"The Nine Billion Names of God" is a 1953 science fiction short story by British writer Arthur C. Clarke; the story was among the stories selected in 1970 by the Science Fiction Writers of America as one of the best science fiction short stories published before the creation of the Nebula Awards. It was reprinted in The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Volume One, 1929–1964. In a Tibetan lamasery, the monks seek to list all of the names of God, they believe the Universe was created for this purpose, that once this naming is completed, God will bring the Universe to an end. Three centuries ago, the monks created an alphabet in which they calculated they could encode all the possible names of God, numbering about 9,000,000,000 and each having no more than nine characters. Writing the names out by hand, as they had been doing after eliminating various nonsense combinations, would take another 15,000 years, they rent a computer capable of printing all the possible permutations, they hire two Westerners to install and program the machine.
The computer operators play along. After three months, as the job nears completion, they fear that the monks will blame the computer, by extension its operators, when nothing happens; the Westerners delay the operation of the computer so that it will complete its final print run just after their scheduled departure. After their successful departure on ponies, they pause on the mountain path on their way back to the airfield, where a plane is waiting to take them back to civilization. Under a clear night sky they estimate that it must be just about the time that the monks are pasting the final printed names into their holy books, they notice that "overhead, without any fuss, the stars were going out." In 2004, "The Nine Billion Names of God" won the retrospective Hugo Award for Best Short Story for the year 1954. Kirkus Reviews called it "quietly remarkable" and the Guardian considered it to be a "wonderful apocalyptic rib-tickler". Stating that the story "introduced many Western readers to an intriguing speculation in Oriental religions", Carl Sagan in 1978 listed "The Nine Billion Names of God" as among the "rare few science‐fiction combine a standard science‐fiction theme with a deep human sensitivity".
Gary K. Wolfe noted that the story is "patently at odds with Clarke's scientific rationalism". Paul J. Nahin has pointed out that, due to the delay imposed by the speed of light, an omniscient God would have had to destroy all the stars in the universe years earlier so that their "synchronized vanishing" would be visible at the time that the monks completed their task. So Clarke's vision of the end of the universe was not the end of the stars - it was the end of space and time, everywhere at the same moment. In 2003, Clarke reported having been told that the Dalai Lama had found the story "very amusing". Satyajit Ray, the Bengali movie pioneer translated the story into the Bengali language; the story was adapted into a 2018 short film by Dominique Filhol. Names of God Brute-force attack Portuguese singer Jorge Palma has a song named after and inspired by the story. Tower of Hanoi, a puzzle whose legendaria incorporate a similar end to the Universe. "The Library of Babel", a short story which deals with collecting all the possible permutations of a character string.
Darren Aronofsky's Pi. "Godfellas", a Futurama episode inspired by the story. "The Fife of Bodidharma", a short story by Cordwainer Smith in The Rediscovery of Man. "Seventy-Two Letters", a 2000 novelette by Ted Chiang. Carter Scholz, whose 1983 short story "Nine Billion Names of God" takes the form of an exchange of letters between Scholz and an editor, in which Scholz claims that although he rewrote Clarke's version word for word, it is an different story because the context of the 1980s was different from the context of the 1950s. See article by Arnaud Regnauld,« Du nom d’auteur au non-auteur: la signature en question dans les nouvelles de Carter Scholz », Cahiers du GRAAT n°35, « La négation: formes, conceptualisation », Stéphanie Bonnefille et Sébastien Salbayre dir. Presses de l’université François Rabelais, octobre 2006, pp.191-204 The Nine Billion Names of God title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database James Randi praising The Nine Billion Names of God as his favourite Clarke story Audio interview the day after Clarke's death
Arnved Nedkvitne is a Norwegian historian of the Middle Ages and Professor Emeritus of mediaeval history. He held the chair of Norwegian mediaeval history at the University of Trondheim from 1991 to 1993 and at the University of Oslo from 1993 to 2009, he is a member of the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters, was elected in 1993. Nedkvitne is regarded as "one of Norway's preeminent commercial historians" and as Norway's foremost mediaeval historian, his research has focused on Norwegian urban history, foreign trade, the economy of coastal communities and pre-modern social organisation. He is the foremost scholar of the relations between Norway. Born in Haugesund, Nedkvitne obtained his cand.philol. Degree in history at the University of Bergen in 1975 with a dissertation on Handelssjøfarten mellom England og Norge i høymiddelalderen, he earned his dr. philos. degree in 1983 on the thesis Utenrikshandelen fra det vestafjelske Norge. He was employed as a research fellow and senior researcher at the University of Bergen until 1991.
