Milo Winter was an American book illustrator. He created editions of Aesop's Fables, Arabian Nights, Alice in Wonderland, Gulliver's Travels, Tanglewood Tales, others. Winter was born in Princeton and trained at Chicago's School of the Art Institute, he lived in Chicago until the early 1950s. From 1947 to 1949, he was the art editor of Childcraft books and from 1949, was the art editor in the film strip division of Silver Burdett Company. A Christmas Carol Peter Falk, Who Was Who in American Art, 1985 Works by Milo Winter at Project Gutenberg Milo Winter on Pinterest Works by or about Milo Winter at Internet Archive Milo Winter at Library of Congress Authorities, with 40 catalog records
Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher, theologian and literary critic. He is associated with the Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, Weimar Classicism. Like Lessing and Schleiermacher, in many respects, Herder was a Spinozist. Born in Mohrungen in Kingdom of Prussia, Herder grew up in a poor household, educating himself from his father's Bible and songbook. In 1762, as a youth of 17, he enrolled at the University of Königsberg, about 60 miles north of Mohrungen, where he became a student of Immanuel Kant. At the same time, Herder became an intellectual protégé of Johann Georg Hamann, a Königsberg philosopher who disputed the claims of pure secular reason. Hamann's influence led Herder to confess to his wife in life that "I have too little reason and too much idiosyncrasy", yet Herder can justly claim to have founded a new school of German political thought. Although himself an unsociable person, Herder influenced his contemporaries greatly. One friend wrote to him in 1785, hailing his works as "inspired by God."
A varied field of theorists were to find inspiration in Herder's tantalizingly incomplete ideas. In 1764, now a clergyman, Herder went to Riga to teach, it was during this period. In 1769 Herder continued on to Paris; this resulted in both an account of his travels as well as a shift of his own self-conception as an author. By 1770 Herder went to Strasbourg; this event proved to be a key juncture in the history of German literature, as Goethe was inspired by Herder's literary criticism to develop his own style. This can be seen as the beginning of the "Sturm und Drang" movement. In 1771 Herder took a position as head pastor and court preacher at Bückeburg under Count Wilhelm von Schaumburg-Lippe. By the mid-1770s, Goethe was a well-known author, used his influence at the court of Weimar to secure Herder a position as General Superintendent. Herder moved there in 1776. Towards the end of his career, Herder endorsed the French Revolution, which earned him the enmity of many of his colleagues. At the same time, he and Goethe experienced a personal split.
Another reason for his isolation in years was due to his unpopular attacks on Kantian philosophy. In 1802 Herder was ennobled by the Elector-Prince of Bavaria, which added the prefix "von" to his last name, he died in Weimar in 1803 at age 59. In 1772 Herder published Treatise on the Origin of Language and went further in this promotion of language than his earlier injunction to "spew out the ugly slime of the Seine. Speak German, O You German". Herder now had established the foundations of comparative philology within the new currents of political outlook. Throughout this period, he continued to elaborate his own unique theory of aesthetics in works such as the above, while Goethe produced works like The Sorrows of Young Werther – the Sturm und Drang movement was born. Herder wrote an important essay on Shakespeare and Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel über Ossian und die Lieder alter Völker published in 1773 in a manifesto along with contributions by Goethe and Justus Möser. Herder wrote that "A poet is the creator of the nation around him, he gives them a world to see and has their souls in his hand to lead them to that world."
To him such poetry had its greatest purity and power in nations before they became civilised, as shown in the Old Testament, the Edda, Homer, he tried to find such virtues in ancient German folk songs and Norse poetry and mythology. After becoming General Superintendent in 1776, Herder's philosophy shifted again towards classicism, he produced works such as his unfinished Outline of a Philosophical History of Humanity which originated the school of historical thought. Herder's philosophy was of a subjective turn, stressing influence by physical and historical circumstance upon human development, stressing that "one must go into the age, into the region, into the whole history, feel one's way into everything"; the historian should be the "regenerated contemporary" of the past, history a science as "instrument of the most genuine patriotic spirit". Herder gave Germans new pride in their origins, modifying that dominance of regard allotted to Greek art extolled among others by Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing.
