exact centennial anniversary of the first public movie showing in New York City". The first movie broadcast on TCM was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, the same film that served as the debut broadcast of its sister channel TNT six years earlier in October 1988.
At the time of its launch, TCM was available to one million cable television subscribers. The network served as a competitor to AMC—which at the time was known as "American Movie Classics" and maintained a identical format to TCM, as both networks focused on films released prior to 1970 and aired them in an uncut and commercial-free format. AMC had broadened its film content to feature colorized and more recent films by 2002. In 1996, Turner Broadcasting System merged with Time Warner which, besides placing Turner Classic Movies and Warner Bros. Entertainment under the same corporate umbrella gave TCM access to Warner Bros.' Library of films released after 1950. In the early 2000s, AMC abandoned its commercial-free format, which led to TCM being the only movie-oriented basic cable channel to devote its programming to classic films without commercial interruption or content editing. On March 4, 2019, Time Warner's new owner AT&T announced a planned reorganization that would dissolve Turner Broadcasting.
TCM, along with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, over-the-top video company Otter Media, will be moved directly under Warner Bros.. Speaking about the move, then-Warner Bros. CEO Kevin Tsujihara explained that TCM was "a natural fit with Warner Bros." due the company's massive film library. In 2000, TCM started the annual Young Composers Film Competition, inviting aspiring composers to participate in a judged competition that offers the winner of each year's competition the opportunity to score a restored, feature-length silent film as a grand prize, mentored by a well-known composer, with the new work subsequently premiering on the network; as of 2006, films that have been rescored include the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film Camille, two Lon Chaney films: 1921's The Ace of Hearts and 1928's Laugh, Clown and Greta Garbo's 1926 film The Temptress. In April 2010, Turner Classic Movies held the first TCM Classic Film Festival, an event—now held annually—at the Grauman's Chinese Theater and the Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood.
Hosted by Robert Osborne, the four-day long annual festival celebrates Hollywood and its movies, featured celebrity appearances, special events, screenings of around 50 classic movies including several newly restored by The Film Foundation, an organization devoted to preserving Hollywood's classic film legacy. Turner Classic Movies operates as a commercial-free service, with the only advertisements on the network being shown between features – which advertise TCM products, network promotions for upcoming special programs and the original trailers for films that are scheduled to be broadcast on TCM, featurettes about classic film actors and actresses. In addition to this, extended breaks between features are filled with theatrically released movie trailers and classic short subjects – from series such as The Passing Parade, Crime Does Not Pay, Pete Smith Specialties, Robert Benchley – under the banner name TCM Extras (formerly On
Before Sunset is a 2004 American romantic drama film, the sequel to Before Sunrise. Like its predecessor, the film was directed by Richard Linklater, he shares screenplay credit with actors Ethan Hawke and Julie Delpy, with Kim Krizan, the screenwriter for the first film featuring these two characters. The film picks up the story in Before Sunrise of the young American man and French woman who spent a passionate night together in Vienna, their paths intersect nine years in Paris, the film appears to take place in real time as they spend an afternoon together. Before Sunset received broad critical acclaim and has appeared on many publications' lists of the best films of the 2000s, it was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay. The directors and lead actors collaborated on another film following these characters, Before Midnight, released in 2013 and gained acclaim. Nine years prior, Jesse Wallace, an American tourist, Céline, a university student from Paris, met on a train and had a brief encounter in Vienna.
Jesse's new novel, This Time, was inspired by that night, becomes a bestseller. During a book tour in Europe, he does a reading at the noted bookstore and Company, in Paris. Flashbacks express elements of his time with Céline in Vienna. Three journalists attend the reading to interview Jesse: one is convinced the book's main characters meet again, another that they do not, a third who wants them to but is doubtful that will occur; as Jesse speaks with the audience, his eyes wander and he sees Céline there, smiling at him. After the presentation, the bookstore manager reminds Jesse of his need to leave for the airport in about an hour for his plane. Céline and Jesse's time together is again constrained, they decide to make the best of it, their conversations soon become personal. They begin with themes of work and politics and, with increasing passion, approach their earlier feelings for each other touching on their failure to have met as planned six months after their first encounter. Jesse lies and says that he had not returned to Vienna after Céline says she did not, because her grandmother had died suddenly.
After Céline asks him why he didn't, he confesses. Since the pair had never exchanged phone numbers, they had no way to contact each other at the time, they reveal how their lives have changed during the nine years they spent apart. Jesse is married and has a son named Hank while Céline has become an advocate for the environment and has a photojournalist boyfriend, they each express dissatisfaction with their lives as they walk in Paris, their former feelings are rekindled, as their one night together looms large in memory, unmarred by ordinary trials. Jesse says his book was inspired by his hope of seeing Céline again and she says that it brought back painful memories, they pull back. Céline and Jesse arrive at the former's apartment after continuous insistence that Jesse should go before he misses his plane. Jesse persuades her to play a waltz on her guitar, about their earlier brief encounter. Jesse puts a Nina Simone CD on the stereo system, prompting Céline to dance to the song "Just in Time" as he watches her.