He was professor of mediaeval history at the University of Trondheim from 1991 to 1993, was appointed as professor of mediaeval history at the University of Oslo in 1993. Nedkvitne's research focuses on Norwegian urban history, foreign trade, the economy of coastal communities and pre-modern social organisation, he has written several books on Scandinavia's foreign trade relations in the Middle Ages, on literacy and beliefs in mediaeval Scandinavia and on the Norse settlement of Greenland. A major research focus of Nedkvitne is relations between the Hanseatic League and Norway. According to historian Kåre Lunden, Nedkvitne has "authored several major works of Norwegian economic history. In recent years, he has been an important innovator, linked to the'cultural turn' in the discipline". Ian Peter Grohse notes that "Nedkvitne's extensive work on the history of Norwegian fishing and foreign trade has duly affirmed his place as one of Norway's preeminent commercial historians and a leading scholar in the field of Norwegian–Hanseatic relations."The book Norse Greenland: Viking Peasants in the Arctic discusses how a community of 2000–3000 Viking peasants survived in Arctic Greenland for 430 years, why they disappeared.
He was elected as a member of the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters in 1993. In February, 2009, Nedkvitne was dismissed from his position as professor by the university board of the University of Oslo after he had refused to attend a meeting with the dean of the faculty of humanities Trine Syvertsen; this happened in the context of a years-long conflict at his institute involving several professors. A point of contention was the management style of then-institute director Jorunn Bjørgum, accused of being "highly authoritarian" by one of Nedkvitne's professor colleagues, both sides accused each other of harassment; the case caused concern among other Norwegian professors and academics that academic freedom was not respected by the university administration. On March 11, 2009, it became known that Nedkvitne would bring the case to court with support from the Norwegian Association of Researchers; the case commenced before Oslo City Court in January 2010. Professor Finn Fuglestad testified that Jorunn Bjørgum was a "highly authoritarian" institute director, while Professor Kristine Bruland testified that the institute leadership "systematically harassed emplyees."
Bruland's testimony was supported by Professor John Peter Collett. The city court found. Nedkvitne first decided not to appeal to the High Court for economic reasons; the court's decision was criticized by several professors. In February 2010, the Board of the Norwegian Association of Researchers decided to support an appeal financially, due the "principal character" of his case. In March 2011 the High Court's decision upheld the City Court's decision, stating that the University of Oslo was entitled to fire Nedkvitne because he refused to attend a meeting with Syvertsen; the University of Oslo offered to give Nedkvitne 2 years pay. Utenrikshandelen fra det vestafjelske Norge 1100-1600, 1983 "Mens bønderne seilte og jægterne for": nordnorsk og vestnorsk kystøkonomi 1500-1730, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1988 Människan och miljön, 1991 Byen under Eikaberg: fra byens oppkomst til 1536, 1991 Re-released in 2000 as Middelalderbyen ved Bjørvika, Oslo: Cappelen, 475 pp. ISBN 82-02-19100-9 Norwegen und die Hanse: wirtschaftliche und kulturelle Aspekte im europäischen Vergleich, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1994 Møte med døden i norrøn middelalder, Oslo: Cappelen, 1997, 151 pp. ISBN 82-456-0202-7, published in Swedish 2004 The social consequences of literacy in medieval Scandinavia, Turnhout: Brepols, 2004, 290 pp. ISBN 2-503-51450-2 Lay belief in Norse society 1000-1350, Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2009, 401 pp. ISBN 978-87-635-0786-8 Ære, lov og religion i Norge gjennom tusen år, Oslo: Spartacus Forlag, 2011, 444 pp. ISBN 978-82-304-0070-8 The German Hansa and B
Tsuyama Domain was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Mimasaka Province in modern-day Okayama Prefecture. In the han system, Tsuyama was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area; this was different from the feudalism of the West. In 1600, the territory that became the Tsuyama domain formed part of the territory ruled from Okayama by Kobayakawa Hideaki. However, as Hideaki died heirless in 1602, the domain was confiscated by the shogunate. In 1603, Mori Tadamasa, the younger brother of Oda Nobunaga's page Mori Ranmaru, was transferred to Tsuyama from the Kawanakajima Domain, given landholdings worth 186,500 koku. Up to this point, the domain was called Tsuruyama. Tadamasa was responsible for the construction of the castle town and the development of the domain's politics. In 1697, the Mori clan was transferred out of Tsuyama, the following year, Matsudaira Nobutomi, a great-grandson of Yūki Hideyasu, was granted Tsuyama as his domain.
The Matsudaira clan remained in Tsuyama until 1871. One of the Tsuyama domain's last daimyo, Matsudaira Naritami, achieved national prominence, as he was a son of Tokugawa Ienari, was active in the affairs of the Tokugawa family after 1868. Naritami was known as Matsudaira Kakudō. In 1871, the Tsuyama domain became Tsuyama Prefecture, before becoming Hōjō Prefecture and Okayama Prefecture; the hereditary daimyōs were head of the head of the domain. Mori clan, 1603–1697 Matsudaira clan 1698–1868 List of Han Abolition of the han system
Allen Kent was an information scientist. He was born in New York City. At City College of New York he earned a degree in chemistry. During World War II, he served in the Army Air Corps. After the war, he worked on a classified project at MIT in search. In 1955, he helped found the Center for Documentation Communication Research at Western Reserve University; this was "the first academic program in the field of mechanized information retrieval, first using cards utilizing new reel-to-reel tape technology." In the same year he introduce the measures of precision and recall in Kent & Berry. In 1959, he wrote an article for Harper's magazine entitled, "A Machine That Does Research" which provided one of the first incites in mainstream media about how Americans lives can change due to electronic information technology, he joined the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh in 1963, where in 1970 he began the Department of Information Science. He retired from the university in 1992. At the time of his death, he was Distinguished Service Professor in the School of Information Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh The school named a scholarship after him.