He remarked that he would have wished to be born in the Middle Ages and mused whether "the times of the Swabian emperors" did not "deserve to be set forth in their true light in accordance with the German mode of thought?". Herder equated the German with the favoured Dürer and everything Gothic; as with the sphere of art he proclaimed a national message within the sphere of language. He topped the line of German authors emanating from Martin Opitz, who had written his Aristarchus, sive de contemptu linguae Teutonicae in Latin in 1617, urging Germans to glory in their hitherto despised language. Herder's extensive collections of folk-poetry began a great craze in Germany for that neglected topic. Herder was one of the first to argue that language contributes to shaping the frameworks and the patterns with which each linguistic community thinks and feels. For Herder, language is'the organ of thought'; this has been misinterpreted, however. Neither Herder nor the great philosopher of language, Wilhelm von Humboldt, argue that language determines thought.
Language is both the means and the expression of man's creative capacity to think togethe
Aesop's Fables, or the Aesopica, is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave and storyteller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 564 BC. Of diverse origins, the stories associated with his name have descended to modern times through a number of sources and continue to be reinterpreted in different verbal registers and in popular as well as artistic media; the fables belonged to the oral tradition and were not collected for some three centuries after Aesop's death. By that time a variety of other stories and proverbs were being ascribed to him, although some of that material was from sources earlier than him or came from beyond the Greek cultural sphere; the process of inclusion has continued until the present, with some of the fables unrecorded before the Middle Ages and others arriving from outside Europe. The process is continuous and new stories are still being added to the Aesop corpus when they are demonstrably more recent work and sometimes from known authors.
Manuscripts in Latin and Greek were important avenues of transmission, although poetical treatments in European vernaculars formed another. On the arrival of printing, collections of Aesop's fables were among the earliest books in a variety of languages. Through the means of collections, translations or adaptations of them, Aesop's reputation as a fabulist was transmitted throughout the world; the fables were addressed to adults and covered religious and political themes. They were put to use as ethical guides and from the Renaissance onwards were used for the education of children, their ethical dimension was reinforced in the adult world through depiction in sculpture and other illustrative means, as well as adaptation to drama and song. In addition, there have been reinterpretations of the meaning of fables and changes in emphasis over time. Apollonius of Tyana, a 1st-century AD philosopher, is recorded as having said about Aesop:... Like those who dine well off the plainest dishes, he made use of humble incidents to teach great truths, after serving up a story he adds to it the advice to do a thing or not to do it.
Too, he was more attached to truth than the poets are. The Greek historian Herodotus mentioned in passing that "Aesop the fable writer" was a slave who lived in Ancient Greece during the 5th century BC. Among references in other writers, Aristophanes, in his comedy The Wasps, represented the protagonist Philocleon as having learnt the "absurdities" of Aesop from conversation at banquets. Nonetheless, for two main reasons – because numerous morals within Aesop's attributed fables contradict each other, because ancient accounts of Aesop's life contradict each other – the modern view is that Aesop was not the originator of all those fables attributed to him. Instead, any fable tended to be ascribed to the name of Aesop if there was no known alternative literary source. In Classical times there were various theorists who tried to differentiate these fables from other kinds of narration, they had to be unaffected. In them could be found talking animals and plants, although humans interacting only with humans figure in a few.
They might begin with a contextual introduction, followed by the story with the moral underlined at the end. Setting the context was necessary as a guide to the story's interpretation, as in the case of the political meaning of The Frogs Who Desired a King and The Frogs and the Sun. Sometimes the titles given to the fables have become proverbial, as in the case of killing the Goose that Laid the Golden Eggs or the Town Mouse and the Country Mouse. In fact some fables, such as The Young Man and the Swallow, appear to have been invented as illustrations of existing proverbs. One theorist, went so far as to define fables as extended proverbs. In this they have an aetiological function, the explaining of origins such as, in another context, why the ant is a mean, thieving creature or how the tortoise got its shell. Other fables verging on this function, are outright jokes, as in the case of The Old Woman and the Doctor, aimed at greedy practitioners of medicine; the contradictions between fables mentioned and alternative versions of much the same fable – as in the case of The Woodcutter and the Trees, are best explained by the ascription to Aesop of all examples of the genre.