Céline imitates Simone, saying, "Baby... you are gonna miss that plane." Jesse smiles and says, "I know." After the filming of Before Sunrise, Linklater and Delpy discussed making a sequel. Linklater considered a version to be filmed with a much larger budget; when his proposal did not secure funding, he scaled back the concept of the movie. In a 2010 interview, Hawke said that the three had worked on several potential scripts over the years; as time passed and they did not secure funding, they adapted elements of the earlier scripts for Before Sunrise in their final draft of Before Sunset. Linklater described the process of completing the final version of the film as: We sat in a room and worked together in about a two- or three-day period, worked out a detailed outline of the whole film in this sort of real-time environment, and over the next year or so, we just started e-mailing each other and faxing. I was sort of a conduit – they would send me monologues and dialogues and scenes and ideas, I was editing and writing.
And that's. Hawke said, "It's not. We did it because we wanted to."The movie was filmed on location in Paris. It opens inside the Company bookstore on the Left Bank. Other locations include their walking through the Marais district of the 4th arrondissement, Le Pure Café in the 11th arrondissement, the Promenade Plantée park in the 12th arrondissement, on board a bateau mouche from Quai de la Tournelle to Quai Henri IV, the interior of a taxi, "Céline's apartment." Described in the film as located at 10 rue des Petites-Écuries, it was filmed in Cour de l'Étoile d'Or off rue du Faubourg St-Antoine. The movie was filmed on a budget of about US$2 million; the film is noted for its use of the Steadicam for tracking shots and its use of long takes. As the summer was one of the hottest on record, the cast and crew suffered along with the city residents, as temperatures exceeded 100 degrees F for most of the production; the film is notable for taking place in real time, i.e. the time elapsed in the story is the run time of the film.
In the fast-changing temperate Paris climate, this created challenges for the cinematographer Lee Daniel to match the color and intensity of the skies and ambient light from scene to scene. The scenes were shot in sequence, as t
Lew Temple is an American film actor, known for his roles as Locus Fender in the action film, Cal, the diner manager in the comedy-drama Waitress, Axel in the third season of The Walking Dead. Temple was raised in Texas, he was the 1982 Baseball MVP at Rollins College, graduated in 1985. Though he was too small for the big leagues, he continued with his love for baseball, snagging roles as a minor league bullpen catcher for the Seattle Mariners and Houston Astros. In 1986, he was a scout for the New York Mets, would go on to serve as Assistant Director of Minor League Operations and Scouting for the Astros until 1993. Temple has had several film roles in the horror genre, appearing in Rob Zombie's horror film, The Devils Rejects as Adam Banjo, portraying Sheriff Winston in the prequel to the remake of The Texas Chain Saw Massacre and as Noel Kluggs in Rob Zombie's slasher film, Halloween. Temple played Marv in Trailer Park of Terror, Pete in the thriller/horror film House. In 2016 he starred in Rob Zombie Slasher film 31 as Psycho-Head.
Temple's other film roles include Locus Fender in the action film Domino, a paramedic in the crime thriller Déjà Vu, the diner manager in the comedy-drama Waitress, Brian LaRue in a proof of concept for the science-fiction film The Three, Ned in the thriller Unstoppable and Montgomery Blair, a member of Abraham Lincoln's Cabinet, in the movie Saving Lincoln, which tells the President's story through the eyes of Ward Hill Lamon, a former law partner and primary bodyguard. Temple appeared in an episode of CSI: Miami as Billy Chadwick, a local loner in a grizzly bear murder case. In 2010, he appeared in an episode of NCIS: Los Angeles as Mr. Loobertz, in 2011 he appeared in an episode of Criminal Minds, in which he played a former fisherman turned part-time deliveryman called Bill Thomas, his most notable television role was on The Walking Dead as Axel, a prisoner survivor of the zombie apocalypse. In 2015 Temple received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Annual Gulf Coast Film and Video Festival.