Perry, James W.. "Machine literature searching X. Machine language. American Documentation. 6: 242–254. Doi:10.1002/asi.5090060411. "A Machine That Does Research,", Harper's Magazine Information Analysis and Retrieval, 1962 The Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science The Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology The Encyclopedia of Microcomputers 1968 Eastman Kodak Award for significant contributions to the Science of Information Technology 1977 Award of Merit from ASIS 1980 Best Information Science Book from ASIS Archival materials 1952–1988 are held by the University of Pittsburgh per Worldcat holdings record: Allen Kent papers. 1952–1988
Rátót was the name of a gens in the Kingdom of Hungary. According to Simon of Kéza and other chroniclers, the ancestors of the clan were Italians from Caserta, Naples, by name Rathold and Oliver, who settled down in Hungary around 1097 during the reign of Coloman, King of Hungary, they came to Hungary alongside Felicia of Sicily. The Lorántffy, Kakas de Kaza, Putnoki, Kakas, Elefánti, Paksi, Pásztói, Kaplai, Ráday and Tari families were originate from the Genus Rátót. Leustach I, voivode of Transylvania Rathold, ispán of Somogy County Julius, judge royal, voivode of Transylvania Baldwin, master of the cupbearers Reynold, ispán of Veszprém County Dominic, master of the treasury, killed in the Battle of Muhi Norbert, ispán of Veszprém County Matthias, archbishop of Esztergom, killed in the Battle of Muhi Roland, judge royal, ban of Slavonia "Porc" Stephen, master of the treasury, founder of the "Palatine branch" Oliver I, ispán of Pilis County Baldwin, ispán of Zala County Julius, master of the cupbearers, judge royal Desiderius, ispán of Gömör and Borsod Counties Nicholas, master of the cupbearers Ladislaus, ban of Slavonia Roland, palatine Kakas, ispán of Bodrog and Tolna Counties, killed in the Battle of Rozgony Dominic, palatine Roland III, ispán of Vas and Sopron Counties Leustach IV, ispán of Vas and Sopron Counties N Leustach I Rathold I Dominic I Roland I Matthias Paksi ∞ N Visontai Rathold II Stephen I ∞ Aglent Smaragd Dominic II Dominic Pásztói Stephen IV Lawrence Ladislaus I Oliver II Stephen V Margaret ∞ Michael Rimai Stephen Tari Anka ∞ Thepsen of Posega Kakas ∞ N Visontai John Kakas de Kaza Leustach III Oliver I Reynold III Nicholas I Putnoki family John a daughter ∞ Reynold Básztély Leustach II Roland II Desiderius II Peter Jolsvai ∞ N Csetneki Roland III Leustach IV Stephen III Desiderius I ∞ N Ákos Benedict Kaplai ∞ Margaret Telegdi Kaplai two branches: Lorántfi and Dezsőfi families Ladislaus Feledi Nicholas II Ladislaus II Elizabeth ∞ N a daughter ∞ Maurice Pok Baldwin I Stephen II Julius II ∞ Cunigunde Csák Demetrius Julius III ∞ Clara, daughter of magistrate Werner Chuta ∞ Gregory Domoszlói Baldwin II Lawrence Rátóti --> Rátóti Gyulafi family Matthias Reynold I Norbert Julius I N Miske I ∞ Margaret Abraham Reynold II Miske II Kővágóörsi Batthyány family Paul II Gyöngy ∞ Barleus Baracs Michael Absa Paul I ∞ Kela a daughter ∞ Matthias Örsi János Karácsonyi: A magyar nemzetségek a XIV. század közepéig.
"Flick of the Finger" is the first song from British band Beady Eye's second album, BE, the first song released from the album. The song features a guest appearance from Kayvan Novak who reads out a passage from Tariq Ali's 1987 book, "Street Fighting Years: An Autobiography of the Sixties" to close the track; the music video for the song was made available to watch on the band's official website along with stems files as MP3s during the internet promotion. The stems were released on Facebook and Twitter; the track debuted on Californian radio station KCRW on 4 April 2013. The official music video premiered on YouTube, on 11 April 2013; the remix of "Flick of the Finger" backed with the remix of "Soul Love" was released on 7" single limited to 1000 copies in 2014