Some are demonstrably of West Asian origin, others have analogues further to the East. Modern scholarship reveals fables and proverbs of Aesopic form existing in both ancient Sumer and Akkad, as early as the third millennium BC. Aesop's fables and the Indian tradition, as represented by the Buddhist Jataka tales and the Hindu Panchatantra, share about a dozen tales in common, although widely differing in detail. There is some debate over whether the Greeks learned these fables from Indian storytellers or the other way, or if the influences were mutual. Loeb editor Ben E. Perry took the extreme position in his book Babrius and Phaedrus that in the entire Greek tradition there is not, so far as I can see, a single fable that can be said to come either directly or indirectly from an Indian source. Although A
An emblem book is a book collecting emblems with accompanying explanatory text morals or poems. This category of books was popular in Europe during the 17th centuries. Emblem books are collections of sets of three elements: an icon or image, a motto, text explaining the connection between the image and motto; the text ranged in length from a few lines of verse to pages of prose. Emblem books descended from medieval bestiaries that explained the importance of animals and fables. In fact, writers drew inspiration from Greek and Roman sources such as Aesop's Fables and Plutarch's Lives, but if someone asks me what Emblemata are? I will reply to him, that they are mute images, speaking: insignificant matters, none the less of importance: ridiculous things, nonetheless not without wisdom Scholars differ on the key question of whether the actual emblems in question are the visual images, the accompanying texts, or the combination of the two; this is understandable, given that first emblem book, the Emblemata of Andrea Alciato, was first issued in an unauthorized edition in which the woodcuts were chosen by the printer without any input from the author, who had circulated the texts in unillustrated manuscript form.
It contained around a hundred short verses in Latin. One image it depicted was the lute which symbolized the need for harmony instead of warfare in the city-states of Italy; some early emblem books were unillustrated those issued by the French printer Denis de Harsy. With time, the reading public came to expect emblem books to contain picture-text combinations; each combination consisted of a woodcut or engraving accompanied by one or more short texts, intended to inspire their readers to reflect on a general moral lesson derived from the reading of both picture and text together. The picture was subject to numerous interpretations: only by reading the text could a reader be certain which meaning was intended by the author, thus the books are related to the personal symbolic picture-text combinations called personal devices, known in Italy as imprese and in France as devises. Many of the symbolic images present in emblem books were used in other contexts, on clothes, street signs, the facades of buildings.
For instance, a sword and scales symbolized death. Emblem books, both secular and religious, attained enormous popularity throughout continental Europe, though in Britain they did not capture the imagination of readers to quite the same extent; the books were numerous in the Netherlands, Belgium and France. Many emblematic works borrowed plates or texts from earlier exemplars, as was the case with Geoffrey Whitney's Choice of Emblemes, a compilation which chiefly used the resources of the Plantin Press in Leyden. Early European studies of Egyptian hieroglyphs, like that of Athanasius Kircher, assumed that the hieroglyphs were emblems, imaginatively interpreted them accordingly. A similar collection of emblems, but not in book form, is Lady Drury's Closet. Andrea Alciato Guillaume de La Perrière Georgette de Montenay Otto van Veen Jacob Cats Albert Flamen Dunn, R.. Breaking a tradition: Hester Pulter and the English emblem book; the Seventeenth Century, 30:1, 55-73. Saunders, A.. French emblematic studies.
French Studies: A Quarterly Review. 62, 455-463. Oxford University Press. Stronks, E.. Dutch religious love emblems: Reflections of faith and toleration in the 17th century. Literature & Theology, 23, 142-164. Peter Maurice Daly, Leslie T. Duer, Alan R. Young, Anthony RaspaThe English Emblem Tradition: Emblematic flag devices of the English civil wars, 1642-1660. University of Toronto Press Peter Maurice Daly. Literature in the Light of the Emblem: Structural Parallels Between the Emblem and Literature in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. University of Toronto Press The English Emblem Tradition. Volumes 1-5. University of Toronto Press Peter Maurice Daly, G. Richard Dimler. Corpus Librorum Emblematum:Primary literature - The Jesuit Series. Parts 1 - 5. University of Toronto Press Arthur Henkel & Albrecht Schöne, Handbuch zur Sinnbildkunst des XVI. und XVII. Jahrhunderts, Verlag J. B. Metzler, Stuttgart - Weimar 1996, ISBN 3-476-01502-5. Massive catalog reproducing emblems with texts from all known 17th century emblem books.