The award is given to a distinguished actor recognized for his continuing work in the industry of film and video In 2002, Temple was let go from a movie contract because he dismissed symptoms of a serious illness. A near-death experience resulted in an examination at M. D. Anderson Hospital in Houston, where he was diagnosed with a rare form of leukemia and a forty percent chance of survival, he underwent for chemotherapy treatment. He is a leukemia survivor. In 2009, Temple was involved in a charity event for breast cancer called Bowling for Boobies. Ross, Dalton. "Lew Temple talks about the latest'Walking Dead' shocker". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 17 February 2013. Lew Temple on IMDb Lew Temple on Twitter Lew Temple at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
New Braunfels, Texas
New Braunfels is a city in Comal and Guadalupe counties in the U. S. state of Texas, located in the northeastern part of Greater San Antonio. It is 32 miles from Downtown San Antonio; the city covers 44.9 square miles and has a 2017 estimated population of 79,152. New Braunfels was established in 1845 by Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels, Commissioner General of the Adelsverein known as the Noblemen's Society. Prince Solms named the settlement in honor of his home of Germany; the Adelsverein organized hundreds of people in Germany to settle in Texas. Immigrants from Germany began arriving at Galveston in July 1844. Most traveled by ship to Indianola in December 1844, began the overland journey to the Fisher-Miller land grant purchased by Prince Solms. At the urging of John Coffee Hays, who realized the settlers would not have time to build homes and plant crops further inland before winter, as the German settlers were traveling inland along the Guadalupe River, they stopped near the Comal Springs.
Prince Solms bought two leagues of land from Rafael Garza and Maria Antonio Veramendi Garza for $1,111.00. The land was located northeast of San Antonio on El Camino Real de los Tejas and had the strong freshwater Comal Springs, known as Las Fontanas, when the Germans arrived, it was the lower portions of the Fisher-Miller land grant. The first settlers forded the Guadalupe River on Good Friday, March 21, 1845, near the present-day Faust Street bridge; as the spring of 1845 progressed, the settlers built the "Zinkenburg", a fort named for Adelsverein civil engineer Nicolaus Zink, divided the land, began building homes and planting crops. Prince Solms would lay the cornerstone for the Sophienburg, a permanent fort and center for the immigrant association. In 1844, Prince Solms was so disillusioned with the logistics of the colonization that he asked the Vereins to remove him as commissioner-general and appoint a successor; when John O. Meusebach arrived, the finances were in disarray, due in part to Prince Solms' lack of business experience and his refusal to keep financial records.
To a larger degree, the financial situation happened because the Adelsverein was an organization of noblemen with no practical backgrounds at running businesses. They were on the other side of the world and did not witness the situation with which both Prince Solms and Meusebach were dealing. Henry Francis Fisher had not supplied transport and supplies for which the Verein advanced money to him. Meusebach found Prince Solms in Galveston trying to return to Germany, detained by authorities for unpaid bills. Meusebach made good on the debts, so Prince Solms could depart. Meusebach discovered that Prince Solms' choice of the inadequate Carlshafen as a port of entry, as well as the isolated route to New Braunfels, was deliberately chosen to keep the Germans from interacting with any Americans. According to Nicolaus Zink, Prince Solms had planned to establish a German feudal state by secretly bringing in immigrants and placing them in military fortresses. Meusebach, who had renounced his own title of nobility, took a different approach and invited Americans to settle in the Vereins territory.
Prince Solms, being an officer of the Imperial Army of Austria, had kept a uniformed military unit at the ready in Indianola. Meusebach converted the military unit to a more needed work detail. A finance and business structure for the colony was put in place by Meusebach, he provided for adequate food and shelter for the colonists. On August 11, 1845, Hermann Friedrich Seele became the first teacher for the German-English school in New Braunfels. Meusebach established friendly relations with a local tribe of Waco Indians. Upon seeing his reddish-blonde hair, they called him Ma-be-quo-si-to-mu, "Chief with the burning hair of the head". In May 1846, Meusebach received a letter from Count Castell informing him 4,304 emigrants were on their way to Texas. With no funds and no new settlements, the mass of emigrants was stalled at Carlshafen. Meusebach's requests to the Verein for more money, his warnings of pending bankruptcy for the Verein, brought no results; as a last resort, Meusebach instructed D.
H. Klaener to publish the plight in the German news media. Embarrassed by the publicity, the Verein established a $60,000 letter of credit; the amount was not adequate for sustaining the total number of German emigrants in Texas, but Castell sent Philip Cappes as special commissioner to observe the situation. Cappes had been instructed by Castell to observe Meusebach and to secretly report back every detail. By the time Cappes departed in March 1847, he recommended another $200,000 be advanced. Cappes invited Henry Francis Fisher to New Braunfels, in spite of Fisher not being trustworthy to the Verein; as of February 11, 1845, Fisher had been involved in coercing newly arrived immigrants to sign documents stating their intent to depart from the Verein and align with Fisher's friend Dr. Friedrich Schubbert known as Friedrich Strubberg. Cappes was not in town when Meusebach was breakfast host to Fisher on December 31, 1846. Posters had mysteriously appeared about town maligning Meusebach, saying "Curses upon Meusebach the slave driver", inciting colonists to free themselves from his "tyranny".
A group led by Rudolph Iwonski pushed their way into Meusebach's home, colonist C. Herber brandished a whip. Herber was an alleged counterfeiter. Meusebach and Herber shared a dislike of one another; the colonists' list of demands included Meusebach resigning as commissioner-general and turning the colonization over to Fisher. Meusebach kept his composure, but the group became so heated
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the