Daniel Russell, The Emblem and Device in France, French Forum, Lexington, KY, 1985. The OpenEmblem Project - housed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Mnemosyne Emblem Project - a dozen digitized emblem books Cumulative catalogue by IDC Society for Emblem Studies The Symbolic Literature of the Renaissance The English Emblem Book Project Emblem Project Utrecht - "27 Dutch love emblem books, religious as well as profane" Glasgow University Emblem Website including French and Italian emblem books Literatura Emblemática Hispánica
In ancient Greek religion and myth, the Anemoi were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction from which their respective winds came, were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions. The earliest attestation of the word in Greek and of the worship of the Winds by the Greeks, are the Mycenaean Greek word-forms, a-ne-mo-i-je-re-ja, a-ne-mo,i-je-re-ja, i.e. "Priestess of the Winds". These words, written in Linear B, are found on KN Fp 13 tablets; the Anemoi are subject to the god Aeolus. They were sometimes represented as gusts of wind, at other times were personified as winged men, they were sometimes depicted as horses kept in the stables of the storm god Aeolus, who provided Odysseus with the Anemoi in the Odyssey. The Spartans were reported to sacrifice a horse to the winds on Mount Taygetus. Astraeus, the astrological deity, Eos/Aurora, the goddess of the dawn, were the parents of the Anemoi, according to the Greek poet Hesiod. Of the four chief Anemoi, Boreas was the north wind and bringer of cold winter air, Zephyrus was the west wind and bringer of light spring and early-summer breezes, Notus was the south wind and bringer of the storms of late summer and autumn.
The deities equivalent to the Anemoi in Roman mythology were the Venti. These gods had different names, but were otherwise similar to their Greek counterparts, borrowing their attributes and being conflated with them. Boreas was the bringer of winter. Although taken as the north wind, the Roman writers Aulus Gellius and Pliny the Elder both took Boreas as a north-east wind, equivalent to the Roman Aquilo. Boreas is depicted as being strong, with a violent temper to match, he was shown as a winged old man with shaggy hair and beard, holding a conch shell and wearing a billowing cloak. Pausanias wrote that Boreas had snakes instead of feet, though in art he was depicted with winged human feet. Boreas' two sons Calaïs and Zetes, known as Boreads, were in the crew of the Argo as Argonauts. Boreas was associated with horses, he was said to have fathered twelve colts after taking the form of a stallion, to the mares of Erichthonius, king of Dardania. These were said to be able to run across a field of grain without trampling the plants.
Pliny the Elder thought that mares might stand with their hindquarters to the North Wind and bear foals without a stallion. The Greeks believed that his home was in Thrace, Herodotus and Pliny both describe a northern land known as Hyperborea "Beyond the North Wind" where people lived in complete happiness and had extraordinarily long lifespans, he is said to have fathered three giant Hyperborean priests of Apollo by Chione. Boreas was said to have kidnapped Orithyia, an Athenian princess, from the Ilisos. Boreas had taken a fancy to Orithyia and had pleaded for her favours, hoping to persuade her; when this failed, he reverted to his usual temper and abducted her as she danced on the banks of the Ilisos. Boreas wrapped Orithyia up in a cloud, married her, with her, Boreas fathered two sons—the Boreads and Calais—and two daughters—Chione, goddess of snow, Cleopatra.. From on, the Athenians saw Boreas as a relative by marriage; when Athens was threatened by Xerxes, the people prayed to Boreas, said to have caused winds to sink 400 Persian ships.
A similar event had occurred twelve years earlier, Herodotus writes: Now I cannot say if this was why the Persians were caught at anchor by the stormwind, but the Athenians are quite positive that, just as Boreas helped them before, so Boreas was responsible for what happened on this occasion also. And when they went home they built the god a shrine by the River Ilissus; the abduction of Orithyia was popular in Athens before and after the Persian War, was depicted on vase paintings. In these paintings, Boreas was portrayed as a bearded man in a tunic, with shaggy hair, sometimes frosted and spiked; the abduction was dramatized in Aeschylus's lost play Oreithyia. In other accounts, Boreas was the lover of the nymph Pitys. Boreas was claimed to have killed one of Apollo's many male lovers Hyacinthus out of jealousy. Boreas killed Hyacinthus by deflecting a discus that Hyacinthus had thrown straight into his head and killed him. Though his death was said to be an accident on Apollo's part many thought that Boreas was the true culprit.
The Roman equivalent of Boreas was Aquilo. This north wind was associated with winter; the poet Virgil writes: For the wind which came directly from the north the Romans sometimes used the name Septentrio. Zephyrus, sometimes known in English as just Zephyr, in Latin Favonius, is the Greek god of the west wind; the gentlest of the winds, Zephyrus is known as the messenger of spring. It was thought. Zephyrus was reported as having several wives in different stories, he was said to be the husband of goddess of the rainbow. He abducted the goddess Chloris, gave her the domain of flowers. With Chloris, he fathered Karpos, he is said to have vied for Chloris's love with his brother Boreas winning her
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin; this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea; the Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Classical Greek culture philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.
For this reason, Classical Greece is considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics and knowledge in general. Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC and ended in the 6th century AD. Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC.
The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period. After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323; the period is characterized by a style, considered by observers to be exemplary, i.e. "classical", as shown in the Parthenon, for instance. Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and to the League of Corinth led by Macedon; this period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East; this period ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece is considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330.
Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus is known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Written between the 450s and 420s BC, Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past, discussing 6th century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia, Cambyses II and Psamtik III, alluding to some 8th century ones such as Candaules. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes and Aristotle. Most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities.
Their scope is further limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography: every island and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges; the Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. It was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor.
A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. This
Hôtel de Soubise
The Hôtel de Soubise is a city mansion entre cour et jardin, located at 60 rue des Francs-Bourgeois, in the 3rd arrondissement of Paris. The Hôtel de Soubise was built for the Prince and Princess de Soubise on the site of a semi-fortified manor house named the Grand-Chantier built in 1375 for connétable Olivier de Clisson, a property of the Templars; the site contained the Hôtel de Guise, the Paris residence of the Dukes of Guise, a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine. It was the birthplace of the last Duke, Francis Joseph, Duke of Guise, the son of Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans, Duchess of Alençon, he died in 1675 and the Guise estate passed to Marie de Lorraine who died at the Hôtel in 1688 having been born there in 1615. On March 27, 1700, François de Rohan, prince de Soubise bought the Hôtel de Clisson de Guise, asked the architect Pierre-Alexis Delamair to remodel it completely. Works started in 1704, his wife Anne de Rohan-Chabot, one time mistress of Louis XIV died here in 1709. Hercule Mériadec, Prince of Soubise was responsible for some interior décor at the Hôtel de Soubise engaging Germain Boffrand in the process.
This dates from the 1730s. Improvements were made to celebrate the marriage of Hercule Mériadec to Marie Sophie de Courcillon, granddaughter of the famous marquis de Dangeau, it was the home of Louis XV's friend Charles de Rohan, prince de Soubise. Interiors by Germain Boffrand, created about 1735–40 and dismantled, are accounted among the high points of the rococo style in France, they constituted the new apartments of the Prince on the ground floor and the Princesse on the piano nobile, both of which featured oval salons looking into the garden. These rooms have changed little since the 18th century, including the Chambre du prince, Salon ovale du prince, Chambre d'apparat de la princesse and the fine Salon ovale de la princesse with gilded carvings and mirror-glass embedded in the boiserie and ceiling canvases and overdoors by François Boucher, Charles-Joseph Natoire, Carle Van Loo. Since a Napoleonic decree of 1808, this residence has been the property of the State. Nowadays it hosts a part of the French National Archives.
List of Baroque residences Fiske Kimball, 1943. The Creation of the Rococo insecula.com